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EDWARD HAMER, Esq., and H. W. LLOYD, Esq. .. K 


IS- ^- .'--l \^^ 









;' I 


The followiog Collection of Papers is taken partly 
from the Montgomeryshire Collections, printed by the 
Powysland Club, and partly from the Archceologia 
Camhrensis. Having appeared in those publications 
in the form of scattered notices, they are here, for 
the sake of convenience, gathered into a single 
volume. They all bear a more or less direct relation 
to the History of the Parish of Llangurig, with the 
exception of the descent during the three last cen- 
turies of the family of Lloyd of Berth and of Kha- 
gatt, through Cuhelyn of Pentre Cuhelyn, from 
Tudor Trevor. This having been given in a cursory 
and imperfect shape in one of the notes elucidating 
the pedigree of families descended from Tudor 
Trevor, it has been deemed desirable to complete it 
to the present time from the date to which it had 


been brought by the " Pennant Pedigrees". The 
" Legend of St. Curig " has been added towards 
the close of the volume, the previous historical 
papers having left the origin and history of the 
Devotion of the Parish to its Patron Saint in a 
more or less mythical state of uncertainty. 




Name — Position and Boundaries — Extent — Divisions — Sur- 
face — Geology : Mines — Drainage — Productions — Inhabi- 
tants : Industrial pursuits .3 



Ancient Roadways — Cameddau — Earthwork — Names implying 

Military occupation — Coins — Hirlas horn — Y Clochfaen . 18 



Patron Saint — "Mother Church** — The Church, Living and 

Tithes — Registers— List of Vicars — Benefaction 25 



Glodrudd family — Cyfeiliog family — Cherletons and House of 
Wynnstay — Descent of the Clochfaen family from Vorti- 
gem : Tudor Trevor, Madog Danwr and his Descendants 
— Claim of the Lloyds to the Abbey Cwm Hir Estates — 
Alliance with the family of Plis Madog — Rev. Thomas 
Yoiide— The late Mr. Ilinde's family . . 37 




Descent of the Trevors — Descent of the heiress of Plas Madog 
from the Princes of Upper Powys — The Lloyds of Plas 
Madog . . ... 64 

Verbal blazon of the Arms of the Chevalier Lloyd, K.S.G. 79 



Cefn yr Hafodau, Owens of Glansevem, and Upper Glandulas — 
Cefn yr Hafodau — Cwm yr Onn, in the township of Cefh yr 
Hafodau — Llangurig families — Esgairgraig — Crugnant 
Llangurig — Llwyn yr Hyddod — Pont Rhyd Galed — 
Pedigree of the Fowlers of Abbey Cwm Hir . 80 



Rev. David Davies — Owen Davies — William Howel — Owens of 
Cefn yr Hafodau ; Owen Owen ; Richard Owen ; Edward 
Owen, M.A.; Capt. William Owen; Sir E. W. C. R. Owen, 
G.C.B., G.C.H. j Vice-Admiral W. F. Owen; Sir Arthur 
Davies Owen ; David Owen, M.A. ; William Owen, K.C. . 95 



Old Superstitions — Conjurors — Sir David Llwyd — "Old Savage" 
— R... J... — William Pryse — Charm for Cattle — Pal y 
Geiniog — The Wakes — Arian y rhaw . .110 



Nonconformity — Education — Roads — Fairs . .121 

Topographical Glossary of Names in the Parish 1 26 



Bedd Gwrtheym — Pillar of Eliseg .145 

Jenkjn Goch — Owen ab Maurice of Clochfaen— Colonel Hinde 146 
Note on Whittington . .147 

Note on Edward Uoyd of Pen y Ian — Corrections .148 



MS. Welsh poetry in British Museum — leuan Tew — Huw Cae 
Llwyd — Huw Arwystli — SionCeri — leuan Deulwyn's Elegy 
on Davydd Vychan and leuan of Curig's Land — Llyfr 
Ceniarth — Poem addressed to leuan — Elegy on Elen, wife 
of Llewelyn ab Moiys Goch — Ode to the Four Brothers of 
Uangurig — ^Ode to Llewelyn, the husband of Elen, by Cad- 
waladr ab Rhys Trefiiant — Sketch of Huw Arwystli — His 
Poem to Rhys ab Moiys of Aberbechan— His Poetical Cor- 
respondence with Sir leuan of Camo — His Sonnets — Odes 
to leuan and Gwenllian and leuan ab Morys of Clochfaen 
— Ode to the Bridge over the Wye— Ode to Jenkjn ab 
Morys of Clochfaen — ^Its Tenor and Object — Another to 
the Same — ^Elegy on Owain ab Morys — Ode to Rhys ab 
Morys ab Llewelyn of Llangurig — Encomiastic Lines on 
Llangurig — Conclusion .149 


The Clochfaen Pedigree .231 

Cefh yr Hafodau ..... 232 
Glandulaa, Clochfaen, and Crugnant 233 

Llangurig and Creuddyn .... 234 

Pedigree of Mallt, wife of Jenkyn Lloyd of Clochfaen 235 

Llanlloddian, Creuddyn .237 

Hughes of Pennant y Belan .... 239 
Rhuddallt . ' . .250 

^hiwfabon .256 

The Pedigree of Madog yr Athraw and the Bershams of 

Bersham ..... 265 

Lloyd of Bryn . .266 

Rhiwabon Registers . . 269 

Extracts from Miscellanea Historical relating to Llangurig 270 


The Descendants of John Brereton of Esolusham . 273 

Llanerohrugog .274 

CaeCyriog . . . .280 

Plas yn 7 Delf and Stansti .284 

Pentre Cuhelyn in Nanheudwy and j Berth in Llanbedr 285 

Coed y Uai in Gresford 286 

Arms of Edward Lloyd of Pl&s Madog and Owain Brereton 287 

Lloyd of the Bryn in the Parish of Hanmer 290 

Y Berth . . .294 

Llangurig ..... 303 

Glyn Hafren in Llangurig .... 304 

Elegy on Mr. Morgan Lloyd of the Clochfaen 305 

The Legend of St Curig .311 

Ode to John ab Rhys ab Maurice of Llangurig .331 

Descent of John ab Rhys ab Maurice . * 336 

The Lords of Maelienydd and Kerry 340 

Elegies on Cadwallawn and Howel, sons of Madoc ab Idnerth ab 

Cadwgan ab Elystan Glodrydd 346 

Ipstone of Ipstone, in the County Palatine of Chester 359 

Elegy on Ellen, wife of Llewelyn of Llangurig .361 

The Four Brothers of Llangurig .363 

Ode addressed to Sion ab Rhys, the son of Maurice . .364 

Stanzas to Howel ab leuaf .... 367 
Additions and Corrections to the Parochial Account . 368 










1. Name. The name Llan-guAg is a compound word, 
formed of the common Welsh prefix Llan, an inclosure, 
a church, and Curig, the name of its founder and patron ; 
so that the name may be rendered into its English equi- 
valent — ^the Church of St. Curig. 

2. Position and Boundaries. The greater portion of 
this extensive parish formed a portion of tne ancient 
Cwmmwd (commot) of Uwch-Coed (above the wood) in 
the Cantref of Arwystli, which formerly belonged to the 
lords of the district stretching between the Rivers Wye 
and Severn, was subsequently conquered by the Princes 
of the house of Cyfeiliog, and now constitutes the south- 
western portion of the County of Montgomery. 

It is boimded on the south by the parishes of St. 
Harmon, and Cwm-dau-ddwr (ravine of the two waters), 
both in Radnorshire ; on the south-west and west, by the 
parishes of Gwnws and Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn, (St. 
Michaels Church in Creuddyn), both in Cardiganshire ; 
on the north and north-east, by the parish of Llanidloes, 
and on the east by the parish of Llandinam, both in 

The boundaiT line which separates it from the two 
parishes of Radnorshire forms part of the line of separa- 
tion between that county and Montgomeryshire, while 
the line which divides it from the two Cardiganshire 


parishes constitutes part of the line of demarcation be- 
tween the counties of Montgomery and Cardigan. The 
Severn from its source to the point at which it receives 
the waters of the Dulas (a distance of some ten miles) 
forms the most considerable portion of the line which 
separates it from the parish oi Llanidloes, while the rest 
of the line which limits its bounds on the east is for the 
most part artificial, and not defined by any well-marked 
natural features. 

3. Extent. The parish stretches from Eisteddfor 
Cuing^ (Curig's seat) on the west, to its most easterly 
point on the confines of Llandinam parish, for a distance 
of eleven mUes; the length of a line drawn nearly at 
right angles to this from Civm-Ricket on the north to the 
baiiksof theRiver jKZan on the southmeasures about eight 
miles. The whole extent within the above indicated 
limits amounts, according to the Tithe Commutation 
Survey, in roxmd numbers to 50,000 acres, thus divided : 

Arable land . . . 3,125 acres. 

Meadow or pasture 
Common land 
Wood land 
Glebe land 






Total .... 49,604 


These figures plainly indicate the nature of the land 
in this extensive parish — one of the largest in Wales — 
only about a fifteenth of it being under cultivation, 
while only 100 acres of it are covered with timber. 

> According to an old "Welsh englyn "whicli is still preserved (Gamh. 
Quart., iii, 403,) Eisteddfa Carig formerly marked the south-west- 
ern limit of Powjs-land. 

*' O Oeyn jt Ais, dur-ais a drig, Gaer 
I Eisteddva Gurig 
O Gam G3Tinnll ar Conwy 
Hyd y Rhyd Helig ar Wy." 

" From Cefn-yr-Ais and from Chester to Eisteddfa-Cnrig And 
from Cam Cyunnll on the R. Conway to Rhyd Helig on the R. 


Since the time of the survey, however, large quanti- 
ties of the common land have been enclosed and culti- 
vated, especially at two periods when Waeji Twrch and 
Bryn Postig were shared by a mutual arrangement 
agreed upon by the surrounding freeholders. Some of 
the hills nave also been planted within late years. 

4. Divisions. In the Tithe Commutation Survey of 
this parish, the farms are not arranged under the re- 
spective townships in which they are situated, nor is the 
total acreage of each township given. The following 
particulars respecting its six townships are gleaned from 
the Rate Book : — 

Townships. Estimated Gross Rental Rateable Value, 

Glyn-Hafren 484 15 

Glyn-Brochan 902 5 4 

Glyn-Gynwydd 453 7 3 

Cefn-yn-hafodan 711 19 9 

Llan-y-fynu 1058 10 

Llan-y-wared 971 15 

4,582 12 4 
























The townshiDS of Llan-y-fynu and Llan-y- wed form a 
portion of the manor of Clas} the remaining part of 
which is situated in the adioininff parish of St. Harmon, 
which wa3 formerly included in tie old commot of Gwr^ 
thrynion. This commot, which comprised the parishes 
of Nant-mel, Llaiifihangel - fach, Llanfair - yn - Rhos, 
Bhaiadr, and St. Harmon, in the time of its early lords 

^ Clas as a tract of land became appropriated chiefly to cbarcli or 
abbey land ; clas-dir, glebe land. The English generally used the 
derivatire glas, instead of clas ; hence so many names of places in 
England : Glassie, Glasson, Qlansworth, etc. A bard in the thir- 
teenth centnry has these words : " Woe be to him that infringes 
npon the das,'* the cloistered or enclosed land of the church. In 
Wales we have Clas ar Wy, or Glasbaiy in Radnorshire, Clas Ghir- 
mon, the patrimony of St. Germanus, [the St. Harmon Clas] a lord- 
ship belonging to the Bishop of St. David's. — QwaUh GwaUer 
Mechain, iii, 474. This derivation of the term supports the old 
tradition which asserts that a considerable portion of the parish 
once belonged to Strata Florida. 


constituted a moiety of the lordship of ArwystlL In 
the list of manors in the county of Radnor the manor is 
styled Clas Garmon, proprietor the Bishop of St. David's, 
and the lessee Perciva] Lewis, Esq.^ The Arwystli Clas 
is distinct from that of St. Harmon, and is the property 
of Sir Watkin Williams- Wynn, Bart., and its court leet 
is held at Llangurig. The other four townships form 
part of the manor of Arwystli Uwchcoed, the court leet 
of which is held at Llanidloes. This manor is also the 
property of Sir W. W. Wynn, whose ancestor is said to have 
purchased it from the Crown in the reign of George HI. 

5. Surface. With the exception of the level tracts 
along the banks of the Wye and the Severn, and the 
narrow picturesque valleys through which their tribu- 
taries flow, the whole parish is either mountainous or 
hilly. It may indeed be fairly termed mountainous, 
being almost covered by some of the numerous offshoots 
of the mountain mass of Plinlimmon, the skirts of which 
extend within its north-western limit. These spurs form 
a niunber of high moorland tracts, which are intersected 
by numerous nants, or narrow ravines, down which flow 
the mountain torrents. The slopes, and in some in- 
stances the summits, of these elevated tracts, are dotted 
with numbers of small farms, whose occupants maintain 
a laborious but cheerful struggle to extort a subsistence 
from Dame Nature, by the cultivation of the soil, or 
more commonly by attending to extensive sheep walks. 
The most important of the mountain spurs is that which 
occupies the country between the Severn and the Wye, 
aiid which only terminates at the junction of the Dulaa 
with the Severn. Its crest forms the line of watershed 
between the two principal Welsh streams, and is known 
locally by various names, the most important being 
Esgair- y - Maesnant, Bryn - ganxg - wen^ GiaSy Driwr 
Maen, Allt-y-derWy and Pen-Cin-Coed. 

Another similar, but higher and more barren, tract of 
elevated ground stretches from the banks of the Wye on 
the north-east to the banks of the Ystwith and its tribu- 

^ Williams's Hist, of Badnorshire in Arch, Cam. for 1857, 242. 


taries on the west. It is known in ite northern part by 
the name Esgair Ychioriy and by that of Esgair Cloch- 
faen in its southern part. 

Among the other hills of the parish may be mentioned 
the foUowing :— 

Foel gochy a short distance to the east of the village. 
Bryn Mawr^ in the township of Celh-fodau, about two 
and a half miles to south-west of Llanidloes, from which 
place it is plamly seen. The view from its summit is 
very fine and extensive. On its southern slope, near the 
small farm of Nant-y-gwemog, is a small square enclo- 
sure, known as the "Quaker s Garden," or burial ground. 
The site was granted to the Friends by an inaentiu-e 
bearing the date of 25th March, 1708, for the term of 
2000 years, for the annual rent of a peppercorn. The 
sect formerly flourished at Llanidloes. 

Creiqiau Tylwch (Rocks of Tylwch), in the eastern 
I^ oAhe paU rL abruptly Lm tie banks of the 
river of the same name, and present a bare, rugged, and 
precipitous front. They are a favourite haunt of hawks. 
There are two legends attached to the name Tylwch, 
which should perhaps be noticed here. The first states 
that it received its name from one of the victorious 
leaders in one of the numerous skirmishes which oc- 
curred between the followers of the last Llewelyn and 
Edward I, crying out Attaliwch (hold), or Tawelwch 
(peace) — ^the name being a corruption of one of these 
words ; the second tradition makes Oliver Cromwell its 
hero, who, after a victory gained in the vicinity, per- 
formed the feat of riding his horse over the rocks, his 
charger leaving the impress of his hoofs upon the hard 
rock. These old traditions and legends should not be 
looked upon as inventions ; they generally turn out upon 
examination to be founded upon facts. The wonder is, 
that when we take into consideration the length of time 
during which they have filtered orally through the rude 
society of the past centuries, we are at all able to dis- 
cover any clue to the circumstances in which they origi- 
nated. The germ of the first may be discovered in the 


faxjt that an engagement between the English and Welsh 
took place m the vicinity, the attaliwch or tawelwch, 
was a subsequent addition of the story teller, by way of 
ornament, and obviously suggested by the name iteelf 
which must have been in existence for centuries previ- 
ously. The historian of Radnorshire, in his account of 
the parish of St. Harmon,^ has the following statement: 

'' On the moor which divides the parishes of St. Harmon 
and Llangurig, or that separates the county of Montgomery 
from that of Radnor, was slain in one of those bloody and 
violent commotions which too often agitated the ancient in- 
habitants of Wales, and contributed to ruin the country and 
destroy its independence, Gwynne, the brave son of Llewelyn 
ab lorwerth Prince of North Wales." 

The writer does not give his authority for the above 
statement, and I have failed to discover an allusion to 
the action in any other work, but, as if to confirm the 
truthfulness of the account which doubtless gave rise to 
the legend, there is a small farm near the spot indicated, 
about two miles from the hamlet Tylwch, called to this 
day Lluest Llewelyn (Llewelyn's Camp), where the fol- 
lowers of that prince are supposed to have encamped, 
and at a short distance from it one of the ravines on the 
eastern side of the same moor goes by the name of Cwm 
Saeson (the Englishmen's Glen). 

The second, and later tradition, connects the locality 
with a victory obtained by Cromwell and his followers 
over the Royalists. We may at once discard the account 
of the wonderful feats performed by his charger as the 
innocent romancing of the story teller, which doubtless 
originated in the strong anti-Cromwellian spirit which 
existed in the vicinity of Llanidloes during the period of 
the Civil War, and try to discover the incident upon 
which the tradition was founded. The foundation very 
probably exists in the facts recorded in the following 
extmct from the Penhedw MSS. printed in the first vol. 
of the Cambrian Quarterly Magazine, p. 72 : — 

'^ About the middle of August, Harry Lingen, Knight, of 

1 Arch. Gamh,, for 1858, p. 547. 


Herefordshire^ came with horse and foot^ and advanced towards 
North Wales, intending to join with the Anglesey men, but 
being narrowly watched by the troops of the counties adjacent, 
who gave General Horton (Parliamentarian) intelligence of 
Lingen's design. Whilst they followed him, Horton came 
from Pembrokeshire crosswise, and met Lingen's men near 

Llanidloes, took Sir Harry, sore hurt, and — — prisoners. 

The rest fled, whereof about thirty horse and some foot came 
to Malloyd.*' 

The tradition assists in identifying the site of this 
action as being in the neighbourhood of Tylwch ;^ and 
the victory gained by one of the Parliamentary generals 
was, without greatly transgressing the license of oral 
tradition, easily transferred to Cromwell himself. Should 
these conjectures prove correct, they fiirnish an instance 
of the valuable hints to be obtained from these old 
stories which have been handed down from parent to 
child for so many generations. 

6. Geology. The general character of the soil in the 
hUly and mountainous portions of the parish is that of 
a light turbary varied by one of a ferny natiu-e. This 
soil accumidates very rapidly on the substratum of slate 
rock which is jfrequently crossed by dykes of trap and 
grau wacke. Some of the hilly knolls are covered by a 
gravelly soil known locally as roche. Peat was formerly 
extensively raised, and formed not only the principal 
article of fuel, but was carted off for sale to Llanidloes 
in large quantities. The construction of the canal to 
Newtovm struck the first blow to this traflBc, and the 
introduction of railways into Mid- Wales has caused a 
Llangurig peat cart to become a rarity in the streets 
of Llanidloes. Some of the upper nants are studded 
with boulders of trap and conglomerate. 

The valleys are covered with an alluvial deposit, the 
farmers of tLe low grounds being in general prosperous 
and the land well cultivated. 

Several mineral veins cross the parish, and yield abun- 
dant supplies ol lead, together with copper in smaller 
quantities. It is supposed that lead ore was first ex- 

^ For the derivation of the word, consult the glossary. 


tracted from the Uangurig hills shortly after the enter* 
prising Sir Hugh Middleton infused fresh energy into 
the mining operations of the adjoining Cardiganshire 
parishes in the earlier half of the seventeenth century. 
" Miners" are among the earUest trades mentioned in the 
parish registers. The principal mines are — 

1. Nant logo — on the stream of that name, a tribu- 
tary of the Wye — ^yields lead and blend. 

2. Nant-yr-eira^ or Snow Brook, which has been aban- 
doned lately. 

3. Siglen-laSy near the source of the Bidno, yields 

4. Cwm Ricket, on the right bank of the Severn, about 
six miles west by north from Llanidloes, is a very pro- 
mising mine which has been lately discovered, yields lead 
and copper. 

5. Pant Mawr, on the left bank of the Wye, four 
miles north-west of the village of Llangurig, was till 
within late years a very productive mine. 

6. Gias, at the foot of the mountain of the same name, 
on the right bank of the Severn. 

7. Brynpostig lead mine is situated two miles to the 
south of Llanidloes. This mine was worked several 
years ago and abandoned, then re-started, and after- 
wards thrown into Chancery. Li 1865 a fresh lease for 
twenty-one years was obtained by the present company, 
whose prospects of success are very good ; yields at pre- 
sent about fifty tons of ore per month. 

8. Cwmfron mine is one mile to the south-west of the 
latter. It yields lead, and though it has not been long 
worked it promises to be productive. 

It is the opinion of competent mineralogists that this 
parish is rich in lead ore, and only needs capital and pro- 
per working to prove highly remunerative. Mining 
operations have, within the last few years, received a 
fresh impetus which promises to develope rapidly the 
mineral wealth of the locahty. 

The parish contains several good stone quarries, among 
which may be mentioned the one formerly worked at 


Coed-cae, and that on the grounds of Tyn-y-fron^ which 
furnished large quantities of stone for the erection of 
the Public Rooms, National School, and Short Bridge at 
Llanidloes ; those on the grounds of Ystradolwyn Fach, 
Del/arch, and Critgnant, all of which yield excellent 
stone for building purposes. 

A celebrated chalybeate spring exists on the grounds of 
a small tenement called Rhos-y-wrach, half a mile to the 
north of the viQage. The small brook which discharges 
its waters into the Wye, flows by the vicarage, and is 
known by the name of Nant Shdn (Jane's Brook). In 
former times this spring was much frequented by inva- 
lids, who came to enjoy the benefits to be derived from 
what in those days was regarded as the almost miracu- 
lous properties of its waters. Tradition asserts that 
numbers imable to visit it without the assistance of 
crutches, were healed, and could dispense with them in 
returning home. The spring is a very valuable one, and 
if the people who reside in its vicinity had half as much 
faith in its merits as their ancestors, it would perhaps 
save them something in the shape of doctor's bills. On 
the grormds of Bryn Mawr are situated in close proxi- 
mity to each other two springs totally differing in the 
nature of their waters ; me one is an ordinary spring of 
clear fresh water, the other a saline, bearing a strong 
resemblance to the celebrated one at Llandrindod. 
Another chalybeate spring exists between the road and 
the brook, near the third mile stone from Llanidloes. 

7. Drainage. With the exception of a very limited 
area on its western borders, the rivers Severn and Wye 
receive the drainage of the whole parish. It will be 
necessary to notice here only the right hand affluents of 
the former, reserving a fuller description for the parochial 
account of Llanidloes. 

The Severn. The first considerable streamlet which 
joins the infant Severn on its right bank, within thelimits 
of the parish is — 

a. A/on II ore, which rises near the boundary line be- 
tween the counties of Montgomery and Cardigan, and 


flowing at first south, then in an easterly direction 
passes the Hore Farm, joins the Hafren (Severn) after a 
course of three miles. 

6. The Colwyn flows from Ffosydd-Llwydion m an 
easterly direction, and after a course of about two miles 
discharges its waters into the Hafren, a short distance 
above Glyn-Hafren. 

c. Nant-Bron-felen has its source within a quarter of 
a mile of that of the Bidno (a tributary of the Wye,) 
and runs in a north-easterly direction, joining the main 
stream opposite the Old Hall. Length, two and a half 

d. The Dulas, which drains the eastern portion of the 
parish, is formed by the junction of A/on Tylwch and 
Nant Cwm-JBelan. The former, which is the longer and 
principal branch, rises in the neighbourhood of Lluest 
Llewelyn, and flows in an easterly direction through the 
parish of St. Harmon to Rhyd-Myherin, where its watera 
are augmented on its right bank by a small stream 
which, through its course of about two miles, forms a 
portion of the boundary line between the counties of 
Montgomery and Radnorshire. From this junction it 
flows in a direction north-west by north, and for two 
miles of its course forms the line of separation between 
the counties mentioned above. Near the small hamlet 
of Tylwch its waters are further increased by several 
small streams. From this place it flows through a deep 
narrow picturesque glen, round the base of Creigiau- 
Tylwch to Fen-bont-preni, a little below which it is 
joined by 

Nant Cwm-Belan, This stream rises in the same tur- 
bary as the Tylwch, but flows in a less circuitous route 
by Bwlch-y-gar-eg and the hamlet of Cwm-Belan, and 
after a course of about four miles mingles its waters with 
those of the longer branch. The united stream, now 
called the Dulas, flows due north for a distance of rather 
more than a mile through a pleasant and fertile valley, 
and is joined on its left bank by the 

Brochan, which rises about a mile to the north of the 


.village of Llangurig, and flows in a northerly direction 
for a mile and a half, when it is joined by the small 
stream which drains 'Marsh's PooV Near Ehyd-yr- 
onen it is joined by the waters of Nant-yr-Oerfa^ and 
thence flowing in an easterly direction through the de- 
lightful little vale to which it imparts its name, after a 
course of about four miles joins the Dulas. The latter 
then flows north for a few himdred yards and becomes 
lost in the Severn. Its length by the Tylwch branch is 
rather more than nine miles. 
Tlie Wye— 

" Plinlimmon's fairest child 
The peerless Wye !" 

has its source within the limits of the parish, in a marshy 
slope on the eastern side of Plinliminon Fawr, half a 
mile to the west of Cam Tarenig, and rather more than 
two miles south-west by south from the source of the 
Severn. At first it flows in a south-easterly direction 
through a wild and desolate mountain tract for a distance 
of five miles before it is joined on its right bank at Pont- 
y-rhyd-galed by the 

Afon Tarenig, a stream which is rather more than a 
mile longer than the Wye. It rises at the foot of the 
highest summit of Plinlimmon, within the limits of Car- 
diganshire, three quarters of a mile to the west of the 
source of the Wye, and flows first to the south, then to 
the south-east past Eisteddfa-Gurig into the Wye. It 
forms the boundary line between Montgomeryshire and 
Cardiganshire for more than two miles of its course. 

From Pont-y-rhyd-galed the Wye runs in a south- 
easterly direction by Pant Mawr, its valley expandmg as 
it advances. On its right bank it receives in succession 
several small streams, such as Nant-^lu-bach, Nant Aber- 
Trinant, and Nant Troedryr-Esgair, all of which flow 
down the slopes of Esgair-Ychion. At Aber-Bidno it is 
joined on the left bank by the 

Bidno, which flows from Waun-goch by Lluest-Bidno 
and Mynachlog^ (the history of both these places is lost), 

^ Probably a cell attached to Strata Florida once existed here. 


in a south-easterly course till it is absorbed in the Wye. 
Its length is about six miles. 

From Aber-Bidno the Wye meanders genth^ through 
a wide and open valley to the village of Llangurig, 
which is situated on its left bank. Here it changes its 
direction to the south, and receives successively on its 
right bank Nant Clochfaen and the Demol. Tne latter 
rises near Cam-y-groes and flows south-east through a 
narrow valley for a distance of two and a half miles. 
For the greater part of its course it separates Mont- 
^mer^slSe from'^ Ead.ord,to. Thta «Um b men- 
tioned as a boundary line as early as 1184 in the grants 
to the Abbey of Strata Florida.^ 

Below the efilux of the Demol the Wye enters Ead- 
norshire. Its length from its source to this point, in- 
cluding its principal windings, is about fourteen miles ; 
the village of Llangurig is situated about ten miles from 
the source along the course of the stream. 

The western boundary line of the parish is for a dis- 
tance of four and a half miles formed by the 

Afon Dilliw, a tributary of the Ystwith, which rises 
on the northern end of Esgair-Ychion, and runs in a 
south-easterly course, receiving the waters of the numer- 
ous nants which drain the western slope of the Esgairs. 
Near Craig-y-Uuest it is joined on its left bank by the 

The iJlan, for about a mile of its course, separates the 
parish on the south-west from Cardiganshire, and re- 
ceives on its left bank the waters of Nant Mytalog. 

Lakes. The pools of the parish are hardly large enough 
to be dignified with the name of lakes. The most im- 
portant is a beautiful artificial sheet of water covering 
about seventeen acres, situated a mile and a quarter to 
the north-east of the village, and three miles to the 
south-west of Llanidloes. It was constructed and 
stocked with fish by the late T. E. Marsh, Esq., in the 
year 1852, and has been called by his name, ^Marsh's 
PooV Since that gentleman's death the pool has been 

Arch. Camlt.^ 1848, p. 196. 


greatly neglected. Formerly it was a favourite resort of 
numerous pleasure parties in the summer time. About 
midway between the Pool and the town is Cefn-hwlch 
Hill, from which may be enjoyed a most pleasing view 
of the Vale of Llanidloes. 

There are two other large pools situated on the hills 
about a mile and a half to tne north-east of 'Steddfa, 
marked on the Ordnance map, and called Trippau 

Productions. The (a) minerals have been already no- 
ticed supra. 

(b) Vegetables. The principal cereals raised are wheat 
(in the low grounds), barley, oats, and rye ; the latter 
being the more common. The rve is mixed with wheat 
and forms what is locaQy known ^ muncom, from which 
a pleasant, healthy bread is made. Of roots the Princi- 
pe raised are potatoes, turnips, and on some farms 
mangel wmrzeL 

The parish is not well wooded, though of late years 
plantations of fir are becoming more common on the hiU 
sides. The principal trees are oak, ash, alder, birch, 
black willow, moxmtain ash, sycamore, and the holly. 
Very large sycamores and holly are to be found roimd 
some of the farm houses. Near the Clochfaen there is a 
holly-tree of immense size; the trunk having become 
very much decayed, was earthed round about forty years 
ago, which earned fresh branches of great size to shoot 
^rtii, giving it the appearance of a cluster of trunks. 
It has a girUi of 28 ft. 6 in., and is supposed to be more 
than five hundred years old.^ 

On the hUls various species of peat and club mosses 
are common — corn-carWy or stag's nom, being plentifut 
Of ferns the principal varieties are the common brake or 
bracken, which covers considerable portions of the lulls, 

^ Thongh the spurs of Plinlimmon are now wholly destatnle of 
trees, there exists some slight evidence to indicate that their sides 
were formerly covered with timber. Near the janction of the Hore 
and the Severn, at a place called Nant-y-tanlliw (fire coloured ravine) 
the remains of several large fir trees have been discovered. 


the male fern, various species of maiden hair, and the 
hart's tongue. Golden furze, three or four varieties of 
heath, and the cotton grass {sidan-y-waun) are also 
abundant. Rushes, which are also plentiful, are largely 
used for various purposes, chiefly as litter for cattle, for 
thatching hay and corn-ricks, outhouses, etc., and the 
best of them are peeled and dipped into grease and used 
as rush-lights. Formerly large quantities of these 
peeled rushes (pahwyr) were carried to the town of 
Llanidloes, and sold to the inhabitants. 

(c) Animals. The mountainous and hiUy districts 
afford pasture to an immense number of sheep of a small 
hardy kind, which, during the winter months, are re- 
moved from the higher and more exposed hills to the 
farms in the valleys and low grounds. HiU ponies are 
also reared. 

The only wild animals are the hare, rabbit, polecat, 
hedgehog, weasel, and an occasional fox. . The principal 
birds are the red grouse, partridge, woodcock, snipe, 
wild duck ; buzzard, kestrel, sparrow hawk, owl, kite ; 
the crane is a frequent visitor of the Wye, curlew, lap- 
wing or pee-wit, the grey and golden plover ; the moun- 
tain or missel thrush, fieldfare, ring ousel, thrush, black- 
bird, starling, cuckoo ; sandpiper, kingfisher, and the 
' white-breast dowker' or water ousel, wheatear and 
whin-chat, goat sucker (deryn-y-corff^J, etc., etc. 

The Wye is one of the most celebrated salmon streams 
in the kingdom ; this fish has been killed even in the 
small river Tarenig. The other fish foimd in the 
streams are trout, samlet, minnows, and the silver eel. 

Inhabitants. Industrial pursuits. The census returns 
give the population in the various decades as follows : — 

Year 1801. J811. 182]. 1831. 1841,(1851. 1861. 

Pop. 1426. 1559. 1 1784. 1847. 1957. | 1802. 1641. 

Showing a trifling but steady increase in the forty 
years between 1801 and 1841 of 531, followed by a 



decline during the next twenty years of 316. Taking 
the area of the parish in roimd numbers at 50,000 acres, 
we find that in 1801 there was one individual to every 
35 acres, in 1840 one to every 25 acres, and in 1861 one 
to every 30 acres, or a percentage of '03 persons per 
acre. Additional particulars may be gleaned from the 
subjoined table : — 

1 Number of Houses. | 


IS'AmalAfl 1 

Tear. J d habited. 

Uninhabited. | Building. 

4X*CbAw9a ». <»■■»■»*%/». 











The decrease in the population is attributable to vari- 
ous causes, the principal of which are, the depression 
which formerly existed in the mining operations, 
emigration, and in some degree to the fact that several 
of the small tenements have been incorporated into small 
farms. The returns of the next census, however, are 
likely to exhibit a considerable increase in the popula- 
tion, now that the mines are once more in fiill vigour. 
A further increase would probably be the result of the 
opening of the line of railway connecting the village with 
Llanidloes, which has been constructed by the Man- 
chester and MUford Railway Company. 

Nearly the whole population is devoted to agricul- 
tural and pastoral pursuits. The mines give employ- 
ment to a considerable number, and there exist three 
flannel factories with their accompanying fulling mills 
within the limits of the parish — viz., at Cwmbelan, on 
the Nant Belan ; in Glyn Brochan, on the banks of the 
Brochan ; and at Cae-yn-y-coed, on the banks of the 
Hafren, Factories also existed formerly on the banks 
of the Bidno and Tylwch. 




Ancient Roadioays. A writer in the Cambrian Quar- 
terly Magazine attempted to trace the route of an 
ancient British roadway — ^in his opinion existing an- 
terior to the invasion of the country by the Romans — 
leading from the Isle of Wight to Anglesey. The 
writer supposes it to have followed the upper valley of 
the Wye — " fipom Rhaiadr Gwy, the Wye-fords in Rad- 
norshire, to its source at the hill of Plinlimmon in Mont- 
gomeryshire, probably a place of worship of the M6n 
Druids. This being a great mining county, the road 
seems to be divided here into several branches, as over 
Saim Halen, or the Salt-causeway, at Llanbadam Odyn, 
in Cardiganshire." The evidence brought forward by 
the author of this paper in support of his theory is the 
frequent use of the term ford, which he interprets to be 
the Anglicised form of the ancient Celtic and modem 
Welsh Jforddf so that Hereford becomes Hir or Hen- 
fforddy the long or old road, and Rhaiadr Gwy, supposed 
to mean the waterfall or cataract of Wye, is manipu- 
lated into Wye-fords} 

The learned and careful author of Salopia Antiquxi 
has examined this theory, but the mass of evidence he 
has accumulated goes to prove that the term ford indi- 
cates traces of a^ Roman thoroughfare. " From finding 
this word so continually on Roman roads, there is no 
doubt that it is allusive to the position of the places 
where it occurs, and that the modem acceptation of the 
term is only employed in its secondary and lowest 
sense." On the Wathng Street he enumerates eigh- 
teen places into the construction of which the term ford 

' Vol. iv, 373. 2 Salopia Antlqua, p. 238. 


enters ; on the line of Ermine Street he has discovered 
eleven such places ; on Icknield Street nineteen ; on 
Akeman Street eleven ; on Hay den Way five/ etc. 

No vestiges, either monumental or traditional, of this 
supposed roadway have been found within the limits of 
the parish, but the remains of an ancient paved road- 
way running in another direction, were discovered by 
the late Rev. D. Davis on the summit of Esgair- Ychion , 
near the Cistfaen. Local tradition ascribes its con- 
struction to the monks of Strata Florida, who served 
the church of Uangurig until the time of the dissolu- 
tion of the monastery. That they used it in their jour- 
neys between Llangurig and the Abbey is more than 
probable, but there is no evidence to show that they 
were its constructors. 

CaimeddaUy or Cams. Rather more than three miles 
to the west of the vUlage, on the summit of Esgair- 
Ychion, are the remains of a camedd, denominated on 
the Ordnance map Caemu. Subsequent to the appear- 
ance of the paper on Ancient Anuystli,^ the writer was 
informed that this earn was not whoUy demolished. 
Upon visiting the spot in the summer of 1868, he foimd 
that three-fourths of the stones, which constituted the 
upper portion of the camedd, were removed for the 
purpose of building a rude shed— with a view to afford 
shelter — only a few yards distant from the venerable 
relic, which supplied the materials for its walls. Proba- 
bly the farmers who undertook this partial work of des- 
truction never for a moment thought that they were 
desecrating a grave, and would shudder at the very 
thought of entering a churchyard for a supply of stones 
for a similar purpose. The inhabitants, to all appear- 
ances, did not proceed far enough with the work of 
demolition to reveal the remains concealed for so many 
centuries. The base of the cam is forty yards in cir- 

^ Ibid., 262, 2G5, and Words and Places, p. 254 (ed. 1865.) 
* Montgomeryshire Collections, i, 229, 


Another camedd, known as Carn'Bivlch''y'Cloddiau, 
lies half a mile to the south by west from the first. It 
is a circular heap of stones about thirty-five yards in 
circumference, tie stones in the centre of the mis being 
piled up to the height of about six feet, while those 
^ch form ite base Ire partially overgroM^i with grass. 
It is situated upon one of the summits of the Esgair, 
and commands a magnificent, extensive, and varied 

Cist faen. A mile and a quarter to the south-east of 
the second cam, and about three miles and a half to the 
south-west of the village occupying the crest of one of 
the most western elevations of the Esgair, is a high 
ridge several hundred yards long and between thirty 
and forty broad, lying in the direction of north and 
south. It appears to be the outcropping of a vein of 
the mountaui stone, which, through exposure to the 
eflfects of the atmosphere, has become disintegrated, and 
covers the ridge with thousands of blocks of various 
sizes. These blocks are in part overgrown with grass ; 
some of them projecting out at the edges of the ridge 
look very much like an artificial barrier of stones placed 
edgewise, but which, no doubt, owe their position to 
nat\u:al causes. Upon the crcHt of this ridge are two 
cams, the larger one, not far from its southern extremity, 
is about eighteen feet high, and about fifty-seven yards 
in circumference at its base. Some of its stones have 
lately been displaced, but not in sufficient quantities to 
bring any remains to view. This displacement is evi- 
dently the doings of individuals who did not understand 
their work, and fortunately were tired with a couple of 
hours' labour. Eighteen yards to the north of this is 
the smaller cam, which is about five feet high and thirty- 
seven yards in circumference at its base. Some of its 
stones have also been displaced. A little further north 
are a great number of loose stones of various sizes, 
which to all appearances are the remains of a third cam. 
Perhaps its removal led to the discovery of the Cist-facUy 
which gave its name to these remains. From the 


ridge are seen the Cardiganshire hills to the south- 
west, Plinlimmon to the north-west, Llandinam hills 
and the vale of the Severn to the east. Rather 
more than a mile to the south-east like a landmark 

Cam-y-groes, situated on an eminence overlooking 
the ravine of the Demol. The greater part of the cam 
is low and covered with grass, but the stones in the 
centre form a heap seven feet high, and about six yards 
in circiunference. All the before-mentioned earns, as 
well as Plinlimmon, Cader Idris, and the Llandinam 
hills, are visible from the spot. A probable derivation 
of the name is suggested in the following extract : — 

" That the early Christians did actually perform divine wor- 
ship in the bardic circles is pretty evident from the fact that 
some of these still retain in their names and other circum- 
stances^ clear marks of their having been used for evangelical 
purposes. Such is Cam-Moesen or the Carnedd of Moses in 
Glamorganshire. Carney' Groes in the same county, where a very 
ancient cross stands ; and Ty-IUtud in Breconshire and many 

If a cross was ever raised upon this cam, the raised 
stone work, which stiU remains, is at once explained. 

Dovnen-y-Giw. Rather more than a mile to the north 
of the village, on the crest of a high tract of moorland, 
which here forms the line of watershed between the 
tributaries of the Wye and Severn, is a tumulus known 
locally as Domen-y-Giw. It is a low flat mound, about 
sixty yards in circumference and about three yards in 
elevation. From the vast extent of country which it 
commands it was most probably used as a beacon station. 
The view from it embraces the Plinlimmon Cameddau, 
with Cader Idris in the dim distance on the north-west ; 
to the north may be seen the Arran ; the horizon on the 
east being bounded by a belt of moimtain masses stretch- 
ing from the Arran to the Breidden Hill and Long 
Mynd ; while the Kerry hills and Rhydd-Howell limit 

1 EccleslasUcal AntupLUies of the Cymry, p. 71. 


the view on the south-east. In front the town of 
Llanidloes, nestling at the foot of Pen-rhiw, with the 
sinuous Severn wiading through the valley, forms a 
pleasant picture. To the south-west are the Esgairs with 
their cams, and the beautiful Wye meandering plea- 
santly through the cultivated valley at their feet. 

The Earthwork on Rhyd-yr-onen. This interesting 
and well preserved earthwork is situated on the grounds 
of a small farm called Hhyd-yr-oneii, about two miles to 
the north-east of the village, and three miles to the 
south-west of the town of Llanidloes, in the upper part 
of" Cwm-glyn-Brochan." It occupies a small triangular 
plateau elevated some sixty feet above two deep rapid 
brooks, which flank it upon either side, and whicn imite 
their waters at its apex. These brooks form a natural 
moat on two of its sides, and if dammed up near their 
junction would materially aid in the defence of the posi- 
tion. The third is defended by a deep, broad outer 
ditch and a very strong rampart of earth, which stretches 
from one edge of the plateau, in the direction of the op- 
posite brook, for a distance of about 240 feet. The ram- 
Eart a short time ago was covered with oak trees, which 
owever, were marked for sale. At a distance of 150 
feet from the outer ditch is another deep, broad fosse 
which surroimds a large circular mound, which measures 
520 feet in circumference at its base, and is between 
forty and fifty feet higher than the ditch. On its top is a 
flat space which covers about 200 square yards. The space 
situated between the mound and the junction of the 
brooks is occupied by two platforms separated from each 
other by a deep, broad fosse ; the platform nearest the 
moimd being some three or four feet higher than the 
other. That portion of the work lying between the 
outer agger and the mound, and marked D on the ac- 
companying plan, is cultivated. An entrance (A) — ^to 
all appearance modem — broad enough for carts to pass 
through, has been made at this end of the work. 

Local tradition states that the mound is a great bar- 
row, but the conductors of the Ordnance survey held 


another opinion, and in all probability the correct one, 
when they pronounced it to be a moat. It appears to 
be the site of one of those wooden castles, which were 
erected on moimds of this description, and which figure 
so prominently in the early history of the Principality. 
There is much in its form and position similar to the 
remains of Owen Cyfeiliog s Castle at Tafolwem, in the 
parish of Uanbiynmair. 

The farm was purchased a short time ago by Mr. 
Edwards, of Brecknockshire, from the North and South 
Wales Bank. 

Names implying m^ilitary occupation. The situation 
of the parish on the south-western confines of the prin- 
cipality of Powys, with Cardiganshire on one hand, and 
Radnorshire, in possession of the South Wales princes — 
who erected a stronghold at Rhayader — on the other, 
caused it in some degree to be a high way between North 
and South Wales. Yet few well-marked traces of its 
being a fighting or camping grotmd have been preserved 
to add to those described in the preceding pages. The 
following names probably indicate traces of a period 
" when every man s house was in a literal sense his own 
castle also." The term Castell is perhaps of greater an- 
tiquity than that of lluesty the former originating proba- 
bly during or immediately after the Roman occupation 
being derived from the Latin Castellum. 

1. Castelly the name of a small farm on the right bank 
of the Severn, two and a half mUes west by south from 

2. Castell Greido (Greido s Castle), a farm two and a 
half miles north-west of the village of Llangurig, and 
four and a half miles south-west by south from Llanid- 

3. Khos-y-Castell (Castle-moor), a small tenement 
situated a mile and a half north-west by north from the 

1 . Lluest-y-Bidno (encampment on the Bidno), a small 
farm on the left bank of that stream, a mile and three- 
quarters to the north-west of the village. 



2. Lluest ' dol - gwial (encampment on the Mead of 
Twigs), on the left bank of Afon Dilliw, four and a half 
miles to the south-west of the village. 

3. Graig-y-lluest (rock of the encampment), in the val- 
ley of the same stream, a mile to the south-east of the 

4. Lluest Llewelyn (Llewelyn's encampment) ; for the 
probable history connected with this name, see supra. 

Coins. Numbers of coins have been discovered at vari- 
ous times in the fields in the neighbourhood of the 
village, but none of them have been preserved. Lewis 
Morris, the celebrated antiquary, writing about the year 
1 755, states that " thirty-eight silver coins or shilfings 
of Henry I [1099-1135] were foimd in a grave in this 
churchyard (Llangurig) two years ago."^ In 1826 a rose 
noble of Edward III was dug up.^ Numbers of the 
same coins have been discovered in the neighbouring 
town of Llanidloes. 

Two other antiquarian relics are preserved at the 
Clochfaen. The first is the family Hirlas or drinking 
horn, which has been handed down as an heirloom fi-om 
" time immemorial" It is made of a beautifully-polished 
white horn, richly mounted with chased silver. It is 
represented in the following cut, engraved from a photo- 
graph taken by Mr. Owen, of Newtown : — 

The length of the horn 15^ inches, diameter of the 
opening at the mouth 2| inches. The Hirlas (long, 
blue) is thus described in the spirited poem which very 
appropriately bears its name, and which was written to 
commemorate the deeds of the chieftains who took part 
in the action of Crogen : — 

1 Camh, Beg,^ vol. ii, p. 491. 

2 Lewis Top. Die, art. Llangurig. 


" This hour we dedicate to joy, 

Then fill the Hirlas horn, my boy, 
That shineth like the sea ; 

Whose azure handle, tipped with gold. 
Invites the grasp of Britons bold. 
The sons of liberty."^ 

Mrs. Hemans has also written a beautiful song to the 
Hirlas, which is too long to quote at length; we must 
content ourselves with the last stanza, which contains 
an aJlusioii to the poem of the Prince of Cyfeiliog : — 

" Fill higher the Hirlas ! forgetting not those 

Who shared its bright draught in the days which are fled ; 
Tho* cold on the mountains the valiant repose, 

Their lot shall be lovely, renown to the dead ! 
While harps in the hall of the feast shall be strung. 

While regal Eryri with snow shall be crowned. 
So long by the bards shall their battles be sung. 

And the heart of the hero shall bum at the sound ; 
The ^e winds of Cambria shall swell with their name. 

And Owain's rich Hirlas be fill'd to their fame !" 

The second is a dressed stone in the form of an inverted 
coflFee cup with its top hollowed out. It is nine and a 
quarter inches high, eleven and a half inches in diameter 
at its base, and seven and a half inches across its top. 
It has a hole through it, and appears to be a rude imi- 
tation of an ancient beU. This old relic is called *' Y 
Cloch'faen" the stone bell, and the old people of the 
neighbourhood confidently assert that from it the farm 
derives its name. 



1. Saint. The church was foimded by St Curig, or as 
he is styled by the mediaeval bards, Curig Lwyd, or the 
blessed, an appellation given him either on account of 
his peculiar holiness or for the purpose of distinguish- 
ing him from another saint of the same name, with 

^ Lit of the Kymry, p. 40. 



whom he is sometimes confused. Professor Rees ranks 
him among the Welsh saints who flourished between 
A.D. 664 and 700, and one of the lolo MSS. (p. 550) 

E fives his parentage as "St. Curig, the son of Urien 
Rheged] the son of Cynfarch. (In another copy, the 
son of Arawn, the son of Cynfarch)." We are told by 
Lewis Morris that he was a foreigner who landed at 
Aberystwith, and that it was on the summit of the hill 
called after him Eisteddfa Curig (Ciu-ig's Seat, or rest- 
ing place), that he rested on his first journey inland, and 
beheld the fine vale of the Wye before him, in which he 
determined to build a church in a sheltered spot.* Llan- 
gurig was the site selected for rearing the humble struc- 
ture covered with reeds and straw, which we are told 
was the kind of building adopted by the primitive 
Welsh Christians.' 

His missionary labours were ultimately rewarded 
with a bishop s see, probably the adjacent one of Llan- 
badarn^ — foimded by St. Padam in the previous cen- 
tury, — ^which is supposed to have included within its 
limits a considerable portion of Montgomeryshire.* Lewis 
Morris, in his compilation of Bonedd y Saint, has the 
following notice of nim : — 

'' Kurig St., Eglwys yn Arwystli a elwir Llangurig. Un a 
ddwg-Gurig Iwyd dan gwrr ei glog. Llangurig Arwystli. 
Eglwys Hid a Churig, Morganwg. Eglwys Forth Gurig, Morg. 
Capel Curig a'i fam Julita yn Arvon.''^ 

The compiler draws no distinction between the two 
saints, but Professor Rees states that "Llanilid a Churig, 
Glamorganshire, and Capel Curig a'i fam Julita, Car- 
narvonshire" are dedicated to Juliet and Cyrique, but 
that it is imcertain to which of the persons named Curig 
the churches of Perth Curig, Glamorganshire, and 
Eglwys Fair a Curig, Carmarthenshire, are dedicated. ° 
As regards " Perth Cirig," it is stated in the list of those 
who foimded churches and choirs in Glamorganshiie, 

1 Welsh Sainis, p. 307. 

^ Camb. Beg,, ii, 491, Enwogion CymrUy art. Curig. 

» Welsh Saints, p. 69. * Ibid. p. 216. 

* Myf. Arch., p. 522 (Gee's Reprint.) • WeUh Saints, 307. 


that " St. Cirig founded Porth Cirig for the benefit of 
the sailors' souls, and a port for them."* But Taliessin 
Williams argues that neither of these saints founded the 
port, but that it was the residence of a Silurian prince 
of the name of Ceiri, its true name being Porth-Ceri? 
Thus we find that the bishop can only lay undisputed 
claim to be patron of one church — that of Uangurig.' 
He has always been held in the highest estimation by 
his countrymen. Giraldus tells us that — 

" In this same province of Warthrenion, and in the church 
of St. Germanas (St. Harmon) there is a staff of Saint Curig, 
covered on all sides with gold and silver, and resembling in its 
upper part the form of a cross. Its efficacy has been proved 
in many cases, but particularly in the removal of glandular and 
strumous swellings, insomuch that all persons afflicted with 
these complaints, on a devout application to the staff, with the 
oblation of one penny, are restored to health. But it happened 
in these our days that a strumous patient, on presenting one 
halfpenny, the humour subsided only in the middle ; but when 
the oblation was completed by the other hal^enny, an entire 
cure was accomplished. Another person also coming to the 
staff with the promise of a penny, was cured ; but not ful- 
filling his engagement on the day appointed, he relapsed into 
his former disorder. In order, however, to obtain pardon for 
his offence, he tripled the offering by presenting threepence, 
and thus obtained a complete cure.'^^ 

The historian of Radnorshire informs us that this vene- 
rable staff was committed to the flames at the time of 
the Reformation.* 

Two centuries later than the time of Giraldus we find, 
from the works of Lewis Glyn Cothi, that he was still 
a popular saint, for the poet, in ridiculing the custom 
then prevalent among the mendicant friars of vending 
the images of favourite saints as charms, etc., receiving 
in exchange cheese, bacon, wool, com, etc. — 

1 lolo MSS., 636. « Ibid., 345. 

* The Hymns ^ven in the Cambro-Briiish Saints, pp. 609-611, are 
those ascribed to the martyr Cjriqne. 

* Hoare^s Qiraldus, i, 5. 

* Arch. Camh., 1858, p. 548. 


" Un a arw^in, yn oriog, 
Gnrig Iwyd dan gwr ei glog ; 
Gwas arall a ddwg Seiriol 
A naw o caws yn ei g61 ;"^ 

" One bore by turns the blessed Curig under the skirts 

of his cloak, another youth carried Seiriol, and nine 

cheeses in his bosom." Traditions respecting Curig's 

miraculous powers of healing are still prevalent among 

several of the old people of the parish. His festival is 

observed on the 1 7th of June. 

2. Mother Church, There is one subject connected 

with the establishment of the parish churches of Arwystli 

that requires a few words, and this is perhaps the pro- 

per place to make the observations. A belief has long 

been prevalent in the neighboiu-hoodthatLlangurig is the 

"mother church" of the other six churches of the deanery. 

When and whence this notion originated cannot now be 

determined. The earliest notice of it appears to be in 

a letter of Lewis Morris, preserved in the Cambrian 

Register, and, as the work is rather scarce, we take the 

liberty of quoting the humorous description of his visit 

to Llangurig rather more than a century ago : — 

'^ I also crossed on my road, near Llan-Gurig, the river Gwy 
(Wye) which takes its rise in Pumlymmon Hill, or as pro- 
nounced in that country, Plymhummon. Query whether it be 
derived from Pen Luman, or Lummon, the hill of the banner ? 
In this mountain are the sources of the Severn, Wye, and 
Eheidiol. The small rivers Bidno and Blain fall into the Gwy 
(Wye), and their junction is called Aber, as Aber Bidno, Aber 
Elain ; so that word signifies not only the fall of a river into 
the sea, but also that of a small river into a larger. The vicar 
of the parish (Llan Gurig) who is a tolerably ingenious man, 
(as he excels most mountain clergymen) could not inform me 
what the word Curig meant ; he said some derived it from the 
Scotch kirk, a^ Llan^Ghcri^ was a mother church, and might 
have been so called by way of eminence. But I told him there 
was a Welsh poem. (Mr. Morris here quotes the extract from 
Lewis Glyn Cothi, given above.) The vicar was extremely 
pleased to find that he had a saint to his church, as well as 
his neighbours, and a grey one.^ (Lwyd) too ; he, therefore 

^ Owaith Lewis Glyn Cotki, 280. 

^ Mr. Morris gives grey as the equivalent of Lioyd ; but the old 
bards woald not use the epithet in that sense when applied to the 
Almighty, as they frequently do. 


spent his threepence for ale^ and after some discourse about 
tithes we went to rest. We lodged at the sexton's, a fat, jolly 
fellow, more like a parson than his master ; he is a relation of 
Bennetts of Bangor, and like him. This Llan-Gurig is in Mont- 
gomeryshire. I could find here a remarkable distinction for 
the better between their Welsh and the inhabitants of Aberteivi 
(Cardiganshire) . . I forgot to tell you that there is a good 
proverb at Llan-Gurig. ' Pan fwrio gwr ei gywilydd, nid gor- 
chest iddo i fyw '; i.e.. When a man is past shame, or has bid 
adieu to modesty, what difficulty can he have to live, or do 

To return to the subject. Malkin next helps to perpetu- 
ate the dogma that has become one of the articles of the 
creed of the inhabitants, for which they are prepai-ed to 
do battle manfully. Apparently the only grounds 
brought forward by them in its support are the facts, 
that Curiff Lwyd was a bishop, and that the vicar still 
continues to revive the tithes of one of the townships 
of Llanidloes parish, and about j61 8 per annum from the 
parish of Trefeglwys. If tested by the criterion of the 
payment of tithes we shall find that Llandinam has far 
tetter claims than Llangurig for appropriating to itself 
the title of mother church, for it was formerly endowed 
with the tithes of a district embracing the modem 
parishes of Camo, Llanwnog, Llandinam, and consider- 
ble portions of the parishes of Llanidloes and Trefeglwys. 
The tithes of this district were retained up to the year 
1685, when by an Act of Parliament they were divided 
between the Dean and Chapter of Bangor and the seve- 
ral vicars of the different parishes. This sufiiciently 
proves the claim of Llandinam to be the first or oldest 
foundation within the limits of the district defined 
above. Again, if we appeal to chronology, and taking 
Professor Kees as our guide, we find — 

(a) That Llonioy the founder of Llandinam, and 
GvrrJuiiy the founder of Penstrywed, flourished between 
the years 500 and 542 A.D.* 

(6) Gxiyynno or Gwynnog, the founder of Uanvniog, 

» Camh, Ti^eg,, ii, 491. ^ ^y^j^j^^ Saints, pp. 221, 231. 


himself a bishop hke Curig, flourished about a hundred 
years before the latter ;* and 

(c) Idloes, the founder of Llanidloes, belonged to the 
generation preceding that in which the founder of Llan- 
sniris flourished.^ If it be granted that the Professor 
£ correct in his dates, then no other conclusion can be 
arrived at than that Llangurig could not have been the 
mother church of those four, which were evidently 
founded before it. 

3. The Church consists of a nave, chancel, and a small 
narrow, north aisle. The nave measures internally 62 feet 
by 24 feet, and is separated from the chancel (which mea- 
sures 27 feet by 24) by a high chamfered pointed arch; 
the aisle is separated from the nave by three low, plain, 
stone pillars supporting pointed arches, all of which are 
bmlt of ordinary rubble stone. On the north side of the 
chancel are to be seen traces of a narrow winding stone 
staircase which formerly led to the rood loft, which ex- 
isted in the church previous to the year 1836. Re- 
mains of " an elaborately-carved screen and rood loft are 
still preserved," is the statement made in Lewis's Topo- 
gi^aphiixil Dictioriary y^ published in 1833. Three years 
later, when the chm-ch was repaired, the screen and loft 
were taken down, and the churchwardens, who must 
have been ignorant of its value, allowed anyone who 
expressed a desire to become possessed of samples of the 
tracery, to carry away specimens, so that literally bit by 
bit it disappeared, and not a vestige of it was left when 
Mr. Evans, the present vicar, was appointed to the living 
in 1852. It was undoubtedly the principal object of 
interest in the church, and its fate is a sad example of 
the shameful neglect and utter indifference through 
which so many similar relics have disappeared from the 
churches of the neighbourhood. Fortunately the late 
Rev. John Parker, of Llanyblodwel, visited tne church 
in the summer of 1828, and his artistic and accuiute 

1 WeUh Samts, 257. « Bid., 233. 

' Top, Diet., art. Llangurig. * Sub voce Llangurig. 






V jtViiii** L 







pencil has preserved for us admirable drawings of the 
screen, which, through the kindness of Sir Baldwin 
Leighton, one of our members, we are able to reproduce. 

The present contracted north aisle, which only disfigures 
the building, was formerly several feet broader, so that 
the church in its original form was similar iq its plan to 
that of Llanidloes, but the old north wall having fallen 
down about the year 1780, the present narrow aisle was 
built. The vestry, situated to the north of the chancel, 
appears to have formed part of the old aisle. 

Only two of the windows — that at the east end and 
the one which lights the vestry (see illustration) — have 
any architectural pretensions. The former is divided 
into three cinque-foliated lights with its head filled in 
with tracery, the second is divided into three trefoliated 
lights, and both are constructed of red sandstone. This 
material must have been transported thither from a 
considerable distance, or which perhaps is quite as pro- 
bable, the windows may have formerly belonged to one 
of the adjacent abbeys of Strata Florida, or that of 
Cwmhir. The church had direct claims upon the former. 

The font consists of an octagonal basin, measuring 
1 foot 1 1 inches in diameter inside the bowl, and about 
a foot in depth, resting upon a short shaft which con- 
nects it with its base. Its total height is 3 feet 9 
inches. The head of each compartment is filled with 
tracery (see Mr. Parker s sketch in the view ot the in- 
terior). Some ambitious Vandal has scratched his in- 
itials and the date 1661 upon it. 

The most ancient part of the building seems to be the 
massy square tower at the west end, with strong angu- 
lar buttresses at its comers. It is surmounted by a 
smaU octagonal spire 16 feet high, including the vaL. 
The height of the tower is 48 feet; its summit, together 
with the spire, is constructed of wood work covered with 
sheet lead ; a fact which explains a passage in the works 
of Lewys Gljni Cothi, to whom the structure must have 
been famihar. He has hit off its appearance in the 
following Une : — 


" Gloew sgwar val Eglwys Gurig."' 
[Bright and sqiiare like the church of Carig.] 

The epithet "bright" is apt to puzzle a stranger; but 
anyone who has viewed the chiu*ch (as the old bard most 
probably did in the course of hia wanderings in Ar- 
wystli) from one of the many heights surroimding the 
village, with the siui shining upon the spire, cannot fail 
to perceive the accuracy of the old poet's description. 

The ascent to the belfiy is by a narrow spiral stone 
staircase ; it contains three bells, the second of which 
has the date 1700, with the names of John Owen and 
Adam Hatfield, the chiu-chwardens for that year. 

The church is built of common rubble stone of the 
neighbourhood, and is a rude specimen of early English 
architectiu'e. The belfry doorway is surmounted by an 
elliptical arch, the ellipse being formed by two large 
stones (see illustration.) Tradition points out the spot 
whence the buUding materials were obtained upon the 
summit of the adjacent esgair, at a spot which still 
bears the name, Cerrig waun-y-llan. 

At the principal entrance to the chiu*chyard stands a 
lich-gate, upon the wood-work of which may be seen 
the following initials and date: — CD., S.H., 1740. 
D.C., I.O. Formerly there existed a remarkably large 
yew-tree, which was greatly admired, but latterly it had 
become so decayed that it was necessary to have it re- 
moved. The following two epitaphs are copied from 
monuments in the churchyard : — 

" O earth, O earth, observe this well — 
That earth to earth shall come to dwell; 
Then earth to earth shall close remain 
Till earth from earth shall rise again." 

" From earth my body first arose ; 
But here to earth again it goes. 
I never desire to have it more, 
To plague me as it did before." 

4. Living and Tithes. The living is a vicarage, and 
was up to the year 1861 in the patronage of the Bishop 

' Qwaith Leivis Qlyn Cothi, 21. 



of Bangor, but by an Order in Council, bearing the date 
of the 25th of Jiily that year, it was transferred to the 
Bishop of Llandaff, from whom it subsequently passed to 
the patronage of the Crown. 

Aa Llangurig was the only part of Arwystli which 
belonged to the Abbey of Strata Florida, the following 
entry in the Taxation of 1291, under the head, "In 
DecanaL ArostlyJ' refers to the value of the rectory at 
that date : — 

" Beneficia Abb'is de Strata Florida . . . £16 0" 

While the abbey existed the church of Llangurig was 
served by its members. Shortly after its dissolution we 
find that the rectorial tithes were in possession of Lady 
Dorothy Devereux, daughter (by Anne his wife, daugh- 
ter of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham) of George 
Hastings, Eisirl of Huntingdon, and relict of Sir Richard 
Devereux, Knt., eldest son of Walter, Lord Viscoimt 
Hereford, K.G., who died in 1558. Sir Richard died in 
the lifetime of his father, leaving issue a son and heir, 
Walter, Lord Viscoimt Hereford, who was created Earl 
of Essex and Ewe. Subsequently the great tithes 

Eassed into the hands of the family of Steadman (who 
ad likewise possession of the Abbey of Strata Florida), 
and thence to the Powells of Nanteos, who held them 
as late as the year 1722. But before the year 1762 
they were sold by the late Dr. Powell, of Nanteos, to 
Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., and are now held by the 
Baronet of Wynnstay. 

From the Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII, we 
learn that the vicarage was then rated at £9 9s. lOd., 
the soiurces of revenue, etc., being as follows: — 

Tithes of corn and hay, per ann. 

„ wool and lambs 

Oblations (four in the year) 
Value of glebe land, per ann. 

Thence in reprisals : — 
Yearly Procuration to the Bishop 

at visitation 












10 2 

12 2 



Clear yearly value 9 9 10 

Thence a tenth 19 

At present the vicarial tithes are — 

From Llangurig £177 £177 

Llanidloes 106 

Trefeglwys 18 

Rectorial tithes 420 420 

Total 597 

5. Registers and List of Vicars. At present only two 
volumes of registers are in existence. A third volume, 
which existed thirty years ago, was accidentally destroyed 
through the wilful carelessness of the parish clerk. The 
entries in the older volume begin with the year 1 742 and 
close with the year 1813, when the entries in the second 
commence. The entries in these volumes call for no 
special remark. 

A complete Ust of the vicars can now only be com- 
piled from documents preserved in the diocesan registry 
at Bangor, no list of incumbents of the different livings 
similar to those given in Edwards' edition of Browne 
Willis' St. Asaph naving been printed. It is greatly to 
be regretted that no one has undertaken for the diocese 
of Bangor that which Mr. Edwards carried out in his 
edition of the older antiquary's account of the diocese, 
and which the Rev. D. R. Thomas is about to bring 
down to the present time. 

In the absence of a full and correct list the following 
names may prove acceptable : — 

From a return made by Bishop Meyrick we learn that 
in 1561 " Thomas Lloyd Priest" was vicar, that he was 
resident, kept house, and was licensed to preach.^ His 
successor probably was 

David Lewis, who is mentioned in the Add. MSS. 
9865.* He was the son of Lewis of Llangurig (ab 
Thomas ab Gwilym,a descendant of Cadivor ab Gwaeth- 
fod), and Tangwystl, daughter of Jenkyn ab David. He 

' Browne Willis' Bangor, 2G7, 2(10. 2 j^^f^^. 


married Margaret, daughter of Howell ab Philip, and 
had a son, Jenkin, who was aUve in 1599. 

It is very probable that the living was sequestered during 
the domination of the Puritan party, for we find that the 
adjacent living of St. Harmon, in possession of the Par- 
liamentary commissioners in 1649,^ and in the neigh- 
bouring parish of Llanidloes, there are no entries in the 
registers from the years 1649 to 1660, a proof that the 
mfniBters' duties 4ere suspended durmj those vea™. 
That Llangurig was not exempted may be gathered 
from the following extract from a pamphlet entitled, 
" The Parhament explained to Wales," quoted in Rees' 
History of Nonconformity ^ p. 8 1 : — 

" In some places in Wales, the gospel doth already kindle j 
and that — ^which our coanties can never too gratefully acknow- 
ledge — ^by the worthy and godly endeavour of Mr. Gradock ; 
and especially which is worth our notice, it begins to shine in 
a place heretofore noted for untowardness, called Llangyrug in 
Montgomeryshire, a place formerly of very sorry fame, but 
now pointed at as the Puritans and Roundheads of Wales ; 
and all this through the godly pains of some persecuted 
ministers resorting thither through manifold discouragements 
and dangers/^ 

At the close of the seventeenth century Thomas In- 
gram, LL.B., was vicar. He was educated at Jesus 
College, Oxford, and in 1703 he was made a Canon of 
Bangor. He died about the year 1711.* 

William Jones, B.A., was collated to the vicarage, 
April 29th, 1698. 

Thomas Pritchard, B.A., was collated to the vicar- 
age, July 26th, 1712. 

Edmimd Price was collated to the vicarage, April 
27th, 1765. 

Thomas Lewis, B.A., was collated to the vicarage, 
October 23rd, 1788. 

Maurice Anwyl, B.A., was collated to the vicarage. 
May 27th, 1805.' 

» Hist, of Badnorshire, in Arch, Camb., 1858, p. 548. 

2 Browne Willis' Bangor, p. 172. 

* The names of these five vicars, with the dates of their appoint- 
ments, were supplied by the Ven. Archdeacon Evans, M.A., of 


The first signature which occurs in the older of the 
two volumes of the Registers is that of 

John Jones, curate, who appears to have been curate 
in charge for the year 1742 to 1780, as his name ap- 
pears last in that year. Thomas Lewis' signatiu-e occurs 
from 1788 to 1805, and that of Maurice Anwyl from 
1807 to 1832. Mr. Anwyl was aUve after that date, 
but the duties of the parish were discharged by the 
curate, Evan James. 

James James succeeded Mr. Anwyl as vicar. This 
gentleman, who also held the curacy of Llanwnog, died 
in 1841, when 

Evan James, who was curate from 1831, became 
vicar. He died on 17th June, 1852, and was succeeded 
by the present vicar, 

John Evans, who is in the commission of the peace 
for the county, and chairman of the Board of Guardians 
for the Llanidloes and Newtown Unions. To this gen- 
tleman the writer is greatly indebted for much valua- 
ble information, and for free access to the Registers and 
other documents in his possession. 

6. Benefaction. The Parhamentary returns of 1786 
state that David Vaughan (date unknown) gave £10, 
the interest thereof to be given to the poor. 

This Sinn is now in the hands of a private individual 
resident in the parish, who pays 10s. annually for the 
interest, and it is distributed by the churchwardens in 
small sums of money to the poor. 

It was recommended that application should be made 
for the principal, and that when received it should be 
deposited in the savings' bank.^ 

The above suggestion does not appear to have been 
carried into effect, and the principal nas been lost. 

The church at present is in a dilapidated condition, 
and the worthy vicar is actively engaged in raising a 
fund for its reparation. 

1 Charity Commissioners' Report. 



Llasgueig appears from the most ancient times to 
have been an integral portion of the lordship of Arwystli, 
and to have passed tlu"ough the same vicissitudes which 
the rest of die Cantref suffered. When the coxmtry was 
portioned out into the five different principalities of 
Gwynedd, Powys, Morgan wg, Fferllys, and Deheubartfa, 
Arwystli was reckoned among the lordships of Elystan 
Glodrudd, prince of the country between the Severn 
and the Wye, It continued in the possession of the 
descendants of Elystan for several generations, the last 
of the family who appears to have been in actual pos- 
session of the territory was Howel (ab leuaf ah Cad- 
wgan ab Elystan), who is described as lord of Arwystli' 
in 1157, who fought in its defence against Owen 
Cyfeiliogin 1161, and was buried in the abbey of Strata 
Florida in the year 1186. He bore jru/es, a lionram- 
pant argent, crowned or. 

Shortly after his death Arwystli passed into the pos- 
session of the princes of the house of Cyfeiliog. This 
' Montgomeryshire Collecliotie, i, p. 251. 


transfer of the Cantref from its original lords, is gener- 
ally asserted by the Welsh heralds and chroniclers to 
have been the result of the marriage of Gruflfydd (ab 
Meredydd ab Bleddyn) with Gwerfyl/ daughter of Gwr- 

feneu ab Howel ab leuaf, the issue of the marriage 
eing Owen Cyfeiliog. It requires but a slight ex- 
amination to prove this tmion to have been a fiction 
created by the genealogists. Is it at all probable that 
Gruffydd, who died in 1125 leaving two sons (who were 
then minors), could have married the grandaughter of 
a prince who died sixty years later (1186)? If this 
usually received pedigree of the mother of Owen Cy- 
feiliog be correct, then would history present the singu- 
lar spectacle of a great-grandfather (Howel ab leuaf) 
invading the territory and burning the castle of his 
great-grandchild (Owen Cyfeiliog), and of that great- 
grandchild retaliating and defeating his great-grand- 
father in open battle at Llandinam in 1161, and of 
those two relatives dying within a few years of each 
other, both apparently in full years! Rejecting this 
theory, the true one wiU be found in the weakness of 
the descendants of Elystan, and in the restless and am- 
bitious spirit of Gwenwynwyn, the young lord of Cy- 
feiliog, who appears to have assumed the reins of power 
during the declining years of his father s life. Gwrgeneu, 
the son of Howel, being tmable to resist him, the Can- 
tref was seized and kept merely by the right of the 

" . . Gwenwynwyn, sangninis hsDres 
Ante obitum patris, totam subjecit Arustli.'*^ 

Shortly after his defeat at the battle of Crogen, King 
Henry II, while passing through South Wales on his 
way to Ireland in 1171,^ granted Arwystli to Prince 
Rhys, overlooking the rights of its true lord Howel ab 
leuaf, then alive. Henry was doubtless prompted to 

^ Wynne*8 ed. of Powell, p. 182. Burke's Landed Oentry, article, 
Morris of Hurst. 

* Pentarchia^ qnoted in Boyal Ihihes, p. 71. 
5 Wynne's ed. of Powell, p. 198. 


this step by the consideration that he was retahating 
upon Owen Cyfeiliog for the important services which 
he rendered the Confederates at Crogen, by placing such 
a powerful prince as Rhys in possession of a lordship to 
wnich Owen himself had some claim as its conqueror. 
On the death of Rhys in 1197, Gwenwynwyn readily 
accepted the overtures of Maelgwyn to assist him 
against his brother Gruffydd (the successor of the de- 
ceased Rhys), who was surprised and slain by the Con- 
federates at Aberystwith. On his return from this ex- 
pedition the Powysian prince " having got together an 
army entered into Arwystli and brought it into his sub- 
jection."^ It was probably at this time that Gwenwyn- 
wyn rewarded the services of his faithful follower, 
Madog Danwr,^ by granting him the Lordships of 
Llangurig, which formed the south-western part of the 
newly conquered territory, reserving for himself the 
seignorial rights of the same. The greater part of this 
parish is still in possession of Madog's descendant J. Y. 
W. Lloyd, Esq., of dochfaen. 

From the various documents illustrating the papers 
on the Princes of Upper Powys and the Barons of 
Powys' it appears that the manorial rights or suzerainty 
of the parish of Llangurig were always possessed by 
the lords of Arwystli, though the descendants of Madog 
had possession of the land. 

Arwystli was conquered by Llewelyn the last Prince 
of North Wales, and therefore does not appear among 
the lands of which Prince Gruffydd, son of Gwenwyn- 
wyn, died seized of in 1286. But on the death of Owen, 
son of the preceding Gruffydd, in 1293, " Langerik" is 
mentioned among the lands which he held in capiie 
from the English king, the profits received therefrom 
amounting to £3 13s. 4d. per annum. 

In 1310 mortem inquisition enumerates Llan- 
gurig among the lordships held by Gruffydd ab Owen, 

1 Wyiine, p. 198. 

^ Bnrke*s Landed Gentry, article, Owens of Glanscvem. 

' Montgomeryshire ColleciionSy vol. i. 


the last prince of the house of Cyfeiliog, who died a 
minor in 1309.^ 

On the death of John de Cherleton — who had ac- 
quired Powys-land by his marriage with Hawys, sister 
and heiress to the preceding Prince Grufiydd — in 1353 
he was seized of Arwystli.* His son John in 1360, 
died seized of the same cantref, and in 1374 we find 
John de Cherleton, third baron, dying in possession of 
it.' Among the lands which John, the son of the pre- 
ceding baron, and fourth of the name, died seized of, is 
the "lordship of Llangarick," and Edward his brother 
and successor died in 1421 possessed of the same lord- 

From the Cherletons the manorial rights of Arwystli 
passed by the marriage of Joyce, second daughter and 
co-heiress of Edward de Cherleton to Sir John Tiptoft, 
whose son and successor, John, was created Earl of Wor- 
cester in 1449, and for his firm adherence to the cause 
of Edward IV was beheaded in 1470. He died seized 
of the "manors and advowsons of the churches of 
Llanydlos, Arustile," &c.* Afterwards the Manor of 
Arwystli passed into the possession of the Crown, and 
it remained a Royal manor for a century, and sub- 
sequently, after several devolutions, it became and still 
remains part of the possessions of the House of Wynnstay. 


This family traces its descent from Gwrtheym Gtir- 
theneu or Vortigem, lord of Erging, Ewias, and Glou- 
cester, who, upon the assassination of Constans, was 

1 MoftigonierysJdre Collections^ vol. i, p, 148. * Ihid,^ p. 277. 

» Ihid., pp. 279, 280. 4 jft.^ pp. 283, 301. 

^ Ibid,, 358. 

• The pedigree of the Clochfaen family was drawn up in the first 
instance by the late Mr. Joseph Morris of Shrewsbury. It was sub- 
sequently collated by J. Y. W. Lloyd, Esq., with the Heraldic 
Visitations preserved in the British Museum, more especially the 
HarlMSS,, 4181, 1973, 2288, and Add. M8S., 9864, 9866. To 
the information thus brought together, and to family papers, the 
writer has been greatly indebted iu the compilation of this chapter. 


elected King of Britain, a.d. 425.^ In the yeax 448 he 
was compelled by Aurelius Ambrosius to taJce refuge in 
his fortress of Caer Gwartheym, whither he was accom- 
panied by St. Germanus, who is said to have remained 
with him to the last, imploring him to repent and make 
his peace with God, Seeing that remonstrance was in 
vain the Saint left the king and retired to Italy, where 
he died at Ravenna, 25th July, in the same year. 
Other accounts state that Vortigem did not perish in 
this citadel, but that he escaped and died in obscurity 
at Llanhaiarn in Carnarvonshire, where a tomb, in 
which the bones of a man of large stature were found, 
and which has always been designated as '* Bedd Gwr- 
theym," the grave of Vortigem. 

He was the son of Gwydodol, son of Gwydolin, son 
of Glouiw Gwladlydan, the foimder of the city of Caer- 
louiw or Gloucester. From the inscription on the 
monumental cross erected by King Cyngen II to the 
memory of his great-grandfather. King Eliseg, who died 
A.D. 773, aud was contemporary with Offa, King of 
Mercia, we find that Vortigem married Seveira,* 
daughter of Maximus Magnus, Emperor of Rome, who 
slew the Emperor Gratian. Maximus, who was put to 
death by Theodosius near Aquileia, A.D. 388, married 

! This is the date adopted in Haigh's Conquest of Britain by the 

' The following is that part of the inscription which bears on the 
text. It differs from that given by Llwyd — the additions are from 
Mr. Haigh's Conquest of Britain by the Saxons^ p. 230. 




BBi [g]ua[b]t[imee] filius guarthi[qbrni]* 

QUE BEKED germanus QUE 


* Gwartheym Gwarthenen = Seveira, dan. of Maximns 
or V ortigem j 

I \ I 

Gwartimer Fendigaid, Cyndeyrn Fendigaid Pasquen or Pascens 
or Vor timer the blessed. 



Helen Lluyddawg, only child of Eudaf or Octavius, 
Duke of Cornwall, who was made governor of Venedotia 
(Gwynedd) by the Emperor Constantine the Great. 
Eudaf kept his Court at Segontium, where he died a.d. 
385. At this place his daughter Helen Lluyddawg was 
bom ; and there is still in the neighbourhood of Car- 
narvon a place called Coed Helen, now the residence of 
the ancient family of Thomas, also the possessors of 
Trevor Hall. 

Cyndeym Fendigaid, or CatigerUy the second son of 
Vortigern, was the father of Rhvddfedel Frych, the 
father of Rhydwf, the father of Pasgen, the father of 

Cadell Deymllwg. He was Prince of Teymllwg, a ter- 
ritory consisting of the Vale Royal and partof Powys-land. 
By his wife Gwawrddyd, daughter of Brychan, he was 
the father of a numerous family.^ He was succeeded 
by his son Cyngan, the father of Brochwel Ysgythrog 
(slain in the battle of Chester, 6 1 3), whose descendants 
continued to be princes of Powys for many generations.* 
The third son of Cadell was Tegid Foel, lord of Penllyn, 
in Edeirnion, formerly a portion of Powys-land,« the 

tndfather of Gwynllw Filwr, who was the father of 
it. Cadoc and grandfather of St. Beimo.* 

Ninth in descent from Ghvinfiw Frych, a younger son 
of CadeU's, was 

Ynyr, lord of Chirk, Whittington, Oswestry, Mae- 
lor Gymraeg and Maelor Saesnaeg in Powys-land, 
beiDg the son of Cadfarch ab Gwrgeneu ab Gwardd- 
gar ab Bywyn ab lorddwyfyn ab Gwriawn ab Gwy- 
lawg ab Gwynan ab Gwinfiw Frych. In the year 870 
Ynyr built the Castle of Whittington, which continued 
for many generations to be the chief residence of his de- 
scendants.* By his wife Rhiengar, daughter and heiress 
of Lluddocaf ab Caradoc Freichfras, lord of Hereford, 
Gloucester, Erging and Ewyas (who bore azurCy a lion 

1 Welsh Saints, p. 161, where a table of the descendants of the 
two eldest sons will be found. 

2 Ewiaogion Gymru, ^ Ibid. 

* Welsh Saints, p. 170, and p. 268. 

* Burke's La/nded Gentry, art. Owen of Woodhouse. 


rampant, party per fess, or, and argent in a border of the 
third charged with eight annulets sable), Ynyr had issue 
two sons, — Tudor Trefor, his successor, and Ynyr 
Frych, Abbot of Abbey d'Or, in the Golden Vale, in 

Tudor Trefor (so called because he was bom or 
nursed at Trefor), Lord of Hereford, Gloucester, Erging, 
Ewyas, Chirk, Whittington, Oswestry, and both Maelors, 
was founder of the noble tribe of the Marches of Powys- 
land. In A. D. 907^ he married Angharad, daughter of 
Howel Dda, King of Wales. He bore party per bend 
sinister, ermine and ermines, a lion rampant or, and 
died A.D. 948, being the father of three sons : — (1) 
Goronwy, who died in his father's lifetime, married 
Tangwystl,* daughter of Dyfnwal ab Alan ab Alsar ab 
Tudwall Gloff, son of Rhodri Mawr, King of Wales, by 
whom he had issue an only daughter and heiress, 
Rhiengar, who succeeded to her grandfather's lands in 
Hereford, Gloucester, Erging and Ewyas. She married 
Cyhelin ab Ifor ab Severus ab Cadifor ab Wenwynwyn, 
lord of BuaUt, Radnor, Kerry, Maelienydd, Elfael and 
Cydewain, who bore azure three open crowns in pale or. 
By Cyhelin she was mother of Elystan Glodrudd, Prince 
of Fferllys and founder of the fiftn Royal tribe of Wales. 
He was bom in the Castle of Hereford in 927, and was 
named after Athelstan, King of England, who was his 
godfather. He was living in 1010, but was slain in a 
civil broil at Cefti Digoll, in Montgomeryshire. (2) 
Lluddocaf was Lord of Chirk, Whittington, Oswestry 
and Maelor Saesnaeg, died in 1037, leaving by his wife 
Angharad (daughter of lago ab Idwal, Prince of North 
Wales) a son, Llywarch, wno by Lucy his wife, daughter 
of Gwrstan ab Gwaethvod, lord of Cibwyr in Gwent (who 
bore vert a lion rampant argent, head, paws, and tail 
imbrued gules), had a son and heir, Ednyfed, who mar- 
ried Janet, daughter and co-heiress of Rhiwallon ab 

^ For a history of Whittington Castle in connexion with this 
family, the reader is referred to an interestin^jp paper by the late 
Joseph Morris, Esq., in the Arch, Carnh,, for 1852, p. 282, etc. 

* Eyton Pedigree. 


Cynfyn, Prince of Powys (who bore or a lion rampant 
guhs on a canton azure a dexter hand couped ar<jent), 
and was the father of Rhys Sais, lord of Chirt, Whitting- 
ton, Oswestryand Maelor, Lluddocaf was also the ances- 
tor of the families of the Mostyns, of Mostyn, Talacre, 
and Segroid ; the Trefors of Biyncynallt, Plas-Teg and 
Trefalyn; theWynnsof Eyarth; Lloyds of Leaton Knolls ; 
the Youngs of Bryn-Yorkyn ; the Edwards of Sansaw 
Hall ; the Trefors of Trefor Hall, now represented by 
Trefor Lloyd, late of Plas Llanasaph, Esq., and the 
family of Thomas of Coed-helen, the possessors of Trefor 
HaU and Valle Crucis Abbey ; the Lloyds of Plaa Madog, 
and of Berth, now of Khagatt ; the Eytons of Park 
Eyton ; the Vaughans of Burlton Hall ; the Pennants 
of Downing and Penrhyn Castle and the Dymoks of 
Penley Hafl. 

The third son of Tudor Trefor was Dingad, lord of 
Maelor Gymraeg or Blomfield. He married Cecilia, 
daughter of Severus ab Cadifor ab Wenwynwyn, lord 
of Buallt, and had issue — 

Wiiwallon, lord of Maelor Gymraeg, who died in 
1040, and left by his wife Letitia, daughter of Cadwal- 
ladr ab Peredr Goch of Mon, a son 

Cynmrig ah Rhiwallon, who succeeded his father as 

^ * T T 

lord of Maelor Gymraeg. He was slain in 1074 during 
an incursion of the Danes into Maelor, and was buried 


in Wrexham Church. The stone lid of the coffin, on 
which he was represented in armour, recumbent, with a 
lion rampant sculptured on his shield, and with the 
inscription Hic lACET cynvrig ab rhiwallon round 
the verge of the stone, was seen by John Erddig, 
of Erddig, Esq., affixed to the wall of the chinrchyard, 
in 1660. He bore erminey a lion rampant sable, armed 
and lanffued gules. From him the township of Chris- 
tionydd Cynwrig takes ite name. By his first wife 
Judith, daughter of Ifor H6n lord of Rhos (who bore 
argent, a rose gules), he had five sons : — (1) Niniaf, the 
eldest, was ancestor of the Jones-Parrys of Madryn Park, 
and Llwyn-Onn ; the present head of this family, 
Thomas Love Dimcombe Jones-Parry, of Madryn, Esq., 
is Chief of the descendants of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. 
When the old church at Wrexham was destroyed by 
fire in 1457 and the Pope gave instructions to have it 
rebuilt as it now stands, the Llwyn-Onn family were 
the first to respond to the injunctions of the Holy 
Father ; their teams carried the first loads of stone for 
the restoration of the present beautiful edifice, and it is 
a very curious fact that this family alone, of all the 
once numerous descendants of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon 
possess their lands by an unbroken male descent from 
Cadell Deymllwg, — "They who honour me I will 
honour," saith the Lord. The other families who descend 
from Niniaf are the Lloyds of Llwyn-y-Cnotiau ; the 
Robertses of Hafod-y-Bwch ; the Joneses of Croes-Foel, 
Edward Jones of Plas-Cadwgan, who was attainted and 
executed in 1586 ; Edwards of Sealyham, and Lord 
Kensington ; Erddig of Erddig ; Traffords of Esclus- 
ham ; Goronwy ab Hwfa of Hafod-y-Wem, now repre- 
sented by Philip Davies Cooke of Hafod-y-Wem and 
Owston, Esq. ; Madog yr Athraw ab Hwfa,of Plas Madog 
and Erbistog ; the Bershams of Bersham ; the Wynns 
of Gerwynfawr ; the Eytons of Eyton-Uchaf, and the 
Sontleys, of Sontley. Anne, daughter and heiress of 
Robert Sontley, of Sontley Hall, Burton Hall in Gres- 
ford, and Plas Uchaf in Rhiwabon, was the second 


wife of John Hill, of Rowley's Mansion in Shrewsbiiiy, 
Esq., by whom she had a son and heir, Thomas Hill, of 
Sontley, Esq., who by Matilda his wife, daughter of 
Charles Elstob, D.D., Dean of Canterbury, had issue 
two sons, John and Charles. John died unmarried in 
1 755, and Charles died unmarried in 1 780. The estates 
of Sontley, Burton, and Plas-Uchaf, then reverted to 
their mother, at whose death the Sontley estates were 
all sold. The Badies of Rhiwabon, now extinct, likewise 
descended from Niniaf Awr ab leuaf ab Niniaf was the 
ancestor of the J efferies of Acton, and also of the Lloyds 
of Plas Madog, who are now represented by J. Youde 
William Lloyd, Esq., of Clochfaen. Some heralds, how- 
ever, say that this Awr was the son of leuaf ab Cyhelyn 
of Trefor, which is also affirmed by Mr. Joseph Morris. 

Ednyfed, the second son of Cynwrig, who bore ermine 
a lion statant guardant gules , was ancestor of the 
Broughtons of Broughton and March wiail ; the Powells 
of Alrhey and the Ellises of Alrhey and Wyddial Hall, 
in Hertfordshire. Cynwrig's third son was Gruffydd, 
the fourth Bleddyn, and the fifth Hoedliw of Chris- 

Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon married secondly, Agnes, or 
Annesta, daughter of Idnerth Benfras, lord of Maesbrug 
or Maesbrook (who bore argent a cross flory engrailed 
sahle, inter four Cornish choughs, ppr., on a chief azt^/Y',, 
a boar's head, couped argent)^ by whom he had issue a 
sixth son, David of Maelor, of whose descendants we 
shall speak presently ; (7th) Hwfa; (8th) Llewelyn, who 
was ancestor of David Burd Hen, Esq., who married 
Efa, daughter and heiress of Gruifydd ab Llewelyn 
Fychan ab Llewelyn ab Goronwy, of Pentre Madog, in 
Duddlestone, Esq., fom^h son of Sir Roger de Powys, 
Knight, Lord of Whittington (who bore vert, a boar, 
07'), by whom he had issue Philip Bride or Burd of 
Pentre Madog, Esq., who by Alice, his wife (daughter 
of John ab Richard ab Madog of Halchdyn in the parish 
of Hanmer) had an elder daughter and heir, Margaret, 
who married James Eyton ab John Eyton (youngest son 


of William Eyton, of Eyton, in the parish of Bangor- 
Iscoed) ancestor of the Eytons of Pentre Madog.' (9th) 
Eioion, (10th) Iorwerth,(llth) leuaf and (12th) Bledrws 
together with a daughter Jane, third wife of Madog ab 
Cadwgan, lord of Nannau, by whom she had issue Rhi- 
wallon, ancestor of the Gwynns of Llanidloes ; the 
Joneses of Trewythen in the parish of Llandinam, and 
several other Montgomeryshire families now extinct. 

David the sixth son of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon was 
the father of Meredydd, the father of Madog, whose son 
leuan was the father of 

Madog Danwr (" Ignifer"), or, as he is called in some 
MSS., Madog Danwy Trefor, lord of Llangurig. He 
was a brave soldier and a faithful servant of Gwen- 
wynwyn. In a pedigree drawn up by the late Rev, 
Walter Davies,^ who was assisted by the late Joseph 
Morris, Esq., of Shrewsbury, we are told respecting 
Madog that "the Prince of Powys knew his value in 
that age of perpetual warfare, and accordingly stationed 
him as a guardian of his frontier, on the border of South 
Wales, by granting him the parish of Llangurig on the 
skirts of Phnlimmon, Here he settled and became the 

progenitor of many families in the hundred of Arwystli 
and its vicinity. The same prince, as an honorary 

' For a farther acconnt of this family, see Lewie Dwnn, i, 324. 
' Ex. inf. A. J. Johnes, Esq., of Garthmyl. 


reward for his faithful services, gave Madog the privi- 
lege of bearing a new shield of arms in augmentation of 
his paternal coat."^ These new arms were a border gules 
charged with eight mullets argent'^ He married a 
daughter of Idnerth ab Meredydd Hen, lord of Buallt 
(who bore gules, a lion rampant regardant, or), by whom 
he had three sons, Meredydd, his successor, Idnerth, 
and Gruffydd, of Cefh-yr-Hafodau. Madog was the 
first member of the family who settled at the Clochfaen, 
and in allusion to his being the founder of so many fami- 
lies in the district, an old bard of the neighbouring 
parish of Trefeglwys has the following lines : — 

" Danwr hael yn dwyn rheolaetli 
Hen ben haeddol boneddig 
Ai brig ar Gurig i gyd/' 

[Danwr the generons, the bearer of rule 

The noble, meritorions, ancient stock 

Whose branches are spread over the whole of Llan gurig.] 

Meredydd, of Llangurig, lord of Aberhafesp and 
Dolfachwen, married Arddun, daughter of Einion ab 
Llewelyn ab Meilir Grug, lord of Tregynon and West- 
bury, descended from Brochwel Ysgythrog, King of 
Powys (quarterly, first and fourth sahU, three horses' 
heads, erased argent, Brochwel Ysgythrog ; second and 
third, party per pale, or and gules, two lions rampant, 
addorsed countercharged for Brochwel ab Aeddan of 
Llanerchbrochwel, lord of Cegidfa (Guilsfield), Broniarth 
and Deuddwr); by whom he had issue four sons : — (1) 
lorwerth, (2) Llewelyn of Clochfaen; (3) Gruffydd and 
(4) Philip. lorwerth was ancestor of David Lloyd, of 
BerthUoyd, in the parish of Llanidloes (who bore ermine, 
a lion rampant, sable in a border gules, charged with 
eight bezants), whose only daughter and heir, Gwen- 
hwyfar, married to Philip ab leuan Bwl ab leuan ab 
Meredydd ab Madog ab leuan ab Gwyon ab Trahaiam 
ab lorwerth, lord of Garthmul (who bore argent, three 
lions passant in jxile gules), by whom she had a son, 

' Burke's Landed Gentry, article Owen of Glansevem. Supra. 
» Eer. Vis., by Holmes and Chaloner, EaH. M88., 1973. 


leuan, ancestor of the Uoyde, of Berthlloyd. lorwerth 
was likewise tlie ancestor of GwenlUan, daughter and 
and heir of leuan ab Gruffydd Goch, and wife of leuan 
ab GmSydd, of Cloehfaen. 

Llewelyn, the second son of Meredydd, was of Cloeh- 
faen in this parish, and was the father of 

Ifowel Lloyd, of Cloehfaen, whose son 

Gruffydd of Cloehfaen ; married Ahce, daughter of 
Rhys ab Meredydd ab Owain, lord of Towyn in Cardi- 
ganshire (who bore gules a chev. inter two fleurs-de-lys 
in chief, and a Hon rampant in base, or). He left issue 
two sons, leuan and Rhys Ddfl, of Pon1>y-rhydgaled, 
ancestor of the Richardses of Llangurig, 

leuan ab Gruffydd succeeded his father at Cloehfaen, 
and married first, GwenUian, daughter and co-heir of 
leuan ab Grufiydd Goch ab PhUip ab lorwerth ab 
Mere<^dd ab Madog Danwr, by whom he had issue two 
sons, Jenkyn Goch, his successor, and Llewelyn, of Llan- 
guiTg, leuan married, secondly, GwenUian, daughter of 
Rhys ab David ab leuan ab Rhys ab Llewelyn, by whom 
he had one daughter, Goleubryd, wife of David ab Rhys 
ab Adda ab Howel, of Henfaes, in Kerry, descended 
from Einion ab Cynfelyn {azure, a lion passant argent.) 

Jenkyn Goch, of Cloehfaen, bore ermine, a hon ram- 
pant aable, in a border gules charged with eight annulets 

or. He miuried Catherine, daughter and heir of 


Maurice Fychan ab Maurice ab Madog ab Einion, of 
Kerry and Mochdref, second son of Tudor ab Einion^ 
Fychan, lord of Cefiillys, descended from Ifor, eldest 
son of Idnertb ab Cadwgan' ab Elystan Glodrudd. By 
this lady he had issue a son, Maurice, who succeeded 
him, and four daughters : — (l) Catherine, the wife of 
leuan Wynn ab JenKyn, of Cefii-yr-Hafodau, descended 
from Cadifor' ab Dyfnwal, lord of Castle Howell and 
Gilfachwen, Cardiganshire; (2) Angharad, wife of 
Llewelyn Lloyd, of Llanidloes, Esq., descended from 
Eiaion ab Cynfelyn, lord of Manafon, ancestor of the 
Gwynns of LJanidloes ; (3) Deilu, who married leuan 
Goch ab Maurice ab Rhys ab Cadwgan ab Llewelyn ab 
y-Moelwyn Mawr, lord of Buallt, by whom she had an 
only daughter and heiress, Deilu, who became the wife 
of Thomas, of Aber-Magwr, in the parish of Llanfihangel- 
y-Creuddyn, younger son of Maurice Vaughan, of Traws- 
coed, county of Cardigan, Esq. ; (4) Annie, the wife of 
Morgan ab leuan ab Dio ab David, of Creuddyn, de- 

^ This Einion ab Howel of Mochdref married Agnes or Annesta, 
daughter and heir of Adda ab Mearig ab Adda ab Madog, Lord of 
Kerry, who was one of the hostages for Llewelyn ab lorwerth put 
to death by King John, 1213. This unfortunate chief was the son 
of Maelgwyn, lord of Maelienydd and Kerry, son of Cadwallon, the 
second founder of Abbey Cwm Hir, in the year 1143, which he in- 
tended for the accommodation of sixty monks. He was slain in 
1179, and was buried in the church of the abbey. Cadwallon was 
the son of Madog, lord of Malienydd and Kerry (who died 1139) 
second son of Idnerth ab Cadwgan. — Lewis Dwnn, 

* Prince Cadwgan was the first founder of the Cistercian monas- 
tery of Abbey Cwm Hir, and also the founder of three churches 
which he dedicated to St. Michael ; one in Kerry, one at Cefnllys, 
and the other on Bryn Ty leuan, near Newbridge on Wye, which 
was restored and re-opened in 1868. 

* " The arms of Cadivor ab Dyfnwal are : sdbls, a spearhead 
argent embrued between three scaling ladders of the second, two 
and one ; on a chief gules a tower triple- towered, ppr. These are 
the true arms not the absurd ones given in Clarke. The legend is, 
Cadivor was deprived of his castle by Fitz Stephen, a Norman. 
Collecting his retainers he divided them into three pai*ties, and 
having surprised the castle by night, stormed it and retook it with 
great slaughter, killing Fitz-Stephen himself with his spear." Notes 
and Queries^ 4th series, ii, 54 L. 


scended from Uowddyn, lord of Uwch-Aeron, who bore 
gules, a griffin segreant, or. 

Maurice, of Clochfaen, married Margaret, daughter 
of Llewelyn ab Rhys Lloyd, of Creuddyn, ab Gruffydd 
ab leuan ab Llewelyn ab Rhys ab GrujBydd ab Rhys ab 
lorwerth ab Cadifor ab Gwaethfod, lord of Cardigan, 
who bore or, a Uon rampant regardant sable. Mau- 
rice left issue, (1) Evan, of Crugnant, of whom pre- 
sently ; (2) Owain, who married Tangwystl, daughter of 
Morgan (ab Maurice ab Thomas) by Catherine his wife, 
daughter of David ab leuan ab Maurice, of Llwyn 
Newidion, in the parish of Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn, 
county of Cardigan; (3) Jenkyn, who succeeded at Cloch- 
faen ; and (4)^ William, who died unmarried ; and four 
daughters : — ( 1 ) Elen, wife of Llewelyn ab Maiuice ab 
Rhys, of Uangurig, descended from Einion ab Cynfelyn ; 
(2) Goleubryd ; (3) Margaret, second wife of Thomas ab 
David D^g, of Camo, descended from Einion ab Seisyllt, 
lord of Mathafam ; and (4) TangwystL 

Jenhjn, of Clochfaen, who succeeded his father Mau- 
rice, married Catherine, daughter of Morgan (ab Rhys 
ab Howel, of Llangurig, ab David ab Howel Fychan, 
of Gilfachwen, county of Cardigan, Esq., descended from 
Cadifor ab Dyfiiwal, lord of Castle Howel, Gilfachwen 
and Pant Streimon), by whom he had issue two sons, 
David Lloyd, his successor, and Evan, of Clochfaen 
Issaf, who married and had one son, Edward ab leuan, 
of Clochfaen Issaf, together with a daughter, Catherine, 
the wife of Owain Gwjmn ab Morgan Gwynn, of Llan- 
idloes, Esq. 

David Lloyd JenTcyn, of Clochfiien, married Catherine, 
daughter of Evan ab David ab leuan ab Gutto ab 
Gruffydd, of Creuddyn, ab Meredydd ab Rhys ab leuan 

1 Huw Cae Llwyd, an old bard, who flourished from 1450 to 1480, 
has lefl behind in MS. an ode to these four brothers, the sons of 
Manrice, which will be given in extenao in the appendix to this 
paper. The poet speaks highly of them as warriors, and describes 
them as^ 

" Four comrades are they who one and all 
Have been found mighty to oppose deeds of wrong." 


ab Rhys ab Llowddyn, lord of Uwch-Aeron, who bore 
gtiles, a griflBn segreant, or. Her mother was Tangwystl, 
daughter of Evan Wynn, of Dolbachog, Esq., descended 
from Cadifor ab Dyfhwal. By this marriage David 
Lloyd had issue, Evan, his successor, and Jenkyn, who 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Owain Blaeney, of 
Ystymgwen, Esq., descended from leuan Blaeney, of 
Gregynog, and one daughter, Elen, wife of Jenkyn ab 
Maiuice ab Rhys, of Llangurig, descended from Madog 

Evan ah David, of Clochfaen, whose name is on the 
list of jurymen summoned for the Assize held at Llan- 
idloes in 1606, married Elizabeth (or according to other 
authorities Mallt), daughter of David Lloyd Blaeney, of 
Gregynog, in the lordsnip of Cydewain, Esq., and Mary 
his second wife, daughter of Richard ab Maurice, of 
Rhiwsaeson, in Llanbrynmair, Esquire. The Blaeney 
family is now represented by Cadwaladr Davies, twelfth 
baron of Castle Blaeney, descended from Edward, second 
son of David Lloyd Blaeney, who accompanied the Earl 
of Essex to Ireland in 1598, and was elevated to the 
peerage of Ireland, 29th July, 1621. The arras of the 
Blaeney family were quarterly, first and fourth sable, 
three horses' heads erased argent ; second and third 
per pale two lions rampant addorsed countercharged. 
By his marriage Evan had issue : — (1) Rhys, his 
successor ; (2) David Lloyd, together with a daughter, 
Gwenhwyfar, the wife of John, second son of Morgan 
Glynn, of Glyndywedog, in the parish of Llanidloes, 
Esq., descended from Aleth, King of Dyfed, who bore 
azure three cocks argent crested and wattled, or. 

Rhys Lloyd, of Clochfaen, the successor of Evan ab 
David, was a staunch royalist, and was obliged to com- 
pound for his estate with the Parliament by a payment 
of "£011 000s. lOd." as appears from a book^ in the 

^ See also Montgomeryshire Collections^ i, 474. Some idea of the un- 
settled state of the county at this time may be gathered from a 
perusal of two papers — the one printed in the Camh, Quart., i, pp. 
60, 74, the other in the Arch, Camh., i, pp. 33, 42. 


library of the College of St. Beuno at Tremeircliion, * 
which contains a list of the nobility and gentry who 
had to compound with the rebels for their estates. He 
married (1626) Margaret, daughter of Jenkyn Lloyd, of 
Berthlloyd, Esq., high sheriff of Montgomeryshire, in 
1588 and 1606, and seneschal or steward imder James I 
and Charles I, of the lordship of Arwystli, and Dorothy, 
his first wife, daughter of Edmund Walter, of Ludlow, 
Esq., Chief Justice of South Wales. In Ludlow Church 
there is a handsome altar tomb of white marble, display- 
ing the recumbent effigies of the chief justice and his 
lady ; on the front are figures representing their issue. 
The following is the inscription : — 

" Heere lye the bodies of Bdmond Walter, Esqvier, chieffe 
justice of three shiers in Sovth Wales, and one of His Majes- 
tie's Councill in the Marches of Wales ; and of Mary, his wife, 
davghter of Thomas Hacklvit, of Eyton, Esqvier, who had 
issve three sons named James, John, and Edward, and two 
davghters named Mary and Dorothy. He was bvried the 29th 
day of January, anno domini 1592."^ 

Arms, sable a fesse indented inter three eagles displayed 
argent membered gules ; impaling argent on a bend 
collised gules three fleurs-de-lys or ; of the children 
mentioned in the inscription the second son was Sir 
John Walter, of Sarsden, county Oxon, Knight, Lord 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer ; Mary, me eldest 
daughter, married Sir Edward Littleton, of Henley, 
county of Salop, Knight (chief justice of North Wales, 
who died 1621 and was buried at Llanfair, in Denbigh- 
shire), by whom she had issue seven sons, two of whom 
were Fellows of AH Souls College, Oxford ; but all died 
without issue, with the exception of the eldest. Sir 
Edward Littleton, Knight, Lord Keeper of the Great 
Seal of England, who was created Lord Littleton of 
Mounslow, by Charles I, 1635, and was married to 
Sydney, daughter of Sir William Jones, of Castell 
March, in Lleyn, Knight. Dorothy, the second daughter 
of the chief justice, married Jenkyn Lloyd, of Berth- 
lloyd, Esq., who died 1627, and was the mother of Mar- 

* Wright's History of Ludlow^ p. 468. 


'garet, the wife of Rhys Lloyd, of Clochfaen, whose 
eldest son Edward died without issue. The second son 

Jenhyn Lloyd y who succeeded his father at the Cloch- 
faen, and married Mallt, daughter of Morgan ab David, 
of Llanbrynmair (ab leuan ab David Gethyn ab Gruf- 
fydd ab David ab Madog, second son of Llewelyn, ab 
lorwerth, of Abergwidol, in the parish of Darowen, ab 
David ab Howel, of Darowen, ab PhUip ab Uchdryd ab 
Edwyn Goronwy, Prince of Tegaingl who bore argent 
a cross flory engrailed sable inter four Cornish choughs, 
ppr., chief of one of the sixteen noble tribes of North 
Wales and Powys) by whom he had issue eight sons : — 
(1) Rhys, his successor; (2) Morgan, who married 
Bridget, daughter of Richard Morgan, of Caelan, in 
Llanbrynmair, descended from Ednowain ab Peredur 
lord of Dolgellau {gules three snakes ennowed in triangle 
argent), by whom he had issue one son, Littelton Lloyd, 
of Caelan, a clergyman of the Established Church, who 
died without issue ; and one daughter, Sarah, the wife 
of Edward Pritchard, of Ceniarth, Esq. , descended from 
Y Llyr Craff, of Meifod. Morgan Lloyd s will bears the 
date of the 13th November, 1702 ; by it he bequeathed 
a " tenement in the parish of Trefeglwys, called Cefn-y 
Cloddiau ^ to the poor of the parish of Llanbrynmair, 
the rents, issues and profit thereof to be distributed at 
the discretion of the vicar and overseers of the poor of 
the said parish."^ Part of the rent is applied to the 
maintenance of the parish school. An old local bard 
named David Manuel, whose residence was in the neigh- 
boiu-hood of Cefn-y-Cloddiau, wrote an elegy on the 
death of Mr. Lloyd, which is given in the appendix. 
His wife Sarah seems to have died before him, for the 
same poet composed some lines upon her death, which 
bear the date of 1696 ; (3) John, of the parish of St. 
Harmon ; (4) David, of Darowen ; (5) Jenkyn ; (6) 
Evan ; (7) KyflSin ; and (8) Richard. Of the daughters, 

^ Montgomeryshire Collections^ i, p. 222. 

* Charity Comiuissioners Report for Montgomeryshire, p. 279 


Mabel was the wife of Humphery Williams, of Pentre 
Cynddelw, in the parish of Llanbrynmair, descended 
from Elystan Glodrudd. 

Rhys Lloyd succeeded his father at the Clochfaen. 
He married Mair, daughter of John Thomas, of Belan 
Deg, in the parish of Manafon, and of Llanllodian in the 
parish of Llanfair Caereinion, high sheriff of Mont- 
gomeryshire in 1681. Mr. Thomas became possessed of 
the estate in Llanfair in right of his wife Margaret, 
daughter and heir of John Owen, of Llanllodian, Esq. 
Arms, first and fourth sahle^ three horses' heads, erased 
argent ; second and third Brochwell ab Aeddan. Rhys 
Lloyd was buried at Llangurig, 11th December, 1699, 
and wafi succeeded by his eldest son, 

Jenhjn Lloyd, of Clochfaen, who was bom in 1681, 
married at Llangurig, 21st February, 1698, was mayor 
of Llanidloes, 1 705, and high sheriff for Montgomery- 
shire in 1713. His wife was Rachel, sister and co-heir 
of Edward Fowler, of Abbey Cwmhir, in the county of 
Radnor, high sheriff for that county in 1 715, and daugh- 
ter of John Fowler, of Abbey Cwmhir and Brondrefawr, 
Esq., high sheriff for Radnorshire in 1690. He was 
yoimger son by Margaret his wife (daughter of Richard, 
Lord Newport, of High Ercall, and Rachel his wife, 
daughter of John Levison, of Haling, in Kent), of 
Richard Fowler, of Harnage Grange, in the coimty of 
Salop, Esq., high sheriff for R^adnorshire in 1655, 
eldest son of William Fowler, eldest son of Richard 
Fowler, of Harnage Grange, in the county of Salop, Esq., 
high sheriff of Radnorshire in 1600^ by Mary, eldest 
daughter of Sir Edward Littleton, of PUlaton Hall, 
county of Stafford, Knight, and Margaret his wife, 
daughter and co-heir of Sir William Devereux, Knight, 
youngest son of Walter, Lord Viscount Hereford, K.G., 
who died 1558. John Fowler, who inherited Abbey 
Cwmhir from his father, made an immense fortune as a 
merchant, and purchased several other large estates. 

1 The dates of the Bheriffs are taken from Williams' History of 


He died in 1697, and was buried at Llanbister. By 
his will, which was proved the following year at Doctor s 
Commons, he left all his lordships, manors, estates, and 
hereditaments in the several counties of Radnor, Here- 
ford, Salop and Montgomery, to his three children, 
Edward, Rachel, and Jane. Edward died unmarried 
in 1 722, and was buried at Llanbister. He entailed 
the Abbey Cwmhir estate upon his sisters and their 
heirs, appointing his cousin. Sir Richard Fowler, of 
Hamage Grange, Bart., to be trustee. In the Llan- 
bister parish registers the names of John Fowler and 
Edward Fowler nave been nearly erased and those of 
Sir Richard Fowler and Sir William Fowler written 
over them upon the erasure. Jane, the second daughter 
of John Fowler, married George Robinson, of Brithdir, 
in the county of Montgomery, Esq., of the family of 
Nicholas Robinson, Bishop of Bangor, and died without 
issue. The arms of the Fowler family are : 1. Azure, on 
a chev. inter three lions passant gardant, or, three 
crosses moline sable ; 2, barry of six gules and argent, 
on a chief or, a lion passant azure (Englefield, of Rycote 
and Lanynton Gemon, county of Oxford) ; 3, Azure 
two bars argent over all a bend compony or and gules 
(Leigh, of Morpeth).^ 

^ The Fowler family was one of great antiquity before the reign 
of Richard I, when the then representative of the family, Sir 
Richard Fowler of Foxley co. of Backs, Knt., accompanied that 
warlike monarch to the Holy Land with a body of archers raised 
among his own tenantry. At the siege of St. Jean d'Acre, 1190, 
an attack of the Saracens npon the Christian camp by night was 
frustrated by a white owl, which, being disturbed by their approach, 
flew into the tent of Sir Richard Fowler and awoke him. He soon 
became acquainted with the threatened danger, and hastily arousing 
his men, immediately engaged and defeated the enemy. King 
Richard rewarded his fidelify by knighting him upon the scene of 
the engagement, and changed his crest, which was the hawk and 
lure, to the vigilant owl. Subsequently in the reign of Henry IV, 
his descendant Sir William Fowler of Foxley, Kt , became possessed 
of Rycote co. Oxon, by his marriage with Cecilia daughter and heiress 
of Nicholas Englefield of Rycote and Lanynton Gernon co. of Ox- 
ford, Esq., who died 1414, as we learn from his epitaph. 

" Here lieth Nicholas Englefield, Esq., some time Comptroller of 


Jenkyn Lloyd died in 1 722, and was buried at Llan- 
gurig, December 11th : his wife Rachel survived him, 
and dying in 1749, was also buried at Llangurig, leav- 
ing issue three sons and three daughters :— (1) Rhys, 
of Clochfaen ; (2) John, born 1 702, and who died s.p. 
in 1766, leaving his estate of Llwyngwyn to his sister 
Jane ; (3) Edward, who died s,p. ; (1) Anne, born in 
1701, became the wife of Charles Richards, of Penglas, 
county of Cardigan, Esq., whose family is now repre- 
sented by George Griffiths Williams, of Rhoscellan, 
county of Cardigan, Esq.; (2) Jane, bom in 1702, 
became the wife of the Rev. Richard Ingram, rector of 
Cemaes in 1 74 7 {ermine, on a fesse gules three escallops 
or), by whom she had an only daughter, Mary Ingram, 
heiress of Llwyngwyn, who married David Owen, of 
Glyngynwydd, who persuaded his son, Evan Owen, 
when he came of age to cut the deed of entail, and the 
estate passed by mortgage to their relative Sir Arthur 
Owen, of Glansevem, county of Montgomery, Knight. 
The third daughter Mary, was bom in 1707, and mar- 
ried first to Lingaine Owen, of Bettws HaU, in the 
county of Montgomery, Esq. {argent a lion rampant 
and canton sable) ; secondly to John Gethyn, of Vaynor, 
Esq. (or, a cross moline pierced inter four lozenges 
azure), which family is now represented by Robert 
Devereux Harrison, Esq., coroner of Montgomeryshire, 
eldest son of Sarah, who was only surviving daughter 
of Robert Griffiths, of Welshpool, Esq^ and rehct of 
the late George Devereux Harrison, Esq., brother of 
Major Harrison, of Caer Howel and LlandysiUo Hall. 
Mrs. Gethyn died in 1797, leaving issue by her first 

the Honse to King Richard II, who died 1st of April in the year of 
grace m.ccc.xiy., whose soul iesu pardon Amen, Amen, Amen." 

He was the third son of Sir Philip de Englefield, Lord of Englefield, 
the head of an ancient family, which, according to Camden, takes 
its name from the town of Engle6old in Berkshire, of which place 
they were stated to have been the proprietors in the second year of 
Egbert's reign, 803. (For a full account of the Fowler and Engle- 
field families, see Wotton and Kimber's Baronetage, and Burke's ^.r- 
tinct Peerage.) 



husband one son, Pryce Owen, of Bettws, Esq., and four 
daughters ; Elizabeth, married to William Jones, Esq., 
of Newtown ; Mary, who became the wife of the Rev. 
Mr. Morgan ; Rachel, married to Roger Pryse, of Cae 
Howel, Esq., and Jane. 

Rhys Lloyd, of Clochfaen, was baptized at Llangurig, 
March 10th, 1699, and was married the 20th December, 
1723, to Sarah, daughter and heir of William Piatt, of 
Rhydyronen, in Llanynys, county of Denbigh, by Mary 
his wife, eldest daughter and co-heir of Thomas Hughes, 
of Pen-y-nant, in the parish of Rhiwabon, descended 
from Robyn ab Gruffydd Goch, lord of Rhos {azure on a 
chevron inter three escallops argenty three leopards 
faces gules, Piatt ; 2nd or, a gnflSn segreant guUs, 
Hughes). The Abbey Cwmhir estates were the pro- 
perty of Mr. Lloyd's mother, who in her old age became 
imbecile, affording an excuse for the trustee, Sir Richard 
Fowler's, retaining the management of the property, and 
he at his death, in 1 737, transmitted it to his son Sir Wil- 
liam Fowler. Rhys Lloyd was high sheriff of Mont- 
fomeryshire in 1743, and dying in 1748, was buried at 
llangurig the 1 5th of July, in that year. His wife, who 
was bom in 1696, survived him and was buried at 
Llangiu-ig, 10th of January, 1781 ; the issue of the 
marriage was three daughters : — Mary, who died s.p, ; 
Rachel, appointed Maid of Honour to Caroline, wife of 
Frederick, Prince of Wales (mother of George III), and 
afterwards housekeeper of Kensington Palace, who died 
in 1793, and was buried at Llangurig ; Sarah, bom in 
1728, wife of John Jones, of D61-y-Myneich, county of 
Radnor ; and one son, 

Jenkyn Lloyd, who succeeded his father at the Cloch- 
faen in 1748. He was born in 1724, and married 
April 30th, 1743, at Erbistog, to Elizabeth, daughter 
and heir of Edward Lloyd, of Pl^ Madog, in the county 
of Denbigh, Esq., lineally descended from Tudor Trefor, 
and by heirs female from Margaret, eldest daughter 
and co-heir of David, fifth son of Gruffydd ab Gwen- 
wynwyn. Mr. Lloyd was appointed high sheriff of 


Montgomeryshire in 1 755, and shortly after the death 
of his grandmother, Rachel Fowler, which took place at 
Llangnrig in 1749, he commenced a law-suit for recover- 
ing the Abbey Cwmhir estates, which were then re- 
tained by Sir William Fowler. To meet the expenses 
Mr. Lloyd had to sell a considerable portion of the 
Clochfaen estates. The suit was progressing favourably 
up to the Christmas of 1765, at which time, Mr. Lloyd 
not feeling very well, proceeded to Shrewsbury to con- 
sult his medical adviser. At Shrewsbury he had an 
interview with Sir William Fowler, and in a few days 
afterwards (January 6th, 1766) he died suddenly from 
the eflfects of poison which is supposed to have been 
administered to him in his medicine. He was buried 
at Rhiwabon, February 5th, 1 766. 

Acting upon the advice of his friends, Sir William 
very shortly afterwards left England in a ship bound 
for Calcutta, which foundered at sea, and all on board 
perished. His son and successor. Sir William Fowler, 
made a summary attempt to bring the litigation respect- 
ing the Cwmhir estates to an end, by trying to carry 
off the young heiress of Plas-Madog and Clochfaen from 
a boarding school at Chester. But, owing to the vigi- 
lance of her friends, he failed in carrying out his design, 
and for this and some other misdeeds he was compelled 
to quit the country, never to return. He died unmar- 
ried at the Hague, leaving three married sisters, who 
had children then living, none of whom, however, 
claimed the abbey, which was allowed to remain with- 
out an owner until Sir Hans Fowler, uncle of the pre- 
ceding Sir William, who had been serving in the army 
of Frederick the Great, returned to England and suc- 
ceeded to the title and estates. To pay the expenses 
of the heavy lawsuits in which he was engaged before 
obtaining possession, he sold large portions of the estate, 
and reduced it to the comparatively small property now 
belonging to the abbey. He died without issue in 1 771, 
and, although he left three married nieces, daughters 
of his elder brother. Sir William, he was succeeded at 


Abbey Cwmhir by his sister Sarah, who had married 
Thomas Hodges, a colonel of the guards, by whom she 
had issue a son, and a daughter, Sarah. Sarah, in 1769, 
became the wife of Lieut. -Col. George Hastings, of 
Lutterworth, in the county of Leicester, by whom she 
had issue four sons, the youngest of whom, Hans 
Francis, eventually became eleventh Earl of Hunting- 
don, in 1819. His son, the present Earl, lays claim to 
Abbey Cwmhir. The son, Thomas Hodges Fowler, 
succeeded his mother at the Abbey, and dying in 1820, 
left issue by Lucy, his wife, daughter and co-heiress of 
Thomas Hill, of Court-Hill in the county of Salop, 
Esq., an only daughter and heiress, Sarah Georgina, 
wife of the Rev. Durant Baker, of Christ's College, 
Cambridge, son of Thomas Baker, Esq., of Ashurst 
Lodge in Kent. On Mr. Fowler s death, however, tlie 
Abbey became the property of the late Mr. Fauntleroy, 
who was hung for forgery. His agent, Mr. WUson, was 
the next possessor. He went to Botany Bay, where he 
died, and his creditors, in 1837, sold the estate to Mr. 
Phillips of Manchester, whose son is the present pos- 
sessor. Leaving this digression, giving the details of 
the sad history of the Fowler family, we return to 

Sarah, the heiress of Clochfaen and Pl&s-Madog, who 
was bom February 19th, 1746. In her person the line 
of Gwenwynwyn again came into possession of the 
greater part of the parish of Llangurig. In 1768, she 
married her first husband, John Edwards of Crogen 
Iddon (in Glyn Ceiriog), Gallt-y-Celyn and Plas lolyn 
(in Yspytty-Ieuan,) Esquire, lord of the manor of 
Yspytty-Ieuan, and descended from Edwyn Prince of 
Tegeingl. By this gentleman, who died in 1771, she 
had no issue. She married secondly, in 1773, the Rev. 
Thomas Youde, B.C.L., of Brasenose College, Oxford, 
eldest son of Thomas Youde, of Ruthin, son of Francis 
Heude (or Youde) a French gentleman, who was sent 
by the court at St. Germains on a poUtical errand to 
Sir Gruffydd Jefferies, of Acton, near Wrexham, in 1711. 
Here he became acquainted with Mary, eldest daughter 
and co-heiress of John Hill, Esq., of Rowley's Mansion 


in Shrewsbury, by his first wife, Priscilla, daughter and 
heiress of Seth Rowley, of Rowleys Mansion {argent 
on a bend sa. inter two Cornish choughs, ppr, three 
escallops of the field.) John Hill was on the 1 7th 
March, 1684-5, appointed to be an alderman of Shrews- 
bury by James II, but on account of his favouring the 
cause of the Prince of Orange, was deposed 1st Jan., 
1687-8. In 1689, he was elected Mayor of Shrewsbury, 
was Justice of the Peace for the county, and High 
Sheriff of Denbighshire, in 1697. He refused to give 
his consent to his daughter's marriage vdth Mr. Youde, 
on account of the latter s political opinions, and hoping 
to prevent the union, removed her from Acton, the re- 
sidence of Sir Gruffyd Jefferies, to his own house in 
Shrewsbury. Miss Hill, however, contrived to escape 
her father s vigilance, and was married to Mr. Youde. 
Her father, who never forgave her, died on March 29th, 
1731, and was bimed with his second wife, the heiress 
of Sontley, (who died in 1693) in the chiurchyard of 
old St. Chad s, Shrewsbury. Mr. and Mrs. Youde, 
hoping to avert the effect of his anger, did open penance 
in white sheets in that church.^ 

The mother of the Rev. Thomas Youde (who was 
buried at Rhiwabon in 1806, at the age of 78) was 
Dorothy, daughter of John Jones, of Ualchog, near 
Ruthin (who had considerable property in the parishes 
of Evenechtyd, CyfeUiog, Clocaenog, Uanrhudd, Llan- 
fwrog, and Llanfair-dyflGtyn-Clwyd) and Mary, his wife, 
sister of Eubule Thelwall, of Jesus College, Oxford, and 
daughter and heiress of Edward Thelwall, of Ruthin, 
son of Thomas Thelwall, son of Edward Thelwall, 
second son of John Wynn Thelwall, of Bathafarn Park, 
Esq. The arms of the Youde family are (1) argent, a 
lion rampant az,, charged on the shoulder with a fleur- 
de-lys or ; (2) ermine on a fess sa., a castle arg. Hill ; 
(3) Vert a stag trippant arg. attired or. Jones of Cal- 
chog ; (4) gules on a fess or between three boars' heads 
couped arg. three trefoils sable ThelwaU. The pro- 

' Owen and Blakeway's Histoi-y of Shreivshury. 


perty acquired from his mother was sold by Mr. Youde's 

Mrs. Sarah Youde died December 20th, 1837, and 
was buried at Rhiwabon. By her second husband 
she had issue : 1, Thomas Watkin, bom 1775, who suc- 
ceeded to the Clochfaen and P14s Madog estates, on 
the death of his father in 1806. He served the office 
of high sheriff of Montgomeryshii'e in 1816, died un- 
married, at Cheltenham, and was buried at Ehiwabon 
in 1821. 2, Edward Youde, bom in 1781, who suc- 
ceeded to the property at the death of his mother, 
sold Rowleys Mansion, and dying at Ostend, was 
buried at the village of Ghistalles, near that town, in 
1846. He married Mary, sister and heiress of Charles 
Greenaway of Barrington, co. of Oxon., Esq., and late 
M.P. for Leominster, by whom he had one daughter, 
Mary Jane Youde, now of Burford Priory. 3. Charles 
Madog, who died unmarried in 1797. 

Mrs. Youde had also three daughters ; 1 , Sarah, 
who died unmarried in her eighteenth year, and was 
buried at Rhiwabon, 1798; 2. Juha Elizabeth, who 
was born 29th May, 1793, succeeded to the Clochfaen 
and Plsls-Madog estates, on the death of her brother 
Edward, and dying tmmarried 19th September, 1857, 
was biuied at Llangurig; 3. Harnet, who was bom 
30th March, 1787, in 1815 became the wife of the late 
Jacob William Hinde, Esq., formerly of the 15th 
Hussars, deputy-lieutenant for Middlesex, and son of 
Charles Hinde, Esq., of Langham Hall, county of Essex, 
and Deputy-Lieutenant for the counties of Essex 
and Middlesex. Mr. Hinde died at Heffleton House 
in the county of Dorset, 24th October, 1856, and was 
buried at Llangurig. Her husband died July 1st, 1 868, 
and was the father of three sons : 

1. Jacob Youde William, who was bom in 1816, on 
the 12th December, 1868, received Her Majesty's license 
and authority to assume the name of Lloyd of Cloch- 

^ Judge Lloyd, of Berth, and Mr. Wynne of PlAs Newydd, now 
P14s Heaton in Hcnllan parish. 

/6^y./^ W/V/^/ft^/f^-^//, 

^/^.^^/^y. {r-:YL/r.,/y/y'',Y'' 


faen, in lieu of that of Hinde, and also to bear the 
arms of Lloyd. By this act, the name and memory 
of the oldest family in the parish will enter upon a new 
lease of existence. The Plas Madog estates, with the 
tithes of the townships of Christionydd-Cynwrig, and 
Bodylltyn in the parish of Rhiwabon, which once be- 
longed to the Cistercian monastery of Valle Crucis, 
passed in 1857 into the hands of G. H. Whalley, Esq., 
M.P. for Peterborough, who had a mortgage upon the 
property. Mr. Lloyd is a private in the Pontifical Zouaves. 
The second son, Charles Thomas Edward, born at Plas- 
Madog in 1 820, entered theserviceof the East India Com- 
pany in 1840. In 1 853, he volunteered his services to Omar 
Pasna, commanding the Turkish army on the Danube, 
and was appointed a lieutenant-colonel under the name 
of Beyzad Bey. Shortly afterwards he acted as adju- 
tant-general to the force under General Cannon (Bairam 
Pasha) which was dispatched from Shumla for the re- 
lief of Silistria. He took part in the defence of the 
latter town, and was lying side by side in an embrasure 
at Redoubt Kale with the late Captain O. Butler, at 
the time he received his death- wound. In July of 
1854, he took an active part in the passage of the 
Danube and the battle of Guirgevo. He accompanied 
the army of the Danube to Bucnarest, thence to Eupa- 
toria, and was present at various skirmishes before 
Sebastopol in the years 1855-56. From the Crimea he 
accompanied the force of Omar Pasha to Mingrelia, and 
was present at the passage and battle of the Ingur. 
For these various services he received the English 
Crimean medal, the Turkish medals for Silistria, Danube, 
and the Order of Medijee, together with his brevet 
majority, and honorary lieutenant-colonelcy. He re- 
turned to India in 1857, and was at once appointed to 
a command in the state of Rewah, where he raised and 
organised a force of 80Q men, and at their head in 
January 1858, opened the grand Deccan road by cap- 
turing six forts with forty guns and two mortars from 
the mutineers, for which service he received the thanks 


of the Governor-General in Council. Twice more during 
the mutiny he received the thanks of the Governor- 
General of India in Council. He was promoted to the 
rank of colonel in 1867. By his wife Harriette 
Georgina, only daughter, of the late Captain Souter, 
he has issue an only daughter Harriet Julia Morforwyn, 
married in 1866 to George Hope Verney, Esq., of the 
Rifle Brigade, second son of Sir Harry Verney, Bart., of 
Claydon, in the county of Bucks. 

The third son Edward died in his infancy. Of the 
three daughters, the eldest, Harriet Esther Julia, mar- 
ried Daniel Todd, Esq., of Buncrana Castle, county of 
Donegal, J. P., and deputy-heutenant for that county ; 
she died without issue, 16th December, and was buried 
at Torquay, where her husband had been previously buried. 
2. Juha Sarah, died at Aberystwith, 11th August, 1843, 
and was buried at Llangurig. 3. Mary Cliarlotte. 



Having in the previous chapter given an account of 
the Clochfaen branch of the family, we will now pro- 
ceed to give a sketch of the descent and history of 
that branch of the house of Tudor Trefor, which set- 
tled at Plas-Madog in the parish of Bhiwabon. The 
Plas-Madog family claims for its ancestor 

Rhys ab Ednyfed ab IJywarch ab Lluddoccaf ab 
Tudor Trefor, more commonly known as Rhys Sais,^ be- 
cause he had acquired a knowledge of the English lan- 
guage. He succeeded his father in possession of Chirk, 
Whittington, Oswestry, and Maelor Saesnaeg, and by 
his wife Efa, daughter and heiress of Gruffydd Hir, a 
descendant of Tudor Mawr, Prince of South Wales, he 
had issue three sons and one daughter; 1, Tudor, his 
successor; 2, Elidir, lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and 

^ Supra, 


Borasham, (bore ermine a lion rampant az.) married Agnes 
or Annesta, daughter of Lies ab Idnerth Benfras, and 
was the father of Meilyr Eyton, ancestor of the once 
distinguished family of the Eytons of Eyton ; 3, Iddon, 
lord of Duddleston, in the lordship of Chirk (bore arg. 
a chev. inter three boar's heads, couped gu,\ ancestor 
of the Vaughans of Burlton Hall, and the Heylins of 
Pentre-Heylin ; Generys married Ednowain ab Ithel, 
lord of Bryn in Powys-land, who bore arg. three grey- 
hounds courant in pale sa. Rhys Sais apparently came to 
a fiiendly arrangement with the Norman conquerors of 
the Marches, for in 1170 he divided his possessions 
among his sons.^ 

Tudyr or Tudor ^ the eldest son of Rhys, succeeded to 
his fathers lands in Whittington and Maelor, which he 
appears to have held rnider Roger de Montgomery, to 
whom he paid a chief-rent of four pounds, five shil- 
lings, according to the entry in the Domesday Book, 
under " Wilitone." He married Janet, daughter of 
Rhys Fychan ab Gruflfydd ab Rhys ab Tudor Mawr, by 
whom he had issue four sons ; 1, Bleddyn, who, at his 
father s death, became lord of Chirk and Maelor Saes- 
naeg, was by his wife, Agnes or Annesta, daughter of 
Llewelyn ab Idnerth ab Meredith H^n, lord of Buallt, 
descended from Elystan Glodrudd, ancestor of the 
Joneses of Brynkynallt ; Wynns of Eyarth ; Lloyds of 
Leaton Knolls and Domgay ; Lloyds of Talome and 
Halchdyn ; Lloyds of the Bryn, now represented by 
Lord Kenyon and J. Y. W. Lloyd, Esq., of Clochfaen ; the 
Youngs of Brynyorkyn, in the parish of Hope,^ the 

^ Tbe late Joseph Morris, Esq., Arch. Camh., 1852, p. 284. 

' A younger branch of the Yonngs, of Brynyorkyn, eventaally 
settled at West Kam, in the c5ounty of Lincoln, shortly after the 
Reformation. On the death of John Yonng, Esq., in the year 1707, 
the parish register of West Ram cnrioasly records that the incum- 
bent testified to his death and burial upon oath before a magistrate. 
His successor, John Young, of West Ram, died in 1719, and shortly 
after his burial a flight of bees descended and settled upon his 
grave. The simple villagers regarded this as a good omen, prog- 
nosticating the future prosperity and exaltation of the family of the 
deceased gentleman. By his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of — Thom- 



eldest branch of which is now represented by William 
Shipley Conway of Bodrhyddan and Brynyorkyn, Esq. ; 
the Mostyns of Talacre and Segrwyd ; the Edwardses of 
Chirk ; Trefors of Brynkynallt, Plas-teg and Trefalyn ; 
Pennants of Downing, and of Penrhyn Castle, and the 
Dymokes of Penley Hall. 2. Goronwy, or as he is some- 
times called Goronwy Pefr (i.e., Ranulphus the Smart, 
or handsome) married Maud, daughter of Ingelric, a 
noble Saxon (who had previously borne a son, William, 
of whom the Conqueror was the father) and by her was 
the father of three sons, Hamon, William, and Payne. ^ 
By another wife, Goronwy had Roger, known after- 
wards as Sir Roger de Powys, (so-called from his estate 
being in Powys-land) Sir William de Powys and Jonas 
of Llanerch Banna. 3. Cyhelin, of whom presently. 
4. Meurig, ancestor of David, abbot of Valle Crucis, 
bishop of St. Asaph from 1500 to 1503. 

Cyhelin, the third son of Tudor, had lands in the 
parishes of Llangollen and Chirk. Pentre Cyhelin 
takes its name from him. He was the father of 

lenaf, who married Mallt, daughter of Llywarch ab 
Trahaiam, lord of Cydewain, and was the father of 

Aior of Trefor {i.e., Tref-awr) in the parish of Llan- 
gollen. He had two sons ; 1 , Adda of Trefor, who 
married Tangwystyl, daughter of lorwerth (ab Ednyfed 
ab MeUyr Eyton, lord of Eyton) by whom he had a 
son leuaf, who, by his wife, Myfanwy (descended from 
HoedHw, fifth son of Cynwrig ab RhiwaQon) was an- 
cestor of Robert Trefor,^ of Trefor Hall, and Valle 

bnrgb, Esq., of Kendal, he left issue two sons, 1, John, who mar- 
ried Jane, daughter of J)t. Vavasour, brother of one of the baronets 
of Hazlewood Castle, county of York ; 2, David Young, Esq., of 
Nomanby-le-wold, county Lincoln, who had issue one son and five 
daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth, became the wife of John Wil- 
liams, Esq., father of the He v. Edward Williams, of St. Beuno's 
College, Tremeirchion, Flintshire. 

^ Miletta, sister and heiress to this Payne Tefr, or Peverell, be- 
came the wife of Fulk Fitz-Warine, by which marriage the Warines 
claimed Whittington, etc. — Arch. Camh., 1852, p. 284. 

2 Mary, only daughter and heiress of Robert Trefor, married 
Thomas Lloyd, of Glanhafon, in the county of Montgomery, high 


Crucis Abbey, which was purchased by his ancestor, 
John Trevor, Esq. leuaf and his wife were buried in 

sheriff for that county in 1716, and was the mother of two daughters, 
co-heiresses, Mary and Margaret. Margaret, the younger, married 

(1) Edward Lloyd, of PlS.8-Madog, Esq., who died s. p. 1734, and 

(2) Arthur Meares, of Plas Benion. The eldest daughter, Mary, 
became the wife of Edward Lloyd of Pentrehobyn, county of Flint, 
Esq., descended from Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, and was the 
mother of five sons, Robert, Thomas, John, Edward, and Trevor 
Lloyd, (all of whom died without issue) and two daughters, Mary 
and Margaret, co-heirs of their brother Trevor, who was high-sheriff 
of Montgomeryshire in 1787. Mary, the eldest, married Thomas 
Mather, of Ancoats, Esq., by whom she had issue an elder son, 
Samuel Lloyd Mather, who was the father of an only son, Thomas, 
(who died a midshipman) and one daughter, Mary Palmer, the wife 
of Robert Baldwin Lloyd, of Plis-Llanassa, by whom she had issue 
one son, Trefor Lloyd, Esq., and two daughters, Margaret Baldwin 
and Mary. Margaret, the second sister, and co-heiress of Trefor 
Lloyd, Esq., married Rice Thomas, Esq., of Goedhelen, in the 
county of Caernarvon, and left issue five daughters ; 1, Margaret, 
the wife of Thomas Trevor Mather, Esq., of Pentrehobin ; 2, Jane ; 

3, Anne, who married John Browning Edwards, Esq., of Nanhoran ; 

4, Trevor ; 5, Pennant, who in 1808 married William Ironmonger, 
Esq., of Wherwell Priory, county of Hants, who became owner of 
Trefor Hall, Valle Crucis Abbey, and the other estates (Burke's 
Landed Gentry, art. Ironmonger ; Arch, Camb., vol. i, p. 21.) The 
Lloyds of Rhagatt likewise descended from Adda ab Awr. David 
Lloyd, the first of the family who assumed the surname of Lloyd, 
settled at Berth, near Ruthin, about the year 1600. He was the 
son of Thomas ab Tudor ab Robert ab Meredydd ab Gruffydd ab 
Adda ab Llewelyn ab leuaf ab Adda ab Awr, of Trefor. His de- 
scendant, the late Edward Lloyd, Esq., of Rhagatt, in the county of 
Meirionydd, who died October 1859, had issue by his wife Frances 
Lloyd, daughter of John Madocks, of Fron Iw, county of Denbigh, Esq. 
1, John Lloyd, married, 1847, Gertrude, daughter of the late Philip 
Lake Godsal, Esq., of Iscoed, in the county of Flint ; 2, Edward, 
married, 1855, Mary Eliza, daughter of the late John Madocks, Esq., 
of Glanywem, county of Denbigh ; 3, Howel William, married in 
1850 to Eliza Anne, daughter of the late George Wilson, Esq., of 
Nutley, county of Sussex ; 4. Charles Owen, Ensign in 8th N.I., 
E.I.C.S., who was killed at the age of nineteen in the battle before 
Moultan, 12th September, 1848, by a Sikh, whose life he had saved 
a few moments before; of the daughters, Frances, the eldest, 
married, in 1835, the late Sir Robert Williames-Vaughan, of Nannau, 
who succeeded his father. Sir Robert, the second baronet, in 1843, 
died 28th April, 1859; Charlotte became the wife of the late 
Richard John Price, Esq., son and heir of the late Richard Watkin 
Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas, co. of Meirionydd ; Jane Margaret, wife of 


the nave of the church of the Abbey of Valle Crucis. 
The lids of the stone coffins m which their bodies are 
deposited, with the inscriptions upon them, are still to 
be seen. Adda bore party per bend sinister ermine 
and ermines in a border gules. 2. The second son was 

lorwerth ah Awr. He married Margaret, daughter 
of Ednyfed ab lorwerth ab Meilyr Eyton, by whom he 
had issue, 

lorwerth Fychan (junior) of Trefor, who was living 
in 1332, and married first Agnes or Annesta, daughter 
of Hwfa ab lorwerth ab Gruffyd ab leuaf ab Niniaf 
ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon {gules two lions passant arg.) 
by whom he had issue, Howel of Trefor, whose only 
daughter and heiress, GwenUian, married Llewelyn ab 
leuaf ab Adda, of Trefor. lorwerth married secondly, 
Margaret, daughter of Madog^ ab Llewelyn ab Gruffyd, 
lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and Borasham) by whom he 
had issue one daughter, Lucy, third wife of Madog 
Llwyd, lord of Iscoed, descended from Tudor Trefor, 
and one son, 

Ednyfed Lhvyd, Esq., who married the sister and 
heiress of Ednyfed ab lorwerth ab Madog, of Horslli in 
the parish of Gresford, Esq.,^ descended from Sanddef 
Hardd, who bore 1st, vert, seme of Bromoslips, a lion 
rampant or ; 2nd, or, a lion rampant az. ; 3rd, vert, three 
eagles displayed in fess or. By this lady, Ednyfed had 
issue, Lleweljni (his successor) GruflFjrd, and a daughter, 
Elen, who became the wife of Llewelyn Fychan, of 
Pentre-Madog in Duddleston, Esq., son of Llewelyn ab 
Goronwy ab Sir Roger de Powys {supra.) 

Lleivelyn ah Ednyfed married Angharad, daughter 
of Adda, second son of Llewelyn ab leuaf ab Adda ab 

the Yen. Archdeacon Ffonlkes, of Llandjssul; Eliza Blackburne 
married Meredith Vibart, Esq., late captain in E.I.C.S., and adju- 
tant of the Edinburgh Artillery Volunteers; Mary Charlotte, 
of Hengwrt, Harriet Frances Julia Ann, died at the age of twelve 
years ; besides seven other children, who died in infancy. 

1 Madog died 1331, and was buried upon the Feast of St. Mat- 
thias, in the north aisle of G^resford Church, with his wife's family. 
His tomb still remains in the church. 

■ Ab David Hen ab Goronwy Hen of Burton ab lorwerth ab 
Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd. 


Awr of Trefor, and niece of John Trefor, bishop of St. 
Asaph, by whom he had issue, 1. David, his successor. 
2. Gruffyd. 3. Madog. 4. lorwerth Goch of Chris- 
tionydd-Cynwrig, who was killed in the year 1490. 

David ah Llewelyn, who was living in 1497, became, 
jure uQcoris^ of Plas-Madog, having married Margaret, 
daughter and sole heiress of David ab Hwfa, of Plas- 
Madog. But before proceeding further with the account 
of the issue by this marriage, it will be necessary here 
to deduce the descent of the heiress of Plas-Madog 
from the Princes of Upper Powys. 

Owen Cyfeiliog, on ms death in 1197, was succeeded 
by his son Gwenwynwyn, after whom Upper Powys was 
thenceforward known as Powys-Gwenwynwyn. Allu- 
sion has already been made to his conquit of the can- 
tref of Arwystli, a considerable portion of which he 
bestowed on his follower, Madog Danwr,^ another moiety, 
with his accustomed liberahty to the religious houses in 
his territories, was wanted to the neighbouring Cister- 
cian monastery of Abbey Cwmhir ;* he also confirmed the 
grant of lands to the church of St. Michael at Tref- 
eglwys and the Abbey of Haghmon in Shropshire.'* 
Dying about the year 1218, he left by his wife Mar- 

faret, a son Gruffydd (who ultimately succeeded to all 
is father's lands), together with a natural son, Madog. 
The latter received the lordships of Mowddy and Caer- 
einion, which at his death reverted to his brother 
Gruffydd, Madog having left no male issue. His 
daughter Efa, married first lorwerth ab Owen Brogyn- 
tyn, and secondly Owen ab Bleddyn, lord of Chirk. 
Gruffyd, the son of Gwenwynwyn, who was a minor at 
his father's death, in 1242, married Hawys, daughter of 
Sir John le Strange of Ness, and by her had issue 
six sons and one daughter, Mabel, who became the 
wife of Fulke Fitz-Warine, lord of Whittington. The 
sons were, 1. Owen, who, by the t/Crms of his father's 
wiU, received for his share of the territories, Arwystli, 
Cyfeiliog, Ystrad Marchell (with the exception of the 

^ Supra. ^ Rees' Account of Abheij'Cxvmhir, p. 30. 

8 Arch. Camh., 1860, p. 331. 


township of Hirgyngrog, which was settled upon his 
mother for the term of her life.) 2, Llewelyn, who re- 
ceived Tal-y-bont, Olerton-de-Hope, and Dau-ddwr. 3, 
John, who was a secular priest, received for the term of 
his natural life the township of Blaen-y-coed-talog, Uys- 
wenan, and Llangadfan. 4, William, had Mowddy 
(with the exception of Llandybo, which was settled 
upon his mother). 5, David, from whom the heiress of 
Plas-Madog traces her descent, received Pentyrch, Celli- 
caswallon, Penarth, and Rhiwhirarth. 6, Gruffyd Fy- 
chan, the youngest son, had Mochnant. 

In his valuable paper on the Princes of Upper Powys, 
{Montgomeryshire Collections, i, 59, 75) and in the 
pedigree prefixed to the same article, Mr. Bridgeman 
has asserted that David was a priest. He admits it is 
true that he was not in holy orders at the time of his 
father s death, for the terms of the latter's will do not 
support him in his inference. Prince Gruflfyd in that 
document grants a portion of his estate to his son John, 
(the Rector of Pool) " to have and to hold for the whole 
time of his life"^ A plain indication that he had no 
lawful male issue, but in speaking of the lands be- 
queathed to his son David, the father plainly declares 
" which we have assigned to our son David and the heirs 
of his body lawfully begotten,'' in precisely the same 
terms as are employed in the bequest to his sons 
Llewelyn and William, who are admitted to have had 
lawful male issue. Had David been trained for the 
priesthood, the father could never have spoken of him 
in these terms, but, on the contrary, from the phraseo- 
logy of the will it can fairly be inferred that if no 
heirs had been bom to David at the time it was 
drawn up, there was then in existence no lawful im- 
pediment to his being the father of such. Llewelyn, 
William, and Gruffyd nad sons, yet the father wills in 
their case, as in that of David, that their portions in 
the event of their dying " without issue lawfully be- 
gotten," should revert to their elder brother, Owen. So 

' Montgomeryshire CoUectivns, i, 41. 


that in the will itself there is no distinction in the con- 
ditions upon which these four brothers were to enjoy 
the lands which they inherited at the death of their 

Neither is there aught in the terms of the documents^ 
which record the family compact between David and 
his elder brother, Prince Owen, which justifies the in- 
ference that the former was an ordained priest at the 
time of the final concord in 1290. But these docu- 
ments are in accordance with the statements of all the 
manuscripts which assert that David wa^ married, but 
left no male issue. And as his two daughters could 
not inherit by gavel kind, but would have a claim ac- 
cording to the English law, which was beginning at 
this time to gain ground in Powys, the elder and 
stronger brother, to secure the reversion of the lands to 
the head of the family, induced the younger to relin- 
quish all claims to it on the part of his children. As 
David had no son to succeed him, he would the more 
readily agree to the conditions imposed upon him, which 
limited him to a Kfe interest in the lands. Here we 
see enacted over again what occurred at the death of 
Madog, the natural son of Gwenwynwyn, who was not 
a priest. The strained inference of Mr. Bridgeman is 
thus proved to be weak in itself, and can have no 
weight at all, as it is contrary to the direct evidence 
afibrded by the oldest and most authentic pedigrees,^ 
which expressly state that David was married, and left 
two daughters. An unsupported inference of this de- 
scription. particularly wfien the circumstances from 
which it arises can be explained quite satisfactorily on 
other groimds, should not be drawn, more especially in 
this case, as it has a tendency to cast dishonour upon 
the priestly character, and to discredit pedigrees which 
have every appearance of authenticity. 

Whatever value the " old tradition" relating to the 
contention between Hawys, the niece of David, and 

^ Montgomeryshire Collections, i, 132-4. 

« Earl M8S,, 4181, 2299, 173. Add, MSS., 9864, 9865. 


her uncles, and the imprisonment of the latter in Har- 
lech Castle, may possess, and, whoever its author may 
have been. Dr. Powel was not its originator,^ for it is 
to be found in an old MS. in the British Museum, (a 
transcript of which appeared in the Brython, iii, 124-127) 
which was compiled, or copied, in the year 1498,^ eighty- 
six years before the appearance of the first edition of 
the History of Wales. 

Prince David married Elina, daughter and heiress of 
Howel, third son of Madog ab Grufiydd Maelor, lord 
of Castell Dinas-Bran, and Prince of Powys Fadog, 
founder of the Abbey of Valle Crucis, by whom he had 
issue two daughters, co-heiresses: 1, Margaret, who was 
married to Howel Grach, of Bodylltyn, in the parish of 
Rhiwabon, third son by Gwenllian, his second wife, 
(daughter of Owen ab Trahaiam ab Rotpert, lord of 
Cydewain) of Llewelyn ab Gruflfyd ab Cadwgan, lord of 
Eyton, descended from Tudor Trefor. By this marriage 
she had issue an only daughter, Angharad, who mar- 
ried Madog yr Athraw, of Erbistock, and, in right of his 
wife, possessor of landt* in Bodylltjm, where he built 
the house which was called in honour of him Plas- 
Madog. 2, Mary, the second daughter, married Cara- 
dog ab CoUwyn ab y Llyr Crach, of Meifod, ab Mere- 
dydd ab Cynan, a yoimger son of Owen Gwynedd, 
Prince of North Wales. This Meredydd was driven 
from his territories by his uncle David ab Owen, Prince 
of North Wales in 1173, and took refuge with Owen 
Cyfeiliog, who gave him the lordships of Rhiwhiraeth, 
Neuadd Wen, Llyssin, and Coed-Talog. He bore gii. 
and arg. four lions passant guardant counterchanged. 
The last heir male of this line, leuan ab Owen ab 
Meredydd, of Neuadd Wen, had an only daughter and 
heiress, Margaret, who married, first Howel ab Gruffydd 
ab Jenkyn, of Llwydiarth, descended from Celynyn, (of 
Llwydiarth, who killed the Mayor of Carmarthen) who 

^ Montgomeryshire Collections, i, 58. 

^ This date seems too late for Gutyn Owen. The number and 
class of MSS., from which the transcript is made, are not given in the 


bore scuy a he-goat arg., armed, etc., or, and was de- 
scended from Aleth, King of Dyfed. Mary married, 
secondly, Rhys ab David Lloyd of Newtown Hall, 
Ksquire of the body to Edward IV, who fell at Ban- 
bury, 1469, and was descended from Elys tan Glodrudd, 
By Rhys she had issue an eldest son and heir, Thomas 
Pryse, of Newtown Hall, ancestor of the baronet family 
of that place. The representative of Mary is the right 
heir of the late Sir Edward Manley Pryse, the seventh 
baronet, who died without legitimate issue in 1791. 
Margaret married, thirdly, Gnifl^dd ab Howel ab David. 

Madog yr Athraw was the youngest son by Efa, his 
second wife (daughter of Llewelyn ab Ynyr of Isll) of 
Hwfa ab lorwerth, of Hafod-y-Wem (who bore sa. 
three lions pass, in pale arg.) ab leuaf ab Niniaf ab 
Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. By Angharad, his wife, Madog 
was the father of a son and heir, 

HwfoLy who succeeded him at Plas-Madog. He mar- 
ried Agnes, daughter of Madoch Goch, of Lloran 
Uchaf (descended from Einion EfeU, Lord of Cynllaith, 
who bore paxtv per fess m. and arg., a lion rampant 
counterchanged),and was the father of 

leiiaf, of P14s-Madog, who by his wife Agnes, 
daughter of Gruffydd ab Cynwrig (ab leuaf ab Cas- 
wallon ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of 141, who bore 
sa, on a chev. inter three goat s heads erased, or, three 
trefoils of the field), was the father of 

Hwfa, of P14s-Madog. This gentleman married 
Gwenllian, daughter of leuan Llwyd, and was the 
father of 

David, the father of Margaret, the heiress of Plas- 
Madog, who became the wife of David ab Llewellyn, 
who was living in 1497 {swpra). The issue of this mar- 
riage was four sons, John, Gniflfydd, David Fychan, and 
lorwerth, together with one daughter, Gwenllian. 

John ab David married Margaret, (daughter by Phi- 
lippa, his first wife daughter of Sir Randle Brereton, 
of Malpas, Knight), of Howel ab leuan ab Gruffydd, of 
Bersham, descended in the male line from Ednyfed, 


second son of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon, and by heirs 
female from Llewelyn, the second son of Gruflydd ab 
Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys. Arms — 1, 
ermine, a lion statant guardant gu. Ednyfed ab Cyn- 
wrig — 2, arg. on a chief gu.^ three fleurs-de-lys, or. 
Madog of Hendwr — 3, or, a lion rampant, gules. By 
his wife, John had issue one daughter, Angharad, wife 
of Madog ab David, descended from Cynwrig ab Rhi- 
wallon, and one son, 

Randle ah John, of Plas-Madog, who by Angharad, 
his wife, daughter of John ab leuan ab David ab Dio, 
of Llanerchrugog, had a son, 

John Lloyd, of Pl&s-Madog, who was living July 
5th, 1563. He married Janet, daughter of Geoffrey 
Bromfield, of Bryn-y-Wiwair, in the parish of Rhiw- 
abon, descended through lorwerth Benfras, Lord of 
Maesbrook {armQ, supra), from Edwin ab Goronwy,Lord 
of Tegeingl, founder of one of the sixteen noble tribes 
of North Wales and Powys. ^ John was succeeded at 
Plas-Madog by his son, 

William Lloyd, who married Catherine, daughter of 
Owen Brereton,* of Borasham, Esq. (high sheriff of 

^ The Bromfields of Bryn-y-Wiwair became extinct in the male 
line at the death of Edward Bromfield, Esq., whose only daughter 
and heiress, Elizabeth, was married to Sir Gerard Eyton, of Eyton, 
in the parish of Bangor-is-y-Coed, Knight. 

^ The Breretons of Borasham deduced their descent from Wil- 
liam, second son of Sir Handle Brereton, of Malpas, Knight, by his 
wife, Alicia, lady of Ipstans, only daughter and heiress of William 
Ipstans, lord of Ipstans, son and heir of Sir John Ipstans, Knight, 
lord of Ipstans, in the county palatine of Chester, who died a.d. 
1394, and Elizabeth, his wife, daughter and sole heiress of Thomas 
Corbet, of More ton Corbet and Wattlesborough (Harl, M8., 1396.) 
Sir Randle Brereton was fifth in descent from Sir Randolphus de 
Brereton, Knight, lord of Brereton, in Cheshire, and the lady Ada, 
his wife, relict of Henry de Hastings (who in her right was one of 
the claimants of the crown of Scotland), and fourth daughter and 
co-heiress by Maud, his wife, daughter of Hugh Cyfeiliog, Count 
Palatine of Chester, of David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of 
Malcolm, and William the Lion, kings of Scotland, and third son 
of Henry, crown prince of Scotland, who died in the lifetime of his 
father King David I. Margaret, the eldest daughter and co-heiress 
of David, Earl of Huntingdon, was grandmother of John Baliol, 


Denbighshire in the years 1581 and 1588), and Eliza- 
beth, his wife, only sister of the unfortunate Thomas 
Salusbury, of Llyweny, who was executed in 1586 for 
his connection with Babington's conspiracy. By his wife 
Catherine, Mr. Lloyd had issue five sons and two 
daughters — 1, Edward (his successor). 2, Owen, who 
married Jane, relict of John FfachmaUt, of Ffachmallt, 
in the county of Flint, Esq., second daughter and co- 
heiress (by Margaret, relict of Robert Empson, of Lon- 
don, and daughter of Hugh Wynn, of Wigfair, in 
Meiriadog, Esq.) of John Brereton,^ of Esclusham, Esq., 
who died 24th of January, 1622, and was buried at 
Wrexham ; (arms — 1 arg.^ two bars sa, — Brereton, 2 
arg., a chev. inter three crescents, gules. — Ipstans, 3 
or, two ravens, ppr. — Corbet of Wattlesborough, 4, an 
escarbimcle of eight rays, or. Tirret.) By this lady, 
Owen Lloyd had issue one son, Thomas, a merchant, 
who died without issue at Hamburg, and one daughter, 
Elizabeth, wife of Edward Lloyd, of Plas-Madog.) 3, 
Richard. 4, John. 5, Roger. Catherine, the eldest 
daughter, married Hugh (ab John Wynn ab John ab 
Robert of Rhiwabon,) and Mary, the second daughter, 
became the wife of Humphrey Lloyd, of Llwyn Ynn, 
Esq., descended from Edwyn ab Goronwy, Prince of 

Edward Lloyd, of Plas-Madog, who was living in 
1620, married Anne, daughter of John Eyton, of Lees- 
wood, in the county of Flint, and Jane, his wife, 
daughter of John Lloyd, of Bodidris, in I&l, Esq., and 
had issue — 1, Edward, who succeeded his father; 2, 
Piers, of London ; 3, Thomas ; 4, John ; 5, Owen ; 

King of Scotland, and John tbe Bed Comjn, lord of Badenoch, 
who was killed in the convent of the Minor Friars, 1806, by Bobert 
Bmce, grandson of Isabel, the second daughter and co-heiress 
of Earl David. (For an acconnt of the Brereton family, who were 
lords of Brereton in Cheshire, consult Ormerod's History of Cheshire^ 
and Lewie Dwnn's Vvdiatioris,) 

^ John Brereton, of Esclusham, was the second son of Owen 
Brereton, Esq., and Elizabeth, his first wife. 

« Earl M8S,, 1969. 


6, Matthew ; together with two daughters, the eldest 
of whom, Jane, married Owen Bady, the son of Roger 
Bady, Esq., of Rhiwabon, descended from Cynwrig ab 
Rhiwallon, while Elizabeth, the second daughter, be- 
came the wife of John Lloyd, the son of John Uoyd of 
Coed Christionydd (who was living in 1620) ab Richard 
Lloyd ab Ellis Lloyd of Llwyn Ynn. 

Edward Lloyd, of Eglwysegl, M.A., died, in his 
father's life-time, in Cambridgeshire, leaving by Re- 
becca, hia wife, daughter of the Rev. Mostyn Piers, of 
Cambridge, two yoimg children — Catherine, who was 
subsequently married to John Powell, of Rhuddallt, 
eldest son of Daniel Powell, son of David Powell, D.D., 
Vicar of Rhiwabon, the celebrated Welsh historian, a 
lineal descendant of Llewelyn Aiu:dorchog, and one 

Edward Lloydy who succeeded his grandfather at 
P14s-Madog. He married Elizabeth, only daughter 
and heiress of Owen Lloyd ab William Lloyd,^ by 
whom he had issue — 1, John, of Plas-Madog, a captain 
in the royal army, who in 1660 was one of the seven 
Denbighshire gentlemen deemed fit and quahfied to be 
made a Knight of the Royal Oak. At that date his 
estate was valued at £800.* He was living in 1667, but 
was killed in London with Sir Evan Lloyd, of Bodi- 
dris. 2, William, who died without issue. 3, Samuel, 
who succeeded at P14s-Madog ; and one daughter, 
Anne, married to William Lloyd, of Pl&s-Benion and 
Tref-y-Nant, in the parish of Rhiwabon, descended 
from Edwin ab Goronwy. 

Samuel Lloyd, of Pl&s-Madog, married Sarah, second 
daughter and co-heiress of Luke Lloyd, Esq., of the 
Bryn, in the parish of Hanmer, descended from Tudor 
Trefor, by whom he had issue, beside a yoimger son 
Luke who died without issue, an elder son, 

Edtvard Lloyd, of Pl&s-Madog, who died August, 
8th, 1760, having married Anne, second daughter and 

^ See preceding page. 

^ Gicaith Givalter Mecham, ii, 192. 


oo-heireBS of William Lloyd, of Pl&s-Benion and Tref- 
y-Nant, second son of Joseph Lloyd, of Castle Lyons, 
in Ireland, second son of Jolm Llovd, of Coed Chris- 
tionydd, descended from Edwin ab Goronwy. Mrs. 
Lloyd died September 23rd, 1745, leaving issue one 
son and five daughters — 

Edward Lloyd, who married Margaret, second 
daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Lloyd,' of Trevor 
Hall, and Glanhafon, high-sheriff for Montgomeryshire 
in 1716, and Mary, his wife, but died without issue 
in 1734, aged eighteen. 

1, Ehzabeth was the first daughter. The eldest 
daughter, Elizaheihy who was bom April 31st, 1718, 
was married at Erbistog, April 30th, 1743, to Jenhyn^ 
Lloydy Esq., of Clochfaen, in the parish of Llangurig 

2, Mary married Edward Williams, who assumed 
the name of Lloyd upon his succeeding to the estate 
of Pen-y-lan,' in the parish of Rhiwabon, and had 
issue an only dau^ter, Mary Lloyd, heiress of Pen- 
y-lan, who married Koger Kenyon, Esq., of Cefii, brother 
of Lloyd, first Lord Kenyon, and son of Lloyd Kenyon, 
Esq., by whom she had issue Edward Lloyd, who suc- 
ceeded at Pen-y-lan, George, Thomas, Jane, and Anna 

3, Anne, who received for her share of the property 
Plas-Benion and Tref-y-Nant, married John Rowland, 

4, Margaret became the wife of Robert LiCTam, Esq., 
of Neuadd Glyn-Hafren, in the parish of Llanidloes, 

* Thomas Lloyd, the high sheriff in 17L6, was the eldest son of 
Oliver Llojd, Esq., by Mary, daughter and co-heiress of Robert 
Lloyd, Esq., of Glanhafon, high sheriff for Montgomeryshire in 
1685 (see note, supra^ p. 289.) 

« Supra, p. 280. 

' The Lloyds of Pen-y-lan, in the parish of Rhiwabon, were a 
yonnger branch of the Lloyds of Ceiswyn, in the parish of Tal-y- 
Llyn, in the connty of Merionydd, who were descended from 
Gwaethfoed, lord of Cardigan, who bore or, a lion rampant regardant 


(grandson of Kichard Ingram, Esq., of the same place, 
high-sheriif for Montgomeryshire, 1680) and had issue 
Edward, the father of the late Robert Ingram, a dis- 
tinguished captain in the Royal Navy, who sold the 
old fanuly residence ; Robert and Mary : arms, 
ei^mine on a fess gules ^ three escallops or. 

5, Bennette, married to Lewis Lewis, of Rhud- 



CorUinucd from voL ii, p. 300. 

The following verbal blazon of the arms of J. Y. W. Lloyd, 
Esq. (see Engraving opposite p. 62^ etc.)^ was unintentionally 
omitted from chap. v. 

1. Qaarterly : Ist and 4th, party per pale, erminois and ermine, a lion 
ramp, sa., between two flanches gu., charged with three annulets or ; 2nd 
and 3rd party per bend sinister ermine and ermines, a lion ramp. or. Lloyd 
of Clochfaen. 

2. As., a lion ramp, party per fess or and arg., in a border of the third 
charged with eight annolets <a. Lladdocaf ab Garadoc, Earl of Hereford. 

3. Qaarterly : 1st and 4th gu., a lion ramp, regard, or ; 2nd and Srd a/rg., 
three boars' heads conped sa., tasked or. Maarice Yychan, of Kerry and 

4. Sa., three g^yhounds conrant in pale a/rg., in a border indented or. 
Angharad, wife of Howel, second son of Tudor ab Einion Fychan (lord of 
Cefo-y-llys), and d. and h. of Llewelyn ab Madog ab Banulph of Mochdref. 

5. As 3. For Annesta, wife of Einion ab Howel ab Tudor of Mochdref, and 
d. and h. of Adda ab Meirig ab Adda of Kerry. 

6. Az., on a chevron arg., between three lions passant guardant or, three 
crosses moline sa. Fowler, of Abbey Cwmhir. 

7. Barry of six pieces gu. and arg., on a chief or, a lion passant as. Engle- 
field, of Bycote, Oxfordshire. 

8. Az., two bars arg., over all a bend compony or and gu. Lee, of Morpeth. 

9. Per bend sinister ermine and ermines, a lion rampant or.. Lloyd, of 
Plis Madog. 

10. Lluddocaf ab Garadoc. (See 2.) 

11. Veri, sem6 of broomslips, a lion rampant or. Sandde Hardd, lord of 

12. Or, a lion rampant eu. Gadwgan, lord of Nannau. 

13. Vert, three eagles displayed in fess or» David ab Owen, Prince of 
North Wales. 

14. 8a., three lions passant in pale arg. Madoo yr Athraw, of PUs Madog. 

15. Ermine, a lion rampant as. Howel Orach ab Llewelyn of BodyUtyn. 

16. Or, a lion rampant gu. David ab Oruffydd ab Qwenwynwyn, loid of 

17. Lloyd, of Plds Madog. (See 9.) 

18. Arg., two bars sa. Brereton, of Borasham. 

19. Arg., a chevron inter three crescents gu. Ipstans, of Ipstans. 

20. Or, two ravens proper. Gorbet, of Wattlesborough. 


1. On a wreath or and sa. a lion ramp, sa., a fleur-de-lys issuing out of his 
mouth, and supporting an antique shield gu., charged with three annulets 
interlaced or. Lloyd, of Glocbfaen. 

2. On a wreath or and gu. a lion ramp, regardant or. Maurice Fychan. 

3. On a wreath or and az. an owl arg. crowned or. Fowler. 

4. On a wreath arg. and sa. a demi lion rampant sa. holding a wreath of 
laurel proper. Lloyd, of Pl&s Madog. 




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Davies, Eev. David was the son of Mr. Davies of 
Clochfaen Issa in this parish, where he was bom in the 
year 1823. He received the elements of his education 
in the village school of Llangurig, then conducted by 
Mr. Edward Kees, the parish clerk, and was subse- 
quently placed in the office of the late Mr. T. E. Marsh, 
solicitor at Llanidloes. His strict integrity, industry, 
and careful business habits commended him to the notice 
of his employer, who in a short time made him his head 
clerk. His parents were anxious that he should adopt 
the law as his future profession, but a more intimate ac- 
quaintance with his employment, however, only created 
in him a distaste for it, and he felt a strong inclination 
to enter the church. The late Rev. Evan Pugh, B.A., 
then Vicar of Llanidloes, encouraged him in his predi- 
lection, and gave him some excellent advice regarding 
his studies and preparation for his future calling. His 
parents reluctantly consented to his entering St. David's 
College, Lampeter, through which he passed with credit, 
having gained Hannah Moore's scholarship. 

In 1848 he was ordained deacon, and appointed to the 
curacy of Llan wnog by the Bishop of Bangor. The vicar, 
Mr. James, who was previously connected with Llan- 
gurig, was advanced in years, so that the burden of the 
parochial work fell upon the young curate, who foimd 
plenty of employment to call forth the whole of his ener- 
gies. He laboured zealously to improve his parishioners 
both morally and intellectually ; was the means of es- 
tablishing the present excellent National school, having 
previous to its opening maintained a night school. The 
neighbouring hamlet of Caersws seems to have inspired 
him with a strong love for archaeology, and having turned 
his attention to the study, he employed his leisure in 
investigating the antiquities of the district. His name 


first appears on the list of the members of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Association in 1853, when he was ap- 
pointed one of the local secretaries for Montgomeryshire. 
At the general meeting of the society held at Ruthin in 
September 1854, Mr. Davies read a paper on "the Roman 
remains discovered at Caersws," and also exhibited some 
fragments of pottery discovered there, which were de- 
posited in the temporary museum. He subsequentlv 
rendered further valuable service to the cause of Welsn 
archaeology by conducting to their completion the exca- 
vations at Caersws : a aetailed account of them has 
already been submitted to the members of the club. 
While at Llanwnog he was appointed diocesan inspector 
of schools for the deanery of Arwystli, was a contributor 
to the English Journal of JEducation, and was also a fre- 
quent writer to the Welsh newspapers and periodicals. 

Mr. Davies in 1856 was collated by the Bishop of St. 
Asaph to the incumbency of the newly-formed ecclesiasti- 
cal district of Dylife, worth about £200 a year. A hand- 
some commodious church had been erected in this flou- 
rishing mountain mining village, at the cost principally of 
the lord of the manor, and the proprietors of the mines. 
No sooner was Mr. Davies appointed than he turned 
his attention to providing means for educating the chil- 
dren of Dylife. He was enabled in a short time to have 
a substantial National school erected. A comfortable 
parsonage was the next desideratum which claimed his 
energies, and this also he managed to get built. But he 
very imprudently took up his residence in his new house 
before it was thoroughly dried and well aired. The 
natural consequence was that he caught a severe cold, 
which brought a painful lingering illness which termi- 
nated fatally. He died at the Trewythan Arms Hotel, 
Llanidloes, on his way to the Clochfaen, February 12th, 
1865. His remains were interred in Llangurig church- 

Davies, Owen, a well known character in this and 
the neighbouring parish of Llanidloes, affords a striking 
example of perseverance and industry triumphing over 


difficulties in realising an ample fortune. His parents 
were in very humble circumstances ; he was bom in 
1777, and passed his youth as a farm servant at the 
Belli, before he entered service at Llanidloes in the 
capacity of a labourer, at the New Inn. Here he 
manifested a very strong inclination for mechanics, es- 
pecially clock and watch work, which seemed to possess 
a peculiar fascination for him. After some practice, he 
procured an old watch, which, after his day's work 
was done, he was in the habit of taking with him to the 
hay-loft, and there take it to pieces and rebuild it. By 
these means he thoroughly familiarised himself with the 
mechanism of a watch, and obtained a good insight into 
clock-work. Like most self-taught mechanics, he evinced 
more than ordinary skill in constructing tools out of the 
most unpromising materials ; for he was not in a position 
at first to buy even the simplest appliances needed. 
When Ids skUl became known to his neighbours, he was 
allowed to clean their clocks, the money thus gained 
being carefully expended upon the most useful tools. 
He was soon enabled to quit his calling of labourer for 
the more congenial one of clock-cleaner, eking out his 
time by glazing. By means of the most rigid economy 
he raised himself to the position of an employer of 
labour, and opened a fresh business as an ironmonger, 
and soon became known far and wide by his superior 
goods, especially in the cutlery department. Unfortu- 
nately the love of money proved stronger than the love 
for mechanics, and the latter part of his life was devoted 
wholly and solely to its acquisition. Even when he was 
a large landed proprietor, and the possessor of thousands, 
he lived in the same simple unpretending style, never 
indulging in the slightest luxury of food or dress, would 
not even pay for the services of servant or housekeeper 
to keep his house clean and cook his food, so that nis 
eccentric manners passed into a proverb among those 
that knew him. He died October 17th 1862, in the 
eighty-sixth year of his age, and was buried in Llan- 

N 2 


gurig churchyard. The bulk of his property he left 
among his poorer relatives ; he was never married. 

HowEL, William (Gwilym Hywel), was a native of 
this parish, but spent the greater portion of his life at 
Llanidloes. He was bom in the year 1705. We have 
no record of his early life or of his education, but we 
have ample proof that the latter was not neglected, and 
that it was supplemented by extensive reading and 
careful study up to the very last year of Mr. Howels 
life. He held the post of steward upon the Berthlloyd 
estate in the neighbourhood of Llanidloes, and was 
chosen by his fellow-townsmen to be mayor of the 

He was not only a poet himself (several of his pro- 
ductions being published in his almanacks) but was a 
loving and industrious collector of the works of the old 
bards, and of those of his contemporary poets. One of 
his especial favourites was Eos Ceiroig (Huw Morris), 
lolo Morganwg states that Mr. Howel had collected 
about three hundred of the productions of that prolific 
writer, doubtlessly with a view to publication. The late 
Rev. Walter Davies (Gwallter Mechain) made a more 
extensive collection, and published it in two volumes 
in 1828, and there is reason to believe that he availed 
himself of Mr. Howel's labours. 

His fame, however, rests chiefly upon his astronomical 
abilities, and as the publisher of a series of Welsh alma- 
nacks, which in their day enjoyed great popularity. The 
old Welsh almanacks of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries may be regiirded as the precursors of the 
monthly magazines and other periodicals now so plenti- 
ful in the Welsh language, and were a kind of medium 
for the literary intercommunication of those days, being 
conducted ana compiled by men of considerable literary 
pretensions. The series of annuals were kept up by a 
succession of different editors from the appearance of 
the first in 1680 up to the year 1 780. But in the year 
1 770 the first Welsh magazine, the Eurgrawn Cymraeg, 
appeared, and deprived the old almanacks of some of 


their prominent characteristics. The first almanack 
compiled and published by Mr. Howel was issued in 
the year 1 766 from the press of Eddowes of Shrewsbury , 
where the whole series — ^ten in number — were printed. 
Some notion of their contents may be formed from the 
following translation of the title page of that for the 
year 1770 : 

" The Intelligencer of the Heavens or the Seasons, 
or a New Almanack for the Year of the World 5719, 
Year of Our Lord 1 770, the 1 8th year of the New Style, 
the 10th year of the reign of George III, the 5th year 
of publication, and the 2nd year after leap year. Con- 
taining a correct calender for the twelve months of the 
year, showing the time of sunrise and sunset, phases 
of the moon, appointed feasts, aspects of the planets, 

etc Chronicles, lists of the M.Ps. and Sherifis, 

fairs and markets of Wales, an^ excellent elegy composed 
in the twenty-four metres, carols, new stanzas, etc. 
Collected by Gwilim Howel." Then follows an extract 
from the Bible, Eccles. xviii, 7, 8, and a list of the towns 

^ Among the principal poems published in the series may be 
mentioned — In No. 2. A pastoral poem, {Bugeilgerdd,) by Edward 
Richards of Ystrad-meirig, written in 1766 ; a Christmas carol by 
Sion Powel of Llansannan. In No. 3. An elegy on the death of the 
celebrated antiquary, Lewis Morris, written by Evan Evans in 1765, 
with valuable explanatory notes appended in English. In No. 4. 
An elegy written by Evan Evans on the death of another Welsh 
antiquary, Robert Davies of Llanerch ; a carol by Sion Powel ; 
stanzas on the new bridge at Pont-y-pridd, written by Lewis Hop- 
cyn. In No. 5. Qoronwy Owen's celebrated elegy on the death of 
Lewis Morris, written in the 24 metres, 1 767 ; a carol by David 
Jones of Trefriw. In No. 6. Another elegy on Lewis Morris from 
the pen of Huw Hughes (Bardd Coch), and a carol by John Edwards 
clerk of Manafon. In No. 7. The Bard's Confession, by William 
Cynwal, 1580, and various poems by Dafydd Evan, Huw Hughes, 
and Rice Jones. No. 8 contains poems by leuan Brydydd Hir (the 
elder), Huw Hughes, John Rhys, loan Siencin, etc., and an account of 
the £^steddfod at Llanidloes. No. 9. An ode in praise of Richard ab 
Sion (Bhisiart Sion Greulon), by Sion Tudor, 1580, with English ex- 
planatory notes by Mr. Howel. It was this poem that suggested to 
the Dean of St. Asaph the idea which he worked out in his Legend 
of Captain Jozies, In No. 10. An elegy on the death of William 
Morris, by Evan Evans, 1764 ; carol by David Jones of Trefriw. 


(embracing the most important in the principaUty) where 
the work might be obtained. " Printed and sold by 
J. Eddowes near the market-house, Shrewsbury, price 

The instruments necessary for carrying on the study 
of astronomy were very costly, and in those days difficult 
to be procured in the centre of the principality. This 
difficulty Mr. Howel overcame to a considerable extent 
by turning his mechanical ingenuity (which was of no 
mean order) to the best accoimt m constructing the 
more simple of the instruments which he needed in 
taking his observations. Some of these were for several 
years preserved at the Green, Llanidloes. In 1772 he 
succeeded in establishing annual local Eisteddfods, the 
first being held at the Ked Lion Inn, Llanidloes. He 
died iQ 1775, and lies buried under the branches of the 
yew-tree at the entrance of the Llanidloes churchyard. 
An englyn (stanza) of his composition, which appeared 
in the last of his almanacks, has been engraved upon 
his tombstone. 

Owens of Cefn-yr-hafodau. In a parochial accotmt 
of Llangurig it would not be just to the distinguished 
members of this family to pass them over without a 
fuller notice (however brief and imperfect) than that 
which is conveyed in the pedigree of the family, given 

Previously. To the last, the representatives of the elder 
ranch of the family asserted their connexion with the 
parish by styling themselves '* of Glyngynwydd." 

I. David Owen, who died in 1777, by his wife, 
Frances, was the father of a remarkable family of four 
sons. The eldest, 

Owen Oiven, who was born in the year 1723, in 1745 
married Anne Davies, daughter, and eventually heiress, 
of Charles Davies, Esq., of Llivior, in the parish of 
Berriew (Aber-rhiw). Mrs. Owen's mother was Sarah 
Evans, daughter and heir of Edward Evans, Esq., the 
last male representative of the family of Evans of 
Rhyd-y-Carw, in the parish of Trefeglwys, who were 
descended from Llewelyn Aurdorchog. By his mairiage 


Mr. Owen acquired the estates of Rhyd-y-carw, Glaii- 
rhiw, and Ty n-y-coed. He removed to the last about 
the year 1760. In the year 1766 he served the oflSce 
of high sheriff of Montgomeryshire, and died in 1789, 
leaving a family of three sons and two daughters. 

2. Richard Owen, the second son, upon his marriage 
in 1 757 to Elizabeth, the yoimgest daughter of Maurice 
Stephen, Esq., of Neuadd-Llwyd, in the parish of 
Llandinam, and grand-daughter of Athelustan Hughes, 
Esq., took up his residence at Upper Glandulas, which 
was settled upon him by his father, and became the 
founder of the family settled there for the last himdred 
years. Glandulas was formerly part of the Clochfaen 
estate, but early in the last century was in possession 
of the Rev. Richard Owen of Iford, who had sold it 
in or before 1740 to his cousin, David Owen, for in 
that year the latter gentleman received a grant of a 
pew in Llanidloes Church from the Bishop of Bangor, 
as owner of Glandulas. Richard Owen left a numerous 
family, whose names appear in the pedigree. The 
present representative of the family is J. B. Owen, of 
Upper Glandulas. 

3. Edward Owen, M.A. The following notice of this 
gentleman is taken from Mr. Marsh's sketch of the 
History of Warrington in tlie Eighteenth Century : 
" In connexion with the literary history of Warrington, 
it is impossible to omit the name of the Rev. Edward 
Owen, who became master of the school (Botchers 
Free Grammar School) in 1757, and subsequently 
rector of the parish, each of which offices he retained 
till his death in the year 1807. His principal claim to 
a niche in our temple is as the translator into English 
verse of the Satires of Juvenal and Persius. The work 
has had a fair share of reputation, and was published in 
two vols., 12mo., 1785. This, and a Latin Grammar, pub- 
lished in 1770, and the sermon I shall notice presently, 
and a controversial tract, which I alluded to in my 
notice of Samuel Fothergill, are the only productions 


of Mr. Owen's pen with the existence of which I am 
now ax5quaintea. On the personal character of Mr. 
Owen I need not dwell. As a schoolmaster, he secured 
the respect of his pupils, who in after life were accus- 
tomed to speak with almost enthusiasm of his classical 
taste, and the delight with which he regarded any in- 
dication of a similar taste having been communicated 
to his scholars. As an author I need only quote the 
character given to him by so competent a judge as Mr. 
Wakefield, who says that "for propriety, perspicuity and 
elegance of expression, Mr. Owen had not many equals 
at a time when good writing had become so general." 
As a townsman he was not regardless of the literary 
interests of the community among which he was placed, 
and in promoting objects of this nature he was forget- 
ful of those religious and political prejudices which too 
often obstruct the progress of useful institutions. He 
was the president of the Warrington Library, in the 
management of which he was associated with so many 
of the eminent men whom we have already had occa- 
sion to mention. Indeed, he seems to have Uved on 
terms of agreeable intercourse with the circle to which 
I allude, and is noticed with much respect by Mr. 
Gilbert Wakefield, who speaks of him as his "respected 
friend Mr. Owen, a man of most elegant learning, un- 
speakable suavity, and peculiar benevolence of heart." 
He spent a large srun of money in improving the 
school house and premises, and by his will, dated the 
8th February, 1806, he left £600 for the use of the 
organist of Warrington parish church. He died in the 
year 1807, and was buried in Warrington church, 
where a white diamond shaped marble dab formerly 
marked his grave. This unfortunately was destroyed 
during one of the many alterations which the church 
has undergone since the time of his interment. For- 
timately the inscription had been previously copied, 
and through the kindness of Mr. Beaumont, of War- 
rington, a copy is here given. 



Hie sepaltus est 


Cito obliviseentur superstites 

Flocci facient posteri ; 

Qaantam yero omnibus 

Quibuscunqae poterat 

Studuerat vivns inservire 

Jndicet Christus. 

Interea (postquam hujus eeclesiaa ann' XL Rector 

ct L scholad magister commoratus fuerat) 

lit sua placide quiescant ossa^ 

Locum quo obtecta jacent. 

Hoc marmore parvnlo designari 

Voluit, moriens 

Anno aetatis suaa lxxix 
Annoque Christi mdcccvii. 

Edwakdus Owen, A.M., 



4. William Owen. He entered the Royal Navy 
when very young, and in the year 1760, when he was 
a midshipman, greatly distinguished himself at the 
taking ofPondicLrry from the^French, losing his right 

^ (Translation hy Mr, Beamoni,) 


Here lies buried 


the survivors will soon forget 

and posterity count at nought. 

But how, to the extent of his utmost power, 

he had in life tried to serve all, 

let Christ be the Judge. 

Meanwhile (after he had been rector of this church XL years, 

and master of the school l years), 

that his bones might rest in peace, 

he wished this place where they lie 

to be covered with this marble. 


in the Lxxixth year of his age, 

and in the year of Christ, mdcccvii. 

Edward Owen, A.M., 

A Cambro- 



arm in the action. He was a lieutenant in 1769, and 
was shortly afterwards promoted to the command of 
H.M.S. Cormorant, in which he again distinguished 
himself. Captain Owen was bringing home dispatches 
when he lost his life by an accident at Madras in 1778. 
He was the father of two distinguished sons, Admiral 
W. F. Oiven, and 

Sir Edward William Camj)hell Richard Owen, 
G.C.B., G.C.H. The latter gentleman died October 
8th, 1849, at his residence, Windlesham House, Surrey, 
at the advanced age of 78. We are indebted to the 
Gentlemuns Magazine for the following summary of the 
principal incidents in the life of this gallant sailor. He 
entered the Royal Navy August 11, 1775, became a 
lieutenant November 6th, 1793, and post captain No- 
vember 30th, 1798. After the peace of Amiens he 
was stationed, with several sloops and smaller vessels 
imder his orders, on the coast of France, and by his 
activity and zeal kept the enemy in a constant state of 
alarm, at one time driving their ships on shore, and at 
another bombarding the towns of Dieppe and St. 
Valery. Subsequently, in 1806, Commodore Owen 
(having then hoisted a broad pendant) superintended 
a very successful attack on Boulogne, and in 1809 
accompanied the expedition to WaJcheren, where he 
gained warm commendation for the ability and energy 
he displayed in the arduous duties imposed upon him. 
In 1815 he was honoured with the insignia of a Knight 
Commander of the Bath; in 1821 appointed a colonel 
of Marines; and in 1825 advanced to flag rank. From 
1828 to 1832 he held the chief command on the East 
India station, and from 1841 to 1845 that in the 
Mediterranean. He was made a Grand Cross of the 
Hanoverian Guelphic Order in 1832, and of the Bath 
in 1845. Sir Edward was member of Parliament for 
Sandwich from 1826 to 1829; became Surveyor-General 
of Ordnance in 1827; was a member of the Council of 
H.R.H. the Duke of Clarence when Lord High Admi- 
ral, and held office again in 1834-5, as Clerk of the 


Ordinance. He married in 1829 Selina, daughter of 
the late Captain J. B. Hay, R.N. 

Vice-Admiral William Fitzwilliam Owen^ bom in 
1773 at Manchester, was the younger brother of Sir 
Edward Owen, and was educated with him at the cele- 
brated Hanway School, Chelsea. The following notice 
of him is taken from the nineteenth volume of the 
Monthly Articles of the Royal Astronomical Society. 
Aft^r akining theVst ..nlf at that semina^, he el 
tered the Royal Navy in the summer of 1788, on board 
the Culloden, of 74 guns, commanded by his relation. 
Sir Thomas Rich. By this officer he was from time to 
time placed in several ships, of different rates, for the 
purpose of acquiring knowledge in his profession; but 
he rejoined the Culloden so as to be present at the great 
battle fought on the 1st June, 1794. Shortly after that 
glorious conflict Mr. Owen sailed in the Ruby, 64, for the 
Cape of Good Hope, where he witnessed the captiu-e of 
a Dutch squadron of three sail of the line and six frigates 
and sloops in Saldana Bay, in August 1796. Returning 
to England after this exploit he joined the London, 98, 
bearing the flag of Admiral Colpay^ with whom he 
quitted that ship during the alarming mutiny at 
Spithead in May, 1797; for his firm conduct on that 
trying occasion he was promoted in the following 
month to the rank of lieutenant, and at the same time 
placed in command of the Flamer gunbrig. In this and 
other vessels he experienced much active and harassing 
channel service till the close of the first French re- 
volutionary war. At the commencement of hostilities 
Owen was among the foremost to tender his services, 
in consequence of which, in July, 1803, he was ap- 
pointed to command the Sea Flower, a brig of 14 
guns, and very shortly afterwards sailed for the East 
Indies, on which station he was employed upon various 
missions by the Commander-in-chief. In 1806 he 
captured Le Charle, a mischievous French ketch, and 
explored several of the channels between the eastern 
islands, to the great improvement of the charts. To- 


wards the close of that year he piloted Sir Edward 
PeUew's squadron through an intricate navigation into 
Batavia Koads. Here his bravery and skill were 
conspicuous in the command of a division of armed 
boats at a successful attack on a Dutch frigate, seven 
men-of-war brigs and about twenty armed vessels, for 
which he obtained a very honourable mention in the 
Gazette. In the following year he contributed to the 
capture and destruction of the dockyard and stores of 
Griessik in Java, together with all the men-of-war re- 
maining to Holland in India, consisting of the Revolu- 
tion, Pluto, and Kortenaar, of 70 guns each, with the 
Riistoff frigate, and a flotilla of gunboats. In 1808 
Lieutenant Owen had the misfortune of being forced to 
surrender the useful little Sea Flower to a couple of 
French frigates in the Bay of Bengal. The brig was 
soon retaken, and commissioned by Lieutenant George 
Stewart ; but Owen was carried prisoner to the Isle of 
France, where he was detained till June, 1810, when he 
was exchanged. While preparing to depart, he play- 
fully told the French Governor that perhaps they might 
soon meet again; at which General de Caen laioghed — 
albeit not often in that mood — and hoped that he 
would be brought to Port Louis in a vessel more 
worthy of capture than his last was. The badinage 
proved to be rather predictive of coming events. 

Meanwhile Owen had been made a commander, by a 
commission dated in May, 1809, and on his return to 
India was occupied in assisting the authorities at 
Madras with his opinions, and in superintending the 
transports for the expedition against the Isle of France, 
which fell in December, 1810. Our officers next ap- 
pointment was to the Barracouta, an eighteen-gun 
ship-of-war, which he joined in time for aiding at the 
blockade of Batavia, previous to the invasion of Java. 
On the arrival of the forces under General Sir Samuel 
Auchmuty and Commodore Broughton, he assisted in 
the debarkation of the troops at ChiUingching, and con- 
tinued attached to the army until after the surrender 


of Batavia, in August, 1811. He had been advanced 
to post-rank in May of the same year, and after acting 
in command of the Piedmontaise a short time, he was 
appointed a captain of the Cornelia, of thirty-two gims. 
In this frigate he sailed from Batavia Roacis in March, 
1812, with a small squadron, consisting of the Phcenix, 
Bucephalus, and other vessels under his orders, to take 

Possession of the commissariat depot at the mouth of the 
^alembang river, at the eastern end of Sumatra. Having 
achieved this object he returned to England, in charge 
of a valuable convoy from China, in Jime, 1813. 

After paying unceasing attention to the hydrography 
of the East during his cruises, Captain Owen had ren- 
dered very material assistance to his friend, the late 
Captain Horsburgh, in the compilation of his well- 
known Oriental Navigator*, and he moreover employed 
his half-pay leisure in correcting charts, and in making 
a translation of Franzini's Sailing Directions from the 
Portuguese. At length, in March 1815, he was ap- 
pointed to the surveying service on the Lakes of Canada, 
where he opened the line of operations which has since 
been so ably completed by his eldue, the present Rear- 
Admiral Bayfield. In August, 1821, he was appointed 
to the Leven, twenty-four, in which corvette, with the 
Barra^outa, he was for upwards of four years employed 
in an examination of the west and east coits of Afrii- 
an arduous duty carried on in the face of malignant 
fever and deadly casualties. In the Ashantee war he 
was able to render an effective co-operation to General 
Turner, as was acknowledged by the latter in the 
London Gazette. 

On his return from this mission. Captain Owen's re- 
presentations were so strong that the Island of Fer- 
dinando Po, in the Bight of Benin, would not only prove 
more healthy than Sierra Leone, but would also afford 
greater facilities for the suppression of the slave trade, 
that he was commissioned in February 1827 to the 
Eden, of twenty-six guns, for the purpose of forminff a 
settlement there and to complete his surveys. On this 


duty he was occupied till the close of 1831, when he 
retired to half-pay, but not to idleness, for his charts, 
remark books, and attention to improving the means 
of maritime surveying, ftdly occupied his time. In 
this society he worked on our council ; and he presented 
us with two specimens of his professional ingenuity in 
a double reflecting circle, and quadruple reflecting 

The island of Campo Bello, in Passamaquoddy Bay, 
New Brunswick, belongs to the Owen family, and had 
descended to the subject of our notice and his brother : 
and as William evinced a desire to settle there. Sir 
Edward surrendered his portion to him. Here he had 
full occupation for a time in getting it in order, and in 
establishing his family, consisting of a wife and two 
daughters. Soon after his arrival he was elected member 
for that locaUty in the House of Assembly at Frederic- 
ton, where he brought to light various abuses, and 
involved himself in the cares of a staunch reformer. 
As he was still zealous in the cause of hydrography. 
Sir Francis Beaufort procured an appointment for him 
in a fine steam-vessel, the Columbia, of 100-horse power, 
to survey the Bay of Fundy, and the coast of Nova 
Scotia. Beiag superseded on his promotion to flag rank 
in December 1847, he continued the rest of his life on 

In conduct and bearing our excellent admiral was at 
once firm and kind, shrewdly sensible and imostenta- 
tious, with a manner bordering on the eccentric ; on 
service he was authoritative without being at all tyran- 
nical, a man of steady resources and imremitting zeal. 
In speech he was fluent and blunt. When a ministerial 
peer made him a proposal which he considered as not 
quite proper, he replied : " My lord, I may be poor, but 
still I am proud." On the Admiralty forwarding him 
a complaint which they had received from the Marquis 
Palmella, relative to some differences at Mozambique, 
he closed his explanations with, he "trusted that the 
word of a captain in the British navy was as good as 


that of a Portuguese marquis." He built a church at 
Campo Bello, which he endowed, and after considerable 
trouble prevailed on the provincial bishop to appoint a 
clergyman of the Church of England to it. This gen- 
tleman regularly officiated until one Sunday the admiral 
gave him notice that he wished to occupy the pulpit 
himself that day ! So singular and abrupt a hint led 
to an altercation, and as Owen declared that he would 
take possession, if necessary, by force, the clergyman re- 
signed the Kving, and the Admiral for a time regularly 
performed the clerical duties — the congregation attend- 
ing even more regularly than before. 

Vice- Admiral Owen, whose faculties had been declin- 
ing for some time, died at St. John's, New Brunswick, 
on the 3rd of November, 1857, at the advanced age of 
eighty-four years. He had been very long a Fellow of 
the Society, which he regularly attended while in town. 

The three sons of Owen Owen, the high sheriff of 
1766, were 

1. Sir Arthur Davies Owen, knight, of Glyngynwydd 
(in the parish of Llangurig) and Glansevera. Was a 
lawyer by profession, one of the deputy-lieutenants for 
the coimty, an active magistrate, and for many years 
chairman of the Quarter Sessions. In 1814 he was 
appointed high sheriff of the county, and, from the for- 
mation of the troop to the time of his death in 1816, 
was second in command of the Montgomeryshire Yeo- 
manry Cavalry. He was buried in Berriew Church. 

2. David Oiven, M.A. He entered Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and was senior wrangler of that university 
in the year 1777. He became feflow of his college, and 
subsequently was ordained priest. He died unmarried 
in 1829, at Campo Bello, in New Brunswick, and, in 
accordance with his own request, his remains were con- 
veyed across the Atlantic, and deposited in the family 
vault in the church of Berriew. 

3. William Owen, K.C., was bom in the year 1758, 
educated at the Free Grammar School at Warrington 
under his uncle, and thence proceeded to Cambridge. 


In the year 1782 he took his degree of B.A. at Trinity 
College, and was fifth wrangler. Among the members 
of his own college who graduated at the same time 
were Professors Porson and Hailstone, Drs. Raine 
and Wingfield. Mr. Owen and these four gentlemen 
were afterwards chosen fellows of Trinity College. He 
subsequently became a member of Lincoln's Inn, 
and eventually a bencher of that society. After at- 
tending the Oxford and Cheshire circuits for several 
years, he confined his practice chiefly to the Courts of 
Chancery and Exchequer. He was a Commissioner of 
Bankrupts until he was advanced to the rank of King's 
Counsel. About the year 1821 he quitted his profes- 
sion, and retired into the country, where he acted as 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant, taking an active part 
in aU the pubUc business of the county, and generaUy 
presiding L chairman of the Quarter Sessions. Mr^. 
bwen was instrumental in abolishing the system of 
Welsh judicature, and took a leading part in the par- 
liamentary reform agitation previous to the passing of 
the Reform Bill of 1832, the county of Montgomery 
being the first to petition in support of it. In 1823 
he married Anne Warburton, only child of Captain 
Sloudiiter, and relict of the Rev. Thomas Coupland, of 
the Friory, Chester, and died without issue 10th of 
November, 1837, aged 79. He was buried in Berriw 
Church, where a nandsome marble monument was 
erected in his memory by his widow, who still survives. 


As many of the old customs, superstitious beliefs, legen- 
dary lore, etc., which fall imder the title placed at the 
head of this chapter are common to most of the Arwystli 
parishes, a fuller notice of them is reserved for the pa- 
rochial account of Llanidloes. Llangurig has, however, 


from time immemorial been locally famed for its con- 
jurors" (gwyr-hysbys), its manner of keeping the wakes, 
and for retaining the old custom of Arian-y-rhaWy and 
therefore deserves a passing notice here. 

The parish, from its very situation, in the centre of 
the mountain fastnesses of the principality, far distant 
from the great centres of civilisation and progress, with 
a sparse scattered agricultural population, few of whom, 
until of late years, enjoyed any advantages of a good 
education, or intercourse with the outer world, seems 
to have been admirably adapted by its physical and 
social Lsolation for keeping alive the smouldering fire of 
the old superstitions which in times past prevailed in 
every valley of Wales. Sufficient vestiges of this wide- 
spread and firmly-rooted species of mythology still exist 
to enable the curious to trace its characteristic features, 
and to form a conception of the influence it obtained 
over the minds of the majority, and the important part 
it played in almost every action of their daily lives. It 
recognised the existence of a number of noxious spirits, 
who were the supernatural authors of the greater part 
of the "ills which human flesh is heir to," whose 
earthly devotees and agents were pre-eminently the 
witches. Some of these were supposed to have sold 
themselves body and soul, like Sion-y-Cent (the Welsh 
Faust), to the devil, to obtain his aid the more effectually 
to carry out their purposes. There were, however, 
various grades of guilt and power of working mischief 
among them. To counterbalance this principle of evil^ 
and, as it were, to make their mythological creed dually 
perfect, the existence of beneficent spirits, who had the 
well being of humanity at heart, was acknowledged. 
The fairies, or, as they are called among the Welsh 
hills, Tylwydd Teg (fair family), were generally classed 
among the good spirits; but this principle in human 
form manifested itself in those very important person- 
ages whose calling was hardly dignified enough to en- 
title them to be styled astrologers, but who were well 
known as Conjurors. Low and sordid as their motives 



were, their special province was to do battle with the 
spirit of evil in its most common form — ^that of witch- 
craft — or by granting spells, charms, and foretelling the 
future, to avert the ill which would otherwise have be- 
fallen those who placed implicit reliance upon them. 
Some of the lower class of these " cunning-men " were, 
it is true, believed to have been the familiars of the 
spirits of darkness, but the better sort were known to 
be men who, in addition to a " gift " for their special 
calling, qualified themselves by a study more or less 
thorough of the works of Michael Scott, Lily, and other 
expounders of the mysterious craft, and professed to be 
able to hold the devil himself in subjection. Add a 
profound belief in ghosts, corpse-candles, deryn-y-corph 
(the corpse bird), jack o' the lanterns, etc., and some 
notion may be formed of the secular creed prevalent in 
the parish in the •' good old days " which are past. 

The key-stone of the whole undoubtedly was the be- 
lief in witchcraft, which held its ground till within a 
late period, and cannot even yet be said to be wholly 
eradicated. Formerly its existence was regarded as a 
necessary deduction of the truthfulness of Holy Writ. 

" Had his Majesty King George II read the History of 
Witchcraft, and known as much as we do in some parts of 
Wales, he would not have called upon his Parliament to deter^ 
mine that there are no such things as witches, and his Parlia- 
ment would hardly have complimented him therein. If they 
say there never was (sic) such things as witches in the world, 
the Scripture is against them, both the Old and the New 
Testament, for there were witches in the days of Saul and in 
the days of Paul.^'i 

This is the quaint language of a nonconformist minister 
of the last century, and it may fairly be taken as the 
typical stock argument used upon all occasions by the 
believers in witchcraft when a doubt was expressed as 
to the power of witches. The following extraxst from the 
same author of " ghostly memory " illustrates another 
phase of superstition prevalent in the parish in the last 
century : 

^ AppaniionSj e/c, in Wales, by the Rev. Edmund Jones, p. 25. 



Edward Lloyd, in the parish of Llanp^arig, being very ill, 
those that were with him heard the voice of some person very 
near them; they looked aboat the house, bnt could see no 
person ; the voice seemed to be in the room where they were. 
Soon afler they heard these words, by some thing {»ic) nn- 
seen,/T mae nenbren y ty yn craccio* {'the uppermost beam 
of the house cracketh^) ; soon after, ' Fe dorr yn y man' 
('there it breaks') ; he died that moment, which much affected 
the company/'^ 

To the same industrious writer in this peculiar branch 
of literature we are indebted for a short notice of the 
first recorded conjuror who resided in the vicinity. One 
Sir David Uwyd, who lived not far from Yspytty Yst- 
vdth, in the adjoining Cardiganshire parish, appears to 
have been a " curate likely of that church, and a phy- 
sician, but being known to deal in the magic art, he 
was turned out of the curacy, and obliged to live by 
practising physic. It is thJught that le learnt th4 
magic art privately in Oxford in the profane time of 
Charles the Second, when many vices greatly pre- 
vailed." "Sir'' David was in the habit of regularly 
visiting the neighbouring market towns of Llanidloes 
and Rhayader, passing through Uangurig on his way 
to and from the former. Our author relates several 
instances of his extraordinary skill. On one occasion 
his Satanic majesty was in the habit of visiting a drunken 
tailor, vdshing to have a suit of clothes made. The 
terrified tailor appealed to Sir David, who soon sent 
the unwelcome visitor about his business- 

^^ Another time, being at Llanidloes town, in Montgomery- 
shire, twelve miles from home, and as he was going home 
very late in the evening, seeing a boy there of his neighbour- 
hood, offered him to ride behind him if he was for going 
home, which the boy accepted, and they came home in about 
two hours. The boy had lost one of his garters in the journey, 
but, seeing something hang on an ash tree near the church, 
climbed up to see what it was, and, to his great surprise, he 
found it was his garter which he had lost ; which shows they 
rode home in the air.^'^ 

^ Apparitions, eic,^ in Wales, p. 56. * Ibid., pp. 66-7, 



Unfortunately for the history of Welsh folk lore, the 
mantle of old Jones does not appear to have fallen upon 
anyone. To judge from the tales related by the old 
people of the parish, there is every reason to believe 
that the line of conjurors from Sir Davids time to the 
present has been unbroken. One of the best known of 
his class in the latter part of the last century, and in 
the early part of the present, was Edward Savage, who 
was born in the year 1 759. He resided at Felin Fawr, 
and subsequently at Troed-y-lon. During his long life 
he was consulted " far and wide" upon the mysteries of 
the magic art. He was a small farmer, a herb doctor, 
and gun-smith, but derived his chief source of income 
from his more superstitious fellow-mortals, who made 
pilgrimages to Llanguria from the neighbouring coun- 
ties, that they might have the benefit of the great 
man's advice. 

The following incident, related by a highly respectable 
and trustworthy person as a " remarkable coincidence 
which I cannot explain," wiU show the nature of the 
old conjuror's method of procedure, and the means by 
which he earned his money and his fame. The father 
of the narrator had lost one valuable pig from disease, 
and a second was purchased in his place, which was 
suddenly taken ill, and for days would eat nothing. 
Some of the credulous neighbours at once suggested 
that human agency had something to do with the pig's 
illness, in fact, that it was "witched." The young man 
resolved to secretly visit " Old Savage," and elicit his 
opinion, with no great faith in the result. Carrying his 
resolution into effect, he arrived at the conjuror s house 
and stated his errand to the wise man, who at once con- 
sulted his books, wrote out a charm, and gave him some 
herbs to mingle with the pig s food. He also gave him 
particular directions regarding the charm, and aescribed 
its immediate effect upon the patient, and further stated 
that the cause of his sufferings resided between the 
young man's home and the north, and that she should 
not rest during the night if his advice was carefully 


attended to. Savage's directions were duly carried out, 
the paper upon whicn the charm was written was iiibbed 
over the pig from head to tail the prescribed number 
of times, and then placed for his further protection in a 
crack in the wall of his cot. Some of his bristles were 
then taken, placed between two flat irons, and put on 
the top of the fire, where they remained all night. On 
the following morning, to the utter astonishment of tlie 
operator, a neighbour who lived only a few doors to the 
north came into the house as the family were at break- 
fast, and complained that she had not rested during the 
night, having suffered acutely from tooth-ache. The 
spell was broKcn, the pig recovered, and knew no more 
suffering till placed in the hands of the butcher. 

The old man, like other great men, was no hero among 
his immediate neighbours. He prided himself upon his 
facidty for detecting thefts and tracing stolen goods. A 
humorous story is related of the means adopted by a 
number of young men for destroying the old man s pres- 
tige in this respect. Watehing their opportunity, they 
entered his house one Sunday morning wnen no one was 
within, took down a dried ham that was hanging up, 
hid it very carefully, and then spread a report that it 
had been stolen. Of course the news created a sensa- 
tion, and upon his return Savage at once missed the 
bacon, and shortly afterwards heard of the visit which 
had been paid to his house during his absence. He 
vowed to punish the thieves with the most terrible 
visitations his art could inflict upon them ; horns should 
grow upon their heads, they snould be smitten with 
blindness in one of their eyes, etc., if they did not im- 
mediately restore the pilfered bacon. His threate, how- 
ever, were uttered in vain, his vaunted books were 
powerless, the thieves met him with taunts — " Savage, 
where 8 your ham ?" " Who stole your bacon. Savage?" 
The conjuror had met with his equals in cimning, for they 
completely baffled his art for days. His wife was more 
successful, for in changing the straw beneath the paliasse 
of their bed she found the missing ham, and in a plaintive 


voice informed her husband of the discovery. The old 
man, who was consulting his books at the time, cried 
out exultingly, " Well done the old books, they never 
failed me yet !'' After serving his generation in his own 
peculiar manner, he died in the year 1849, having at- 
tained the patriarchal age of ninety years; his wife, who 
lived to be eighty-five, survived him one year. Both 
lie buried in IJangurig churchyard, where a head-stone 
marks their graves. 

One R J was a contemporary of old Savage. 

He resided nearer Llanidloes, was a freeholder, and con- 
sidered a well read, enlightened man. Yet he could 
not resist the temptation of making: a gain out of the 
creddity of his Zj. ,„pe«atio^«>& He ate 

f)retended to be a doctor, and professed to be particu- 
arly skilful in counteracting tne influence of witches, 
in layinff the evil spirits who visited the earth in the 
form of Ihosts, and^in giving speUs or charms for cocks. 
Before the brutal sport of cock-fighting was put down 
by the legislature some twenty years ago, it was oft;en 
customary for the owners of game-cocks to pay a sum 
of money to a conjiu-or to obtain a spell, which was 
written upon a small strip of paper, to be securely 
fastened round the bird s leg with the view of rendering 
him invincible. One of these spells, which was pre- 
served for a long time, was found to be taken from 

Ephesians vi, 1 6. J had, for a man of his position 

and education, a valuable library. 

Another conjuror of extended fame was one William 
Pryse, of Pen-cin-coed, whose principal visitors were 
residents in Shropshire, Herefordshire, and Radnorshire, 
who must have had great faith in the man s abilities 
before they imdertook such distant pilgrimages, for this 
was long before railways were introduced into Mid- 
Wales. Pryse 8 reputation locally was not very high, 
for some one had stolen his watcn, and he was never 
able to discover the thief, nor regain possession of the 
lost property. 

The mantle of old Savage, with a double portion of 


the old man's skill, shrewdness, and intelligence, has 
fallen upon his grandson, who resides at the family resi- 
dence, Troed-y-lon, and enjoys a comfortable income 
from his various callings of herb-doctor, gxmsmith, and 
conjuror. He is no niggard in his manner of living, 
being what is generally styled a " free jolly fellow," and 
strongly addicted to the sports of coursing and shoot- 
ing. Among his neighbours he is known as one who 
is ever ready to assist in doctoring patients, whether 
human or farm stock, and many are the cures with 
which he is justly credited, for he possesses very con- 
siderable knowledge of herbs and their medicinal pro- 
perties. The higher pretensions of his art are reserved 
for more distant admirers, who call upon him regularly 
at appointed places of meeting at Llanidloes, Newtown, 
and Welshpool. One of the most ordinary manifesta- 
tions of witchcraft is the inability of the " chumer " to 
convert the cream into butter, and is the frequent cause 
of a visit to the wise man. Respectable farmers from 
a great distance either go or send messengers to Llan- 
gurig in order to have the spell broken. Another sub- 
ject which leads to frequent consultations is the illness 
of farm stock, in which case the conjurors knowledge 
does him good service. One example out of many that 
could be giveit will suffice to show the general modus 
operandi in these cases. The following anecdote was 
related to the writer by a thoroughly original character, 
who had imbibed the belief in witchcraft with his 
mothers milk, and who brought it forward with the 
intention of making a convert. A well-to-do and re- 
spectable farmer in an adjoining parish, who was a 
deacon of his chapel, was desirous that the Llangurig 
conjuror should be consulted, as his calves were very 
unweU. But the farmer was anxious not to appear in 
the matter, so he asked a second person to employ the 
individual who related the facts, who readily imdertook 
the necessary journey to visit the wise man. Arrived 
at his house, his errand told, the conjuror at once re- 
tired to his sanctum to consult his books, while some 


one remained in the kitchen to watch the clock, and 
give him the correct time when he required it. The 
ceremony gone through, the charm and simples were 
handed to the messenger, and the necessary directions 
given as to the use of the same. But they did no good. 
One of the calves died, and on the following week the 
same man was again sent to Llangurig, in the hope that 
the second journey would prove more beneficial to the 
surviving calves. When informed of the death of the 
calf the conjuror said that the failure was to be at- 
tributed to a mistake in giving him the correct time on 
the occasion of the first consultation. Once more the 
inner room was entered, and the same ceremony re- 
peated, more herbs and another charm was handed to 
the messenger, and very careful directions as to their 
use were given. Arrived at the cow-house, the herbs 
were administered, and each calf was duly rubbed with 
the charm^ from head to tail nine times, and the name of 
the Trinity invoked. This done the charm was placed 
in a hole in some of the timber- work of the ceiling of 
the " bay " to avert future misfortune. The calves, of 
course, recovered. 

At a considerable distance in the profession — as for- 
tune-teller — came one of the weaker sex, an old lady 
whose proper name was Mary Evans, but who from the 
habit of telling fortunes and making forecasts for the 
small charge of one penny, was familiarly known as 
Pal-y-geiniog (Penny Maty). Her mode of looking 
into futiirity was very simple. It consisted in pouring 
tea-grounds into a cup, which were turned round rapidly 
and then allowed to settle in the bottom of the cup. 

^ My informant could not say what was written upon the paper 
which oonntituted the charm, but Mr. Baring Gould gives the fol- 
lowing one which was used upon a similar occasion. 

" A charm for cattle — 
Our Lord Jesus Christ went over the land, 
With His staff in His hand, 
The Holy Qhost in His mouth. 

In the name, etc. 
And the sign of the crobs is made nine times over the cuttle." 


From the disposition of the tea-leaves the old dame 
used to read her prognostications. She was also fre- 
quently consulted by persons who were about making 
trading ventures, purchases, or upon their undertaking 
long journeys. She resided in a small cottage on Rhos- 
y-wrach (Hag's Moor), and often upon a fine Simday 
afternoon in the summer numbers of ladies, some of 
them upon horseback from a considerable distance, 
would visit the old woman to have their fortimes told. 
She was in the habit of charging the " upper-class " 
visitors half-a-crown. A short time before her death 
she abandoned the practice of fortune-telling, and be- 
came a member of tne church. 

The Wakes (Gwylrmab-santJ. This holidav originated 
in the religious ceremony observed upon the day com- 
memorating the dedication of the church by Curig 
Lwyd to his patron saint, St. Cyrique. This day falls 
upon June 1 6th, and the wake generally began on the 
Sunday following the saint's day, the anniversary being 
regarded by the parishioners as the great feast and 
holiday of the year. In the time of the Stuarts there 
is evidence to show that in the neighbouring parish of 
Llanidloes the usual games and sports were carried on 
upon Sunday, in which respect Llanguiig most probably 
was not behind its neighbour, — a custom which perhaps 
tended to obtain for it from the followers of Vavasour 
Powell the character of being " noted for untoward- 
ness." In the early part of the present century, 
Llanguriff wakes possessed sufiicient attraction to col- 
lect m tne village the " choicest spirits" and athletes 
of the neighbouring parishes, who took an active part 
in the various games that were going on, in the fun 
and froUc which were the usual concomitants of the 
holiday, which, whUe it lasted, converted the small 
village into a fair. Unfortunately, the feasting, drink- 
ing, etc., were oflen prolonged for days in succession, 
the visitors and parishioners gradually returning to 
their homes as their pockets grew lighter, and the 
wakes were frequently brought to a close when the 


participators in the various pastimes had spent all their 
money in one of the two inns of the village. Sometimes 
drunkenness and party fights disgraced the proceed- 
ings. This caused right-minded persons to exert their 
influence in putting an end to such scenes. Their efforts 
were successful, and latterly the athletic games and 
out-door sports so prevalent in the parish in olden 
times gradually became neglected, and the wakes itself 
to be considered among the things of the past. 

Arian-y-rhatv (Shovel-money). At all funerals which 
take place at Llangurig, when the coflSn has been lowered 
into the grave, the parish clerk holds a shovel over the 
open grave, upon w\ich he receives the contributions 
from the relatives and friends of the deceased. This 
custom is a reUc of the times when the Roman Catholic 
religion prevailed in the principality, and it was custom- 
ary to pay money to the priest for offering masses for 
the souls of the dead. The money placed upon the 
shovel is called Arian-y-rhaiv , and is the clerk's fee. As 
it is regarded as a mark of respect and esteem towards 
the deceased to contribute, and as nothing but sUver^ or 

^ In connexion with the custom of contributing only silver or 
gold coins, the following incident was related to the writer. An 
eccentric character, who was a confirmed lover of his beer, named 
Richard James, a glazier at Llanidloes, on one occasion accompanied 
a funeral to Llangurig. Arrived at the village and examining his 
pockets he found himself the possessor of a solitary silver sixpence, 
his mite for Arian-y-rhaw. His five miles walk had not tended to 
allay his customary thirst, and the state of his funds provoked a 
mental debate. Should he have his beer, or should he practise self- 
denial P It was very difficult to carry out the latter suggestion ; 
his mouth watered at the very thought of his favourite beverage : 
yet he was too proud to leave the churchyard without contributing, 
and too dignified to enter the inn moneyless. A happy thought 
occurred to him which he at once carried out. He entered the 
church in the iuneral cortege^ and when it came to his turn to place 
some piece of money upon the extended shovel, he gravely deposited 
six copper pennies upon it, for which he had exchanged his sixpenny- 
piece. Observing the act, old George Bennett who then officiated 
as clerk, quietly addressed him in Welsh. 

"I am greatly obliged to you, Richard James, but no copper 
coins are received at this offering." 

"I am very much obliged to you, my dear George," was the 


gold is received, it frequently happens that the clerk 
collects a large sum. If in addmg up the money 
an odd sixpence occurred, it was formerly deemed an 
omen that another funeral would take place shortly. 


1. Nonconformity. — ^When the parochial clergy were 
expeUed from their livings, by virtue of the "Act for 
the better propagation and preaching of the Gospel in 
Wales," which was passed February 22nd, 1649, their 
successors appear to have made some progress in bringing 
over the people to their views, for Llangurig was neld 
up as an example of their influence (vide supra, chap, iii, 
§ 5). But their authority, as far as can be ascertained, 
appears to have terminated at, or very shortly after, 
the Restoration. 

Early in the last century the influence of the great 
Welsh Methodist revival penetrated into this remote 
district; one Richard Tibbot, who in the year 1743 
was appointed to report upon the "state of the Church" 
in Montgomeryshire to an association in South Wales, 
made the following statement : — 

" Society in Llangurig. — The members resident here 
go to the Tyddjna and join that society."^ 

The Tyddyn farm house alluded to is in the adjoining 
parish of Llanidloes, seven miles distant from the village 

ready response; "onr good friend, Evan Davies" (landlord of the 
lower inn) " will'gladly receive them." James picked up the money, 
and wended his way to Ty Cutig (the inn). 

The George Bennett referred to above died in the year 1817 at 
the age of 69. He was landlord of the Bine Bell, or npper inn, and 
was sncceeded as clerk by his son, Samuel Bennett, who held the 
post for a g^eat number of years. After his death it was filled by 
Edward Rces, who was also the village schoolmaster. His successor 
was Evan Jones, the present clerk. 

^ Methodisiiaeth CymrUj i, 173. 


of Llangurig, and was one of the earliest places in the 
neighbourhood which afforded shelter to the persecuted 
Methodist preachers of those days. The Rev. Peter 
Williams visited the district in 1746, and others of the 
great revivalists — Daniel Rowlands, of Llangeitho, and 
Howel Harris visited Llanidloes more than once in the 
following years, and the short distance between Llan- 
gurig and Llanidloes offered no obstacle to people who 
were in the habit of walking between forty and fifty 
miles to receive the communion at the hands of Daniel 

The preachers were generally treated at first with 
ridicule, scorn, and persecution. Sometimes their lives 
were in danger. But they also occasionally met witli 
gentlemen wno made efforts to get the people to allow 
them to preach in peace. An example of this more 
humane disposition is quoted in Methodisiiaeth Cymric 
(iv, 357). As the incident affords a glimpse at the state 
of society in the district in those days, a translation of 
it is here given. 

^' On one occasion a number of the leading men of the town 
(Llanidloes) and the neighbourhood were collected together in 
one of the inns at the time that the old Reformers (the Re- 
vivalists) began preaching in the vicinity. These strangers, 
who were going about the country agitating and disturbing 
the peace of their neighbours^ became the subject of their dis- 
cussion^ and the greatest readiness was evinced, not only to 
treat them with ridicule by styling them Caradocs^ and Round- 
heads, but to punish them if it could be done safely. There 
happened to be among them an elderly gentleman, who was 
highly respected, of the name of Jenkyn Lloyd, Esq. (of 
Clochfaen). This gentleman was a justice of the peace, and to 
him nearly the whole town and country resorted to seek ad- 
vice upon matters relating to the law. After the other gentle- 
men present had delivered themselves of their strong opinions 
about the preachers, styling them unruly and hateful wanderers, 
Mr. Lloyd rose and addressed them to the following effect :-^ 
* Well, gentlemen, you know very well the manner in which 
our clergymen discharge their duties — the vicar of Llangurig, 
so and so, the vicar ot Llanidloes, Llandinam, Tref- 

^ The name was given them as followers of Wulior Caradoc. 


eglwjs, Carno, Llanwnog, Penstrowed' 

depicting their irregular style of living and theirutterindifference 
for the spiritual welfare of their parishioners. 'And what 
wonder/ he continued, ' if these strangers, who are anxious to 
save men's souls, should come among us and tell ns the naked 
tinith about our behaviour/ Having heard this address without 
being able to gainsaj it^ they held their peace and let these 
men alone/' 

For a long period the Nonconformists were neither 
numerous enough nor in a position to erect suitable 
edifices in which to conduct their services, but held 
them from house to house, chiefly in some of the more 
commodious farm-houses in the neighboiu-hood of the 
village, and in other centres of population, such as 
Cwm-belan, Glyn-Brochan, etc., where chapels were 
subsequently built. Early in the present century each 
of the great sects had established themselves in the 
parish, and began building chapels in the more ponulous 
distncte. At present there are nine dissenting ckpels 
within the limits of the parish. 

The Calvinistic Methodists have three, viz., 1, Demol 
Chapel, built about the year 1 825 ; 2, Capel Ucha (Upper 
Chapel) ; 3, a chapel in the village of Llangurig, enlarged 
and re-opened in 1866. 

The Wesleyans have three chapels, situated 1, in the 
village ; 2, in Cwm-belan ; 3, on Pen-cin-coed. 

The Baptists have one, called Zioriy in Cwm-belan, 
buat in 1827, re-built 1837, and enlarged in 1860. 

The Independents have two chapels, one in Glyn- 
Brochan, the other in Glyn-Hafren, in the neighbour- 
hood of the Old Hall. 

2. Education. — As far as can be ascertained no 
regular and well-conducted school appears to have 
existed in the parish, although for the last forty years 
a school has been kept for a considerable portion of the 
year at the church, either in the vestry or the gallery. 
It was first established by Mr. James, the vicar of the 
parish, in 1832, and shortly after its opening numbered 
some sixty scholars, forty-three of whom were paid for 
by annual subscription, every subscriber of ten shillings 


being allowed to send a child for one year, the rest 
being instructed at the expense of their parents.^ This 
school was conducted for a number of years by the late 
Mr. Edward Rees, who also discharged the duties of 
parish clerk. He was a well-informed and intelligent 
man, and the school while under his care was above 
the average of country schools conducted by untrained 
teachers. Since his death the school has occasionally 
been carried on in the winter months by the letter 
carriers from Llanidloes. 

It is greatly to be regretted that the inhabitants 
have not long ago bestirred themselves, and, following 
the example of the other Arwystli parishes, established 
a well conducted day school under the care of a compe- 
tent teacher. Perhaps Llangurig, of all the Arwystli 
paiishes, suffers most from the evils of absentee land- 
owners. Taking the Eate-book of 1869 as our guide, 
we find the gross estimated rental of the parish given 
as £5,740; four-seventJis of this property is in the 
possession of half a dozen proprietors, all of whom are 
absentees. The backwardness of the parish in educa- 
tional matters may to a great extent be attributed to 
this cause, but it is one that is likely to be remedied by 
the new educational bill. 

Small private schools have at various periods been 
established in different parts of the parish, more espe- 
cially in the hamlets of Cwm-belan, Glyn-Brochan, 
Glyn-Hafren, &c. 

The number attending Sunday schools in the parish 
amounted to 376 in 1831, and tne numbers at present 
attending have been estimated at from 300 to 350. 

3. Roads. — This section was unintentionally omitted 
from the first chapter. 

The old road formerly connecting the village with the 
town of Llanidloes went hy Pen-y-^roesau, Rhos-y-iurach, 
Blaen-y-glyn through Glyn-Brochan^ and entered the 
town over the Short Bridge. Another old line of road- 
way connecting Llanidloes with Aberystwith led over 

^ Lewia's Top, Dictionanjf art. Llangurig. 


the moTintains to the north of the village. Both routes 
appear to have fallen into disuse before the close of the 
last century. 

The road connecting the village with Rhayader was 
constructed in 1830, and placed the village on the great 
coach route between London and Aberystwith via 
Hereford. This route continued to be used by coaches 
until the opening of the Cambrian system of railways. 

The late Rev. Walter Davies writing to a friend in 
the year 1813, respecting a journey through the village, 
has the following passage in his letter : — 

'' May 26. — ^Went to Llangurig by six o'clock ; proceeded 
through the desert of Pumlumon, through which Mr. Johnes 
had the vanity to suppose that an iron railroad would cause 
plenty to smile over the forlorn waste."^ 

The Manchester and Milford Company have con- 
structed a line of " iron railroad" between Llanidloes 
and Llangurig, but it has never been opened for traffic. 

4. Fairs. — Two fairs are held annually in the viUage, 
one in the month of April (first held April 23rd, 1869) 
and the other in October. The latter is called " Sheep 
Fair." From a paragraph m a local paper it appears 
that upwards of two thousand sheep were penned in 
the fair of 1868. 

^ Gweithiau Gwalter Mechain^ iii, 383. 





f. farm. t. tenement. o. owner. t.p. township. 

Adkr, defined by Llwyd as " the fall of a lesser water into a greater." 
According to K Llwyd, Arch, Brit.y p. 50, Aber-=: " Cymmer, Lat. 
confiuvium, a place where two or more rivers meet." So Isaac 
Taylor in Words and Places^ " a confluence of waters, either of two 
rivers or of a river with the sea, in which sense it = also the Gaelic 
* Inver.' From the fact that 'Inver* (sitelt Ynver) occurs in two 
poems ascribed to Taliessin, and that * Aber' occurs in places in Ire- 
land, as well as in Wales and parts of Scotland inhabited by the 
Picts, as well as by the Britons, Mr. Skene, {Four Ancient Books 
of WaleSy i, lW-4,) concludes that both words were at one time 
common to the three languages, and that all three were formed 
from an old word * ber', signifying water. To such a word there 
appears a resemblance in the Irish ' bir/ aqua, noted by K Lluyd, 
Arch, Brit J Til ii, p. 3." H. w. LU 

Cymmer = oonflux, confluence. In a cymmer both streams ought 
to lose their name. The term is never used of a river falling into 
the sea. d. s. e. 

Aber-bidno, the confluence of the Bidno (with the Wye) : a f. of 28 
ac., t.p. Llanifynu, part of the Clochfaen estate. 

Aber-Gynwtdd, the confluence of the Gynwydd (with Afon Tylwch) : 
the united stream is afterwards known as the Dulas. In a deed 
of the year 1757, Aber- Gynwydd is the name by which the present 
Pen-pont-bren mill is described. This old deed gives us the original 
name of the stream now called Nant Cwm-Belan, and shows that 
the farm of ^/y?i-Gynwydd ought more properly be called Glan- 
Gynwydd ; the township lying along the banks of the stream retains 
its proper appellation, 6^/^n-Gynwydd. 

Aber-tri-nant, the confluence of the three ravines or brooks, name of 
a small t. in the t.p. of Llanifynu, o. Mr. John Morgan. C. f. Aher- 
tri'dwfyr in Glamorganshire and Aber-dau-nant in the parish of 

Aber-ucha, the upper Aber (so called to distinguish it from Aber- 
Bidno), a f. of 35 ac. in the t.p. of Llanifynu. 

Afon (Avon) the Welsh for a river. It is never used in Welsh as a 
proper name, but as a common name prefixed to the designations 

■ The compiler gratefully acknowledges the assistance which he has re- 
ceived from the followinj; gentlemen :— the Revs. D. S. Evans and R. H. 
Jones, H. W. Lloyd, Esq., and J. C .Hughes, Esq., all of whom kindly perused 
the MS. before it was placed in the printer's hands. Some of their notes, 
with their initials attached, have been inserted. 


of the various streams, and is more especially used when the dis- 
tinctive proper name is also the appellation of some other object, 
as Afon Uor^^ A fan Tylwch^ etc. 

Allt-y-derw, slope of the oaks, name of a hill three miles to the 
N.w. of the village. Its sides now are destitute of trees, but the 
name preserves the memory of the time when its sides were covered 
with timber. 

Baili or 6£iLi. Baili is defined by Dr. Pugh to be a court before 
a house, and synonymous with huarthy a fold. This is the general 
meaning of the term in South Wales. In Irish the term is equiva- 
lent to an abode, synonymous with the Welsh tre {Words and 
PlaceSy p. 484). It is the name of a farm of 84 ac. in the t.p. of 
Glyn-Hafren, o. C. J. Elwell. There is a cluster of three fs. of this 
name in the adjoining parish of St. Harmon. 

Bel AN. Various conjectural meanings of this term have been given. 
The late Rev. Walter Davis has the following observations upon it : 

" I once thought that the derivation was from Bel-Ian (Llan-Bel), 
the enclosure of Bel, Belinus, Baal, etc. We have Belan-deg (fair 
Belan) in Manafon, Belan-ddu, Belan Wydd, Belan-las, Belan 
Argae in the parishes adjoining, but I never witnessed any remains, 
stone or earthen, which might favour the idea that they were places 
consecrated to any kind of worahip. A rounded hill^ a frustum of 
a cone might have been denominated Belan from its shape ; but 
some of our Belans lie on flat ground. 

'* That a heathen deity was o^^ce idolized in Britain is proved by 
the inscription on the altar found in the country of the Brigantes, 
which exhibited in Roman characters, * Beo Marti Beta tu Cadra? 
The last word is evidently Welsh — Bely Duw Cadr; Bel the Potent 
God. The Romans persuaded the colonized Britons that the 
British Bd was identified in their Mars, hence Deo Marti of the 
inscription. In the British language hela and rhyvela is to wage 
war. Belgoe^ warlike Gauls in Caesar, etc., emigrated to Britain 
and Ireland ; hence the Fir-hdg of the latter. Their fires on the 
eve of the first of May, still called Beal-teine (the fire of Baal), 
savours of a Phoenician origin."^ 

The author of Words and Place»^ sees in the word vestiges 
of an ancient cultus, showing some original connexion between 
the Syrian Baal and the Celtic Bel. Baal, according to Professor 
Nilsson,-'^ has given his name to many Scandinavian localities, e. g, 
the Baltic, the Great and Little Belt, Belteberga, etc. 

In Llwyd's Arch, Brit, tit. i, p. 33, is found the following : — 
" A Berry or Barrow [a hillock], Bern ; Twyn, bellan, brynkyn. 
As the modern * 11 ' is invariably written *lh' by Llwyd, it is evident 
that his ' bellan ' = the modem * belan,' and that it meant a hil- 
lock, mound, tumulus, or barrow. h. w. lu 

' Collected Works of OwalUer Mechain, iii, 514. 

2 P. 325 (ed. 1865). See also Arch, Camb., 1848, pp. 21, etc. 

3 Quoted in Prehiatorie Times, p. 71, 2iid ed. 



Mr. Silvan Evans thinks there can be no doubt about tlie term 
being descriptive, and most probably is a diminutive of hdl, a hill, 
a peak. Both the Llangurig Belans are situated on hills, and the 
ravine at the foot of one of these hills is known as Cwm-belan. 

Bod talog, see Mytalog. 

BoL-HAUL, rotundity facing the sun, the converse of CU-hatd (where 
the sun does not shine), a name given to the southern slope of 

Blaen, a generic term which enters largely into the composition of 
Welsh topographical names. It signifies literally a pointy end, or 
extremity, and when applied to streams indicates their sources. 

Blaen-Bythigion, the source of the Bythigion, the name of a small 
f. of 14 ac. in the t.p. of Glyu-Hafren, o. John Morgan. 

Bythigion, the plural of Bythig, never failing streamlets. R. h. j. 

Blaen-t-cwm, the end of the hollow, or dingle, the name of a f. of 
42 ac. in the t.p. of Llaniwared, part of the Clochfaen estate. 

Blaen-y-glyn, end of the glen, a mountain f. of 126 ac., t.p. of 
Glyn-Brochan, o. Mr. Williams. 

Blaen-Twrch, source of the Twrch. Twrch is a common name of 
Welsh streams. 

Blue-bell Inn, one of the two inns of the village, has a f. of 11 ac. 
attached, part of Clochfaen estate in 1771, now the property of 
Mrs. Jane Bennett. 

Brith-dir, variegated land, a name which it probably received when 
the furze or heath was in full blossom ; a small f. of 13 ac, t.p. of 
Llaniwared, o. Mr. Williams. 

Brochak, noisy, foaming, a trib. of the Dulas (see p. 1 2). 

Bron-felen, the yellow knoll, a f. of 92 ac, t.p. Glyu-Hafren, o. 
Mr. Williams. 

Bron-haul, the sunny knoll, af. in the tp. Glyn-Brochan. 

Bryn, hill. 

Bryn-cyllau, pronounced q/lle, probably derived from cyllen or cyllan, 
the diminutive of cyll, the plural of collen, the hazel-tree. If this 
derivation be accepted it means the hill of the hazel-tree. r.h.j. 

Dr. Pugh, 8. V. cyll, plural cyllau, gives as the meaning a separa- 
tion, what separates, so that it may mean the hill of separation. 
H.W.LL. It is the name of a f. of 39 ac, t.p. Llanifynn, part of 
the Clochfaen estate. One of its fields is called Givar-y-castelL 

Bryn-daith, the hill of flame, or the blazing hill, probably derived 
from the old custom of burning the furze, heath, etc., on the hill 
tops. By the laws of Howel Dda this operation was restricted 
under a penalty to the month of March. ^ Llywarch H6n alludes 
to the custom in his poem to Geraint Feib Erbin, stanza 1 4. 

» My/Areh., p 1066 (Gfte'fl Reprint). 


"Twrnf goteith ar diffeith mynit."i 
A noise like that of the conaaming fire on a wild mountain].^ 
" Drwy*r aweddwr, drwy'r oddaith."' 
|_Through the rapid stream, through the blazing heath]. 

This hill is situated between Nant lago and Nant-y-Cawrdy. 

Bryn-du, black hill, elevated land on the eastern confines of the 
parish, also the names of several holdings on its slopes. 

Brtn-Dulas, hill of the Dulas, a small f. of 17 ac. on a rising knoll 
on the right bank of the Dulas, t.p. Ccfn-yr-hafodau, o. Mrs. 
Phillips, Abeiystwith. 

Bryn-mawr, large hill, a high hill in the t.p. of Cefn-yr-hafodau, from 
the summit of which there is an extensive and pleasant view. 

Bryn-y-oarreg-wen, hill of the white stone, situated to the south of 

BwLCH, a generic term signifying a hollow, gap, defile, or pass. There 
is a farm of this name in the township of Llanifynu, o. Mrs. Owen 

BwLCH-HAFOD-Y-GOG, the hollow of the cuckoo's summer abode, a f. of 
74 ac., t.p. Glyn-Gynwydd, o. Mrs. Phillips 

BwLCH-Y-GARREO, the pass of the stone, a f. of 118 ac., t.p. Cefn-yr- 
hafodau, o. Mrs. Owen ; formerly part of the Clochfaen estate. 

Mr. J. C. Symons, in a paper* on the Permanence of Jidces, quotes 
a letter from a correspondent, which mentions this farm as the 
residence of a descendant of the notorious (rwilliaid Cochion of 
Mawddwy. " I w^as fortunate enough to find out some descendants 
of the * Gwilliaid * on the maternal side, and those in my native 
parish of Llangurig. When these Welsh Caffirs were sent from 
Mallwyd, they wandered here and there, and some of the females 
were pitied by the farmers and taken into their houses and taught 
to work. One of these was married to a person not far from this 
place, and their descendants live at Bwlch-y-garreg, Llangurig. I 
knew the old man quite well. There certainly was something 
peculiar about him; he was seventy when I was a boy of fifteen ; he 
had dark lank hair, a very ruddy skin, with teeth much projecting, 
and a receding brow. I never heard his honesty questioned, but 
mentally he was considered much below the average ; the children, 
also, are not considered quick in anything." Descendants of the 
* Gwilliaid ' are also to be found in Mawddwy to this day. 

BwLCH-Y-PRiDD, hoUow or pass of the loose earth, a f. in t.p. of Llani- 
fynu, o. Mrs. Owen. 

BwLCH-Y-siGL EN-LAS, pass or defile of the green bog or quagmire, about 
5 m. to the w. of Llanidloes. 

1 Skene's Four Ancient Books of Wales, ii, 38. 

' Thid.f i, 26H; see also Owen's Llywarth Hen, p. 9, note a. 

» Lewis Olyn Cothi's Works, p. 432, line 20. 

* In the Arch. Comb, for ]R54, p. 12<». 

P 2 


Cae-crwn, round field, a small f. of 9 ac., t.p. Glyn-Brochan. 

Cae-mawr, large field, a f. of 40 ac, t.p. Llanifynu, o. Mrs. Owen of 

Can'coed, a contraction of Cae-yn-y-coed, field in the wood, a f. of 
35 ac, t.p. Gljn-Brochan, o. Mr. Williams. Also the name of a 
small hamlet on the banks of the Hafren, 1 ^ mile w. of Llanidloes, 
consisting of a factory, fulling mill and several cottages. 

Can'fedw (Cae-yn-y-fedw), field in the birch grove, a f. of 98 ac, t.p. 
Glyn-Brochan, o. Mrs. Marsh. 

Carn-bwlch y-cloddiau, cam of the defile of the ditches (noticed 
p. 20). 

CarN'Y-groes, cam of the cross (p. 21). 

Carreg-Bwla, ^Bwla*s stone, a f. of 18 ac, t.p. Llaniwared, o. Mr. 

Castell, castle, a small t. with 6 ac. of land attached, t.p. Glyn- 

Castell-greido, Greido or Grido (as it is pronounced) may be a proper 
name, but Mr. R. H. Jones thinks that it is Montgomeryshire cor- 
ruption of the word gwaredog, if so the name would mean castle of 
refuge. Fields belonging to the Old Hall farm are known by the 
names of Hafren Grido and Y-Grid^. Castell Greido* is a f. of 42 
ac, t.p. Glyn-Hafren. 

Ca8Tell-y-dail, leafy castle, a f of 32 ac, t.p. Glyn-Hafren, o. Mr. 

Cefn literally means back, applied to a ridge in topography. Apart 
from being a generic term it is also the name given to several 
farms in this and the adjoining parishes. 

Crfn-brwyn, the rushy ridge, a f. of 65 ac, t.p. Llanifynu, lately 
purchased by Sir W. W. Wynn. A lead mine has lately been dis- 
covered upon this farm ; it is called Bdl-miner. 

Cefn-blwch, a corruption of Cefn-bwlch, ridge of the hollow, name 
of a hill (see p. 15) and a f of 52 ac, formerly the property of the 
late T. E. Marsh, Esq. ^ 

Cefn-beidiog, the ivy-ridge, a f. of 58 ac, t.p. Glyn-Brochan, part of 
Clochfaen estate. 

Cefn-cownen, ridge of the reed grass, a small mountain of 18 ac, 
t.p. Llanifynu. 

Cefn-hafod-wen, ridge of the fair summer abodes, the hill situated 
to the north of the Beili. 

Cbfn-hir-brisg, ridge of the long copse, the hill situated to the n. of 
the village. 

1 Bwla may be a proper same, but Mr. D. S. Evans points out that it 
also is applied in South Wales to a gelt ball, and that " Gwellt-y-bwla" is a 
cofirse monntain grass. 


CEFS-FODt (Cefn-yr-hafouau), ridge of the summer abodes, the 
name of one of the townehips, and of a f. of 121 ac, formerly part 
of the Clochfaen estate, and long the residence of one of the old 
Llangurig familieB, see pp. 80-82. 

Cebbig-waen-t-llan, stones of the church Moorland, the name of a 
large level tract on the summit of E^air, Clochfaen; for the tradi- 
tion connected with it sec ii. p. 32. 

CiLGWROiN, (Jwrgnn's retreat or hiding place, the names of twofs. in 
the tp. of Llaniwared, the lesser has an area of 20 ac. ; part of 
Clochfaen estate ; the greater (/airr) 58 ac. ; o. Mr. Prj'se, Pant-drain. 

CiLGWTN, the white or fair nook or retreat, a f. of 50 ac., in the tp. 
of Cefo-jT-hafodau, o. Mr. ^Villianls. 

t;iK-coED, ciu may be a corruption of Ce/it, ce'n ; in which case the 
word would mean the ridge of the wood. It is the uamc of a hill 
in the t.p. of Olyn-Brochan, and also of several small fa. and teiie- 
meuts on its slopes. 

Oloch-faes. This is the ortliography of the word for the last three 
centuries, and it means literally ft stone bell. As if to confirm this 
interpretation of the term, a stone relic called Y clock-faen (the 
stone bell) is still preserved at the present farm which has been 
erected on the site of the old mansion. This old stone {see 
p. 25), which is here figured in two positions, appears to have 
been intended when finished for the upper stone of a quern, though 
it DOW presents uo traces of its having been iised for the purpose 
of grinding com. 

The author of the E^det. Autiq. of Uie Cymry (p. 188) sUtes 
" That the word Cloeh would seem to imply that a hard slate or 
flat stone was originally used by the Cymry to answer the purpose 
of a bell."' Is this name a relic of the times when such stone 
bells were usedl Maeo -cloche^, a parish in Pembrokcsliire, accord- 
ing to Fenton (p. 348), obtained its name from " Maen-clochog, the 
' "From the authoiB of thoaa times it however appears that the njnum wob 
not a bell, and elotea was a wooden board having knockers affixed to it, as 
still used in the Eastern churches, where the u»e of bells was unknown till 


Welsh for ringing stone, from two large stones that lay near the 
road side about a bowshot from the church to the south-west, 
possessing that property, now broken and removed." 

Another theory as to the origin of the word is that it is derived 
from Clochi, to bubble, and /aw, a place, the place of bubbling 
w^ater. There are numerous springs of excellent water in imme- 
diate proximity to the farm. An old well formerly in the kitchen 
of the old mansion still exists, and its water is used by the present 

Cnuwch, a bush, or according to another explanation it is a corrup- 
tion of Cefn-t/ch (ridge of the ox) : its pronunciation (as if written 
cnuch) favours the latter theory. It is the name of a f. 53 ac., t.p. 
Llani wared. 

Coed-cab, brushwood or wood for fencing, a detached portion of Lower 
Glan-Dulas farm, lately reclaimed ; formerly a favourite haunt of 
the lads of Llanidloes in the nutting season. 

CoED-cocHiON, red wood (the name probably given in the autumn), a 
f. of 46 ac., t.p. Glyn-Gynwydd, o. Dr. Davies. 

CoED-YR-EXRESS may be either the wood of the heiress, or it may be 
a corruption of eirww, burning cinders, in which case it would 
mean the wood that w-aa cut down to be converted into charcoal. 
A small holding of 7 ac, t.p. Glyn-hafren, o. C. J. El well. 

CoLWYN, a bantling, a whelp, a trib. of the Severn (see p. 12). Two 
other Montgomeryshire streams are known by this name, one flows 
into the Taranon in Llanwnog parish, the other in the Vimwy 
near Ystym-Colwyn. 

Craig-las, blue rock, a f. of 22 ac., t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. Mrs. Matthews. 

Croes-ty, cross house, a f . of 23 ac, t.p. Llaniwared now joined to 
Tau-yr-allt ; part of Clochfaen estate. 

Crug-nant, heathery ravine, a f. of 18 ac, t.p. Llaniwared, o. Mr. 
Pryse, Pant-drain. 

CwM, Dr. Pugh (Diet. «u6 voce) defines it to be " a piece of ground 
between two hills when the sides come together in a concave form, 
whereas the sides of a glyn approach in a convex form."^ Another 

A.D. 8G6, when a belfry was first attached to St. Sophia according to Bona. 
In fact clocca is a Celtic name for the instrument with which the ancient 
Druids called the Irish to congregate together (O'Conor's BibL Stowensis, 
App., pp. 31-2). Thus, in process of time, according to the pi-actice of the 
early Christians, the name of a Pagan instrument was transferred to its re- 
presentative in the ceremonies of the Christian Church." Arch. Comb, for 
1848, p. 307. 

On the above Mr. Harries Jones remarks " Cloch — clock, Bussian kolokol, 
is undoubtedly a Teutonic word and not Celtic. The Welsh verb clochi, to 
bubble, is formed from cloch-dw/r, a bubble or water-bell, and therefore 
proves nothing." 

^ A glyn has sides or slopes running parallel or nearly so, while a cwm has 
uiuro of the resemblance of a milk-pan. When there is no outlet a lake 
will bo found at its bottom. D. a. k. 


authority defines it as a hollow between two hills open at one end 
only. It is frequently used as the name of a farm, but it is more 
commonly employed as a generic term, and it enters largely into 
the composition of names throughout the principality. Sometimes 
it is used in conjunction with the term glyn, as Cwm Glyn-Brochan 
and Cwm Glyn-HafreUy etc., and in some instances we find it 
repeated, in the same appellation as in Cwni-hyT-gwrn^ affording 
what the author of Words and Places (p. 211) calls the redupli- 
cation of synonyms. 

It is the name of a f. of 76 ac, tp. Cefn-yr-hafodau, o. Hugh 

Cwm-Belan, the hollow of the Belan, the name of a hamlet on the 
road side which leads from Llanidloes to Llangurig, two miles from 
the former. It is situated at the foot of the hill on the summit of 
which is Belan farm, and contains a factory for the manufacture of 
flannel, two chapels, two inns, a smithy, and several cottages ; t.p. 

CwM-CocH, the red hollow, a small holding of 5 ac, t.p. Glyn- 

CwM-DuLAS, hollow of the Dulas, a f. of 102 ac, t.p. Cyfn-yr- 
hafodau, o. Rev. Mr. Jacob. 

CwM-FRON, a corruption of Cwm-yr-onn (ash hollow), which is the 
orthography of the old Herald's visitations (p. 83). A f. of 160 
ac, tp. Cefn-yr-hafodau, o. Mrs. Mears. 

CwM-RiccET, Riccett*s hollow, a f. of 36 ac, t.p. Glyn-hafren, o. Mrs. 
Marsh. Two mines, the one yielding copper, the other lead, have 
been discovered lately upon this property. 

CwM-PKN-LLYDAN, the hoUow with the open end, a mountain f. of 
37 ac, t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. Edward Powel. 

CwM-YR-HENORB. Ueiigrt is either a corruption of hendrey the old 
habitation, or derived from ken and grCy a flock or herd, most 
probably the former. It is the name of a small f. of 7 ac, t.p. 
Glyn-Hafren, o. Mr. Williams. 

Del-parch. March seems to signify a deep dingle or glen, and Del- 
farch may possibly mean the leafy dingle (d. s. r), or it may be a 
corruption of Dol-fach, the little mead. The name of two fs., the 
lower 150 ac, o. James Hamer; the upper 79 ac. o. Mr. Williams, 
both in tp. of Llaniwared. 

Dernol, oaklands (?), a f. of 87 ac, tp. Llaniwared, o. Mr. Williams. 

Deildref, the leafy homestead, the name of two fs. in the tp. of 
Llanifynu, formerly part of the Clochfaen estate. 

DiLiw, Afon, the colourless river (see p. 14). 

DoL-GORS, mead of the bog, a small t, tp. Cefn-yr-hafodau. 

A glyn, generally speakings is a long narrow defile, a cwm a more expan- 
sive hollow, but short. R. h. j. 


Drain-byrrion, short thorns, a f. in the t.p. of Glyn Hafren, o. Rev. 
H. Herbert. 

Drim-Maen, stony ridge. Drum (Anglicised Drini) is a mutation of 
Trum, a ridge, — trum-y-ty, ridge of the house ; the name of a high 
hill between the Bidno and the Colwyn. Drim is also the name of 
another hill above Cefn Brwyn. 

DuLAS, dark blue, a tributary of the Severn (see p. 12). 

EsGAiR, literally a shank, a leg, but applied in topographiciU designa- 
tions to a long ridge, a steep or precipitous slope, corresponding to 
the Cumberland Scaw, and the Lancashire Scar. As a generic term 
it enters largely into the names of Welsh hills. Among those of 
Llangurig may be mentioned Esgair-Clochfaen (the long ridge of the 
Clochfaen),^«^at>-//jy« (berry bearing ridge), Esgair-maes-vant (ridge 
of the field of the ravine), Esgair-rhugog (the heathery ridge), Esgair- 
wen (the fair ridge), Esgair-ycfiion (ychion, probably a corruption of 
ychain, oxen). Esgair-hir (the long esgair), a f. of 22 ac., t.p. 
Cefn-yr-hafodau, o. Mrs. Owen. 

Farm, the, a f. of 154 ac., t.p. Glyn-Brochan, part of the late T. E. 
Marsh's property. 

Feuw-Ddu, the dark birch grove, a f. of 40 ac., t.p. Cefn-yr-hafodau, 
o. Mrs. Owen. 

Felix-dre, the generic term tref (mutated into dre), in this word and 
in Pen-tre is often interpreted to mean a town. According to the 
laws of Howcl Dda, the term tref was a portion of land equivalent 
to four gavels or holdings, t. e. containing 26Q Welsh acres ; the 
size of a Welsh acre, according to Aneurin Owen being 4,320 English 
square yards. The same authority gives vill as synonymous with 
tref when used in the sense of a territorial division {Myf, A rdi. 
1042, 1040, 1070, Gee's reprint). Subsequently tref signified an 
abode or dwelling place, and when used in this sense it enters into 
the composition of the words car -tref (the abode that is dear to us — 
home), hen-dre (the old abode or permanent residence), and perhaps 
in the term pen-tre ; and latterly tref was applied to a collection uf 
abodes as in tref-lan (a village with a church in it), and tref a 
town. The tref or tre in the name Felindre appears to refer to the 
territorial division, and the name to signify the " mill of the vill." 
Attached to the mill, whose motive power is supplied by the Severn, 
is a f. of 123 ac, t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. Mr. Hunter.^ 

2FoEL, bald hill, calvary, the name of a liigh hill on the left bank of 
the Wye, half a mile to the n.e. of Cefn -brwyn. 

^FoEL-GoCH, the red bald hill (chap, i, sec. 5). On the western slope 
of this hill is a f. of 81 ac. called Y-Foel, part of the Clochfaen 

* There are melindres where no mill ever existed. The term is derived 
from milein-dref = the dwelliog of the milain or villein of feudal' times. — 

D. 8. E. 

^ Foel is a mutation of Moel, Fron of Bron, and Fuches and Baches, and 
ou^ht therefore to be preceded by T (the), which has been omitted in the 


Frankwell. Part of the village goes by this name, which, according 
to Mr. Wright {Arch, Cam.^ 1864, p. 171) is a corruption of Frank- 
ville. He says, **the feudal princes and the great barons of the 
Middle Ages soon learnt to appreciate the value to their treasuries 
of encoiutiging commerce on their domains. . . . Hence they tried 
to draw merchants to their lands by establishing little towns with 
freedom and privileges, either commercial or municipal, by which 
they might be attracted, and such places were usually denominated 
in France by the name of dk francheville or free town. In England 
where the Anglo-Norman dialect and the English were oddly inter- 
mixed, the form which the name took was Frankville or Frankton." 
The name is common in Montgomeryshire, portions of Llanidloes, 
Llawr-y-glyn, and Newtown being so designated. 

Frox-goch, the red slope, af. of 61 ac., t.p. Glyn-Brochan. 

FccHES-MoRGAN, Morgan's cattle-walk, the land where his cows 
grazed ; the name of a small t. in Llanifynu. 

Gelli-aur, the golden grove, a f! of 41 ac., t.p. Cefn-yr-hafodau, o. 
Hugh Davies. 

Gelli-fawr, the large grove, two fs. in t.p. of GljTi-Glynwydd, the 
one of 45 ac, o. J. B. Owen, and the other of 78 ac., part of the 
Clochfaeu estate. 

Geu-fron, the enclosed hill, a portion of this f. (67 ac.) situated on 
the right bank of the Hafren, is within the limits of the parish ; t.p. 
Glvn-Hafrcu, o. David Davies. 

Glan-Bidno, banks of the Bidno, the name of two fs. in the t.p. of 
Llanifynu ; the upper has an area of 24 ac., the lower 23 ac. 

Glax-dulas, banks of the Dulas, name of two fs. ; the upper is 85 ac, 
j)artly situate in Glyn-Brochan and partly in Cefn-yr-hafodau, and 
formerly part of the Clochfaen estate, now the property of J. B. 
Owen. Some of the fields are known by the names of RJios-y- 
cwno (moor of the ale), Sugar field, Pickerin field, and D6l-ganu 
(mead of song). Of the Lower Glandulas 175 ac. is in the t.p, of 
Glyn-Brochan, o. Col. Hunter. 

Glax-gwy, banks of the Wye, a f. of 65 ac, t.p. Llanifjnu. 

Glan'-rhyd, banks of the ford, a small f., t.p. Glyn-glynw}'dd. 

Glas-cwm, the verdant cwm, a f. of 75 ac, t.p. Lani wared. 
Glyn-Brochan, glen of the Brochan (chap, i, sec. 6). This glen gives 
its name to one of the townships of the parish, and to two farms. 

1. Upper Glyn-Brochan^ 97 ac. 

2. Lower Glyn-Brochan^ 123 ac. 

One of the fields on the former farm is known by the name of 
Cae oddiar Cwm Gwyddel (the field above the Gael's ravine). The 
readers of the Vestiges of the Gael in Gwynedd are acquainted with 
the theory first propounded by Tilwyd relating to the early occupa- 
tion of Wales by the Gael. Archdeacon Jones' chief argument in 
support of the theory is founded upon the frequent occurrence of 


the name GwyddU Dol Gwyddell in the parish of Trefeglwys appears 
in the Archdeacon's book and the remains in its neighbourhood have 
been already noticed, but this Cwm Gwyddel and another Dol Gwy- 
ddel in the immediate vicinity of Llanidloes were unknown to him. 
It is only just to mention that those who oppose the above theory 
give another interpretation to the term Gwyddel, viz., that it means 
"of, or belonging to woods, woody, and like the corresponding 
Silvester or Silvaticus, in a figurative sense, wild or savage." If 
this explanation be accepted then Cwm Gwyddel simply means the 
woody ravine. 

Gltn-Gynwydd, glen of the Gynwydd, which gives its name to a 
township and a f. of 173 ac., t.p. Cefn-yr-hafodau, o. Mrs. Owen, 
Glansevem. (See Aber-Gynwydd.) 

Glyn-Hafren, glen of the Hafren (Severn), name of a township in 
this parish and that of another iji Llanidloes, also the name of a 
f., 179 ac. of which are in Llangurig, o. C. J. Elw^ell. 

Good-ground, a small f. of 15 ac, 6. Mrs. Owen. 

Gwern, defined by the Rev. Walter Davies (Works, iii, 513) as "the 
aldery, or rough meadow or pasture, natural to the springing up of 
aiders;" name of a small holding, t.p. Glyn-Gynwydd. 

Gwern-tyfin, the aldery of the tenement, a f. of 67 ac., t.p. Cefn-yr- 
hafodau, o. Mrs. Phillips. 

GwY (Wye), water (described chap, i, sec. 7). This generic term 

occurs frequently in the names of Welsh streams, e.g, Vim-iry, 

Ban i^y (]Banw), Colun-w^y (now Clun), Cyn-wy (Conway), Myn-uy 

(Munnow), Eb-w?y, El-wy, 0\-wy, Trog-wy, Clwyd, etc., etc. Under 

its Latin name Vaga} it is frequently alluded to by the poets. 

'< Meander, who ia said so intricate to be. 
Has not so many turns and crankling nooks as she/' 

Dbatton's PolyolMon. 

" Pleased Vaga echoes through her winding bounds, 
And rapid Severn hoarse applause resounds." — Pops. 

Hafod is thus explained by Llwyd, " Hafod is doubtless so calPd quasi 
Bod'Iiaf, which word is at present used, and I suppose was anciently 
appropriated to signify a summer hut up in ye mountains, made 
use of onely that time of the year, for makeing butter and cheese, 
as they doe at present not only about Snowdon and Cader-Idris, 
and elsewhere in Wales, but likewise in Switzerland and many 
other places amongst ye Alps." (Arch, Camb.y 1848, p. 244). 

1 Gwy has been Latinised etymologically into " Vaga/' the Latin mean- 
ing of which subsequently drew attention to the meanderings^ from which 
it was erroneously supposed by persons ignorant of Welsh to have derived 
its name. C. f. the somewhat similar transmutation of the names (1) 
Glastonbury (originally Ynys Wydryn, the Watery Isle, from Gv>y : — lolo 
MS., p. 344); (2) Abbey lyOr, in the original Welsh written Dwr, water, 
thence by the English Dore, explained by a confusion of meaning as D'Or, 
hence by translation of the latter the valley in which the Abbey was 
situated became the Golden Vale, which again, by re -translation into 
Welsh, became the Dyffryn Aur, Lib. Landav., 319. h. w. ll. 


Hafod-feddgab, the Hafod favourable to the pix>ductioD of mead, as 
if the Hafod liked it or loved it ; a common figure of speech 
(d. s. e.). a f. of 132 ac., t.p. Glyn-Hafren, o. Mrs. Marsh. 

Hafod-fraith, the variegated Hafod, a mountain f. of 92 ac., t.p. 
Glyngynwydd, o. Mrs. Owen. 

Hafod-wen, the fair Hafod, a mountain f. of 92 ac. t.p. Glyn-Hafren, 
o. J. C. Elwell, Esq. 

Hen-dre, old or permanent habitation, as opposed to Hafod, the 
summer or temporary residence. A f. of 138 ac., t.p. Llanifynu, o. 
Mr. Williams. 

Hendre-aur^, the golden Hendre, a f. of 89 ac., tp. Cefn-yr-hafodau, 
part of the Green estate. 

Hen-dy, old house, a f. of 14 ac., t.p. Llanifynu, part of the Cloch- 
faen estate. 

Hen-faes, old field, a f. of 100 ac., t.p. Llanifynu, o. Mr. J. Hughes 

HiR-BBiSG, the long copse or brushwood, a small f. of 17 ac., t.p. Glyn- 
Brochan, part of Clochfaen estate. 

HiR-GOED, long wood, a small f. of 15 ac., t.p. Llanifynu, o. Sir W. W. 

HoRE, the name of one of the minor elevations which form part of 
the mountain mass of Plinlimmou, the smaU river which flows 
round its base (chap, i, sec. 7), and of the mountain on its left 
bank. The farm has 38 ac. of enclosed land attached to it, which 
however only produces coarse hay, its value depending entirely 
upon its extensive sheep walk ; o. Sir W. W. Wynn. 

On the summit of the mountain there is a large erect stone, 
called by the people of the neighbourhood Mae^i-gwyn (white stone). 
Its position is given on the Ordnance Map, where it is styled Car- 
rey Wen. Its dimensions are 7 ft. 2 in. high (above ground), 4 ft. 
3 in. broad, and 2 ft. 2 in. thick. 

Down one of the ravines of the mountain flows NaiU-yr-eira 
(Snow-brook), a tributary of the Hor6. Ou the banks of the former, 
quarter a mile above Hor6 house, are to be seen traces of Roman 
mining operations. The action of the mountain torrent appears 
to have revealed the lode, the course of which for a short distance 
is nearly identical with that of the stream. This the Roman 
miners followed for several hundred yards, carrying their operations 
to a great depth by means of a series of narrow parallel platforms. 
The old work was cleared out some years ago by Mr. Reynolds, a 
mining agent, when two or three smidl picks and wedges were dis- 
covered in a good state of preservation. They were sent to Sir 
Hugh Williams of Bodelwyddan, who presented them to the 
Duke of Northumberland. The modem mine has for some time past 
been abandoued. 

H(xre appears to be derived from Uor-au ; all the plural termina- 

> y Act, a battle, the Uendre of the battlc-ficIJ. u. h. j. 


tions in u are in the Powysian dialect corrupted into e, Hor is a 
rotundity, a round hill; /tor-au corrupted into hor« as above are 
the round hills, moel-ydd,^ R. H. J. 

If the Ilore is a roaring or noisy stream, I would derive it from 
rhawr^ a roar. The disappearance of the initial r may be accounted 
for Y Rhorwy (rhawi^wy), then by corruption Yr Uowry^ Horwyy 
Bore.'' D. 8. E. 

^Llan-i-fynu, the upland enclosure, nnme of one of the townships. 
It includes the highest and most sterile land in the parish. 

^Llan-i-wared, the enclosed or cultivated lowland, name of another 
township ; these appear to have been named in contrast to each 
other. The church and village are situated in Llan-i-wared. 

Llanerth, a corruption of Llanerck, a glade or open piece of level 

Llanerch-Brochan, glade of the Brochan, a f. of 99 ac., t.p. Glyn- 
Brochan, o. Mr. Matthews. 

Llechwedd-hir-goed, slope or declivity of the long w^ood. 1 1r-(/oed, 
the greenwood slope (r. h. j.). An elevation between the Wye and 

Lluest, encampment, a small t. in Llani wared t.p. 

Lluest-Bidno, encampment on the Biduo, a mountain farm of 203 
ac. (chiefly pasture land), t.p. Lanifynu, formerly the property of 
Lord Mostyn, now of Mr. Morris, of Oxon, Shrewsbury. 

Lluest-dol-gwiail, encampment of the mead of twigs, a f. 45 ac., 
t.p. Llanifynu, part of Clochfaen estate. 

Lluest-las, green or verdant encampment, a f. of 15 ac, t.p. Llani- 
fynu, o. Mrs. Marsh. 

Lluest-Llewblyn, Llewelyn's encampment (chap, i, sec. 5, and 
chap, ii, p. 24.) 

Llwyn-gwyn, the white grove or copse, a f. of 1 85 ac., t.p. Llaniwared, 
o. Mrs. Owen. 

Llwyn-iar, hen's grove, or laur, golden, af. of 26 ac., t.p. Lanifynu, 
o. Mr. Whalley, M.P. 

Llwyn-yr-hyddod, stag's grove, a f. of 153 ac., t.p. Lanifynu, o. Mr. 
Hugh Lloyd (chap. vi). 

Mae8-hocyn, Hokyn's field, a f. of 32 ac, t.p. Cefn-yr-hafodau, o. 
Mr. Hugh Davies. 

Maes-y-rrynar, field of the fallow, a f. of 48 ac, t.p. Glyn-Hafren, 

i "It is a phonetic law between Latin and Celtic, that words beginning 
in the former with pi are in the latter II. The word planum in Latin signi- 
fying any cultivated spot, in contradistinction from a desert spot, becomes 
in Celtic Llan" (Four Ancient Books of Wales, i, 159). Later it came to 
mean an inclosure only, without reference to the nature of the thing en- 
closed, until compounded with another word, as cor -Ian, ber-llan, corff-lan, 
which latter gave rise, by the omission of the first syllable, to the use of the 
word in its tertiary sense of church. h. w. ll. 


o. Mr. Charles. The remains of an old hostelry, which was known 
as Tavam yr Hwch (Sow Inn), still exists on the grounds of this 
farm. When the old road connecting Llanidloes with Llangurig 
which passed over this mountain was used, the inn was greatly 

Maes-y-pfin, field of the boundary, 8 ac of this f. are in the t.p. of 
Cefn-yr-hafodau. The f. is situated on the boundary between the 
parishes of Langurig and St. Harmon. 

Malgwyn, probably so called in honour of the man who built the 
f house ; af. of 117 ac., t.p. Glyn-Hafren, o. Mr. T. F. Roberts. 

Mynachlog, monastery (chap. i. sec. 7), a f. of 40 ac., t.p. Glyn- 
Brochan, o. Mr. R. H. Morgan. 

Mytaloo, a corruption of Bod Talogy Talog's abode, a mountain f. of 
44 ac., t.p. Llani wared, formerly part of the Clochfaen estate, now 
in the possession of Mr. H. Williams. 

Nant, a generic term which enters very largely into the composition 
of Welsh names, denotes primarily the^ ravine or hollow through 
which the stream flows ; secondarily, and more commonly, the 
stream itself. 

Nant-aber-tri-nant, a ravine or hollow which receives the waters of 
three other ravines (chap, i, sec. 7). 

N ant-Bessy, Bessy's ravine or brook, gives its name to a small f. of 
9 ac., t.p. Glyn-Brochan. 

Nant-bryn-owannon, ? from g^oynnxyti^ dry sticks, or from gwaen-onn^ 
ash meadow. 

Nant-crug, the heathery hollow or ravine. 

Nant-du, the dark ravine, or Nant-ty, the house in the ravine, a 
large mountain farm (chiefly pasture) of 323 ac, t.p. Lannifynu, o. 
Mrs. Owen. 

Nant-gwernoo, the hollow abounding in alders, a f. of 79 ac., in the 
t.p. of Cefn-yr-hafodau, part of Clochfaen estate. 

Nant-owyllt, wild brook. 

Nant I ago, James's brook (chap, i, sec^ 6). 

Nant-lled-cwm, ravine or brook of the wide hollow. 

Nant Mytalog, or Bod-Talog (see Mytalog). 

Nant Rhys, Rhys' ravine, 401 ac. of this extensive sheep f. is in the 
t.p. of Llanifynu, formerly the property of the Duke of Newcastle, 
now of Mr. Chambers. 

Nant Tidnbrth, Tiduerth's ravine or hollow, a f. of 31 ac., t.p. Llani- 
fynu, o. Miss Lloyd. 

Nant-yb-eira (see Hore), 

Nant-y-geipr, goat's ravine, a f. of 34 ac., t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. Mr. 
Daniel Rowland. 

^ Nant is more extensive in its meaning than ravine. Every ravine may 
be called a Nant ; but every Nant is not a ravine. d. s. e. 


Nant-yr-qorlan, ravine of the sheep fold. Its waters flow into Afon 

Nant-yr-hebog, hawk's ravine, a f. of 87 ac, t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. 

Mr. Tiece. 
Nant-yr-hendy, ravine of the old house, a f. of 79 ac., t.p. Llaniwared, 

o. Mr. Thomas Lewis. 

NANT-YR-OERFA,1from oer-fan, cold-place, or from aer-fa^ battle field. 
Its waters flow into the Brochan. 

Ole-ddu, dark ravine, name of two small fs. in Cefn-yr-hafodau, called 
Upper and Lower Ole-ddu. 

Pant-clyd, the sheltered hollow, a small t., 5 ac., t.p. Llanifynu. 

Pant-drain, the thorny hollow, a f. of 127 ac., t.p. Laniwared, o. Mr. 

Pant-mawr, great hollow, a f. of 84 ac. t.p. Llanifynu, o. Mrs. Owen 
Glansevem (chap, i, sec. 6). 

P.VNT-Y-BENT (ord. sur.), Pant-y-Beni, pronounced Pant-y -benny by 
the people of the neighbourhood. " This word appears to be a 
corruption of VQnt-dihyni or dibeni, the hollow at the end or teniii- 
nation of a ridge" (j. c. h.), which is descriptive of the situation of 
the house. It is a small mountain of 31 ac., t.p. Llanifynu, o. 
Lewis Owen. 

Pant-y-llidiardau, hollow of the gates, a small f., t.p. Glyn-Brochan, 
o. Mr. Snead. 

Pant-y -RHEDYN, ferny hollow, a small f. of 21 ac, t.p. Llanifynu. 

Pant-yr-esgyr (csgair), hollow of the esgair, small t., t.p. Gl^^n- 

Pen-hyle, corruption of Pen-tyk, top of the acclivity or ascent, name 
of two fs. in the t.p. of Glyn-Gynwydd, the larger is 61 ac., the 
smaller 31 ac. in extent. 

Pen-issa'r-llan, lower end of the enclosure, a f. of 48 ac., t.p. Llani- 
wared, part of Clochfaen estate. 

Pbn-tre, head or end of the vill, or the chief tref or abode (see 
Felindre), a f. of 25 ac., t.p. Cefn-yr-hafodau. It is also the name 
of a small hamlet on the side of the road leading from Llanidloes 
to Llangurig, a mile and a quarter from the former. Its name was 
probably taken from the farm. 

Pen-bont-pren, end of the wooden bridge, or foot bridge, name of 
two fs., the larger in the t.p. Cefii-yr-hafodau, o. Mrs. Owen ; the 
other of 81 ac., t.p. Llanifynu, o. Mr. Bull. 

Pen-planwydd, top of the plantation, a f. of 45 ac, t.p. Cefn-yr- 
hafodaii, o. Mrs. Owen. 

Pen-y-bank, top of the hill, a f. of 105 ac, t.p. Cefn-yr-hafodau, o. 
Rev. Mr. Jacob. 

Pen-y-cincoed, top of the branching wood (]), name of a hill and of 


several holdings on its slope and summit, situate in the t.p. of 

Pen-y-clap, top of the hill, a small t in the t.p. of Glyn-Hafren. 
Pen-y-crugyn, top of the mound, a f. of 39 ac., t.p. Llanifjnu, part 

of Cochfaen estate. 

Pen-y-croesau (probably derived from cross roads), name of a small 

t. in the t.p. of Llani wared. 
Pen-y-geulan, top of the shelving bank, a f. of 91 ac., t.p. Lanifynu, 

o. Mr. Whalley, M.P. 

Pen-y-rhos, end of the moor or plain, small t., t.p. Llanifynu. 

PoNT-BREN-LWYD, grey foot bridge, a f. of 34 ac., t.p. Llanifynu. 

PoNT-DuLAS, Dulas bridge, a small f of 13 ac., t.p Cefn-yr-hafodau. 

PoNT-RHYD-GALBD, bridge of the ford with a hard or firm bed, name 
of two fs. in the t.p. of Lanifynu, one of 66 ac., o. Sir W. W. 
Wynn, the other of 103 ac., o. Mr. D. Hamer. 

Prys-sylwidd, from Pry*, a covert of sylwidd of the watchman, the 
watchman's ambush, c. £ Llanfihangel-din-sylwidd {dirty fortification 
of the watchman), close to Beaumaris. r. h. j. 

Another suggestion is that it is a corruption of Preswylydd^ the 
abodes. It is the name of a farm of 80 ac., tp. Glyn-Gynwydd, 
part of the Clochfaen estate. 

PwLL-owiNE, ?the wine coloured pool, a small t, t.p. Glyn-Brochan. 

Rallt, Yr AlU, the cliff or ascent, name of two small fs., t.p. Glyn- 

Rhiw-fron-gelli, the slope or ascent of the grove hill, a f. of 134 ac., 
t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. J. C. Rowley, formerly part of the Clochfaen 

Rhiw-las, green ascent, a small f., t.p. Llanniwared, part of the 
Clochfaen estate. 

Rryd-yr-onen, ashford, sometimes called Rkyd-ar-Darwen (the ford 
on the Darwen), a f. of 59 ac., t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. Mr. Edwards. 
One of its fields is known as Caer Castdly probably that adjoining, 
or the one within the limits of the earthwork described on p. 22. 

Rhos, Welsh for a moor, or waste coarse upland, name of a small f. in 
the t.p. of Cefn-yr-hafodau, part of the Green estate. 

Rhos-ooch, the red rhos, a f. of 28 ac, t.p. Llanifynu. 

Rhos-wen, the fair rhos, a f . of 12 ac., t.p. Lanifynu. 

Rh68-y-ca8TELL, rhos of the castle, a f. of 19 ac, t.p. Llanifynu. 

Rh6s-y-wrach, the hag's rhos, a small t, t.p. of Glyn-Brochan. 

Tan -Y -BERTH, below the bush, a f. of 99 ac, t.p. Llani wared, o. Mr. 
Williams, formerly part of Clochfaen estate. 

Tan-y-llwyn, below the grove, a f. of 98 ac, Lp. Llani wared, o. Mr. 
Hughes, formerly part of Clochfaen estate. 

Tarenig, ? diminutive of Taranon. Mr. Silvan Evans suggests that 


Trinig is the proper name, derived from tren^ impetuous, furious. 
It is the name of a tributaiy of the Wye (chap, i, sec. 7). 

Tan-yr-allt, below the allt, af. of 41 ac, part of the Clochfaen 
estate, t.p. Llani wared. 

Troed-yr-esgair, foot of the esgair, a f of 37 ac., t.p. Lanifynu, o. 
Mr. Whalley, M.P., part of the Clochfaen estate up to 1857. 

Ty-cerrig, stone house, a f. of 5Q ac., t.p. Llaniwared, part of the 
Clochfaen estate. 

Ty-gwyn, white house, a f. of 42 ac, t.p. Gljm-Gywydd, part of the 
Clochfaen estate. 

Ty-Lucas, Lucas' house, a f. of 13 ac., part of the Clochfaen estate. 

Tylwch. Since the appearance of the first portion of this paper, the 
writer has paid Cwm-Saeson (chap, i, sec. 5) and the vicinity a visit 
with the view of searching for evidence to confirm the tradition 
mentioned in connexion with the word Tylwch. It may, perhaps, 
be of interest to state very briefly the result. In the bottom of the 
vale, on the left bank of the little stream, which is known a little 
lower down as Afon Tplwchy is a low circular tumulus, about 25 
yards in diameter, and about 6 feet high in its centre. The field 
on which it is situated was enclosed within the memory of living 
persons and was cultivated for years by the farmer who now lives 
on the adjacent farm, which rejoices in the name of Babylon. On 
one occasion when he was ploughing the field the ploughshare 
brought several small pieces of bones to sight, which so excited the 
farmer^s curiosity that it caused him to dig deeper into the barrow, 
which he found to be " made soil," very stiff and difficult to remove. 
Having dug to the depth of a few feet without finding anything 
but an occasional small piece of bone, he desisted, and the mound 
has not been disturbed since, except by the ploughshare, which 
lowers it year after year. 

In the next field, about 100 yards due north from the centre of 
the tumulus is a large erect stone, similar to the one on the FJin- 
nant field, near the Roman trackway, in the parish of Trefeglwys, 
but of larger dimensions and softer material. Its height above the 
ground is 7 ft. 6 in., its breadth 3 ft. 6 in., and its thickness 
2 ft. 3 in. Letters are said, by the farmers of the neighbourhood, 
to have formerly existed upon the stone, but there are no traces of 
them at present. Its base was formerly surrounded by a circle of 
smaller stones placed in the ground edgewise, but as they interfered 
with the cultivation of the field they were, as a matter of course, 
removed. In past times the remains in this valley were regarded 
with a superstitious dread, to which no doubt we owe their preserv- 
ation ; wonderful stories are related of fearful storms, accompanied 
by thunder and lightning, which caused various persons to abandon 
their search for treasures supposed to be hid under the stone and 
concealed in the mound. But the days of credulity of this description 
are passed away, and it needs the constraining hand of the landlord 
to preserve them for future generations. 


Ninety yards n.w. by w. from the erect stone, in the adjacent 
field, are to be found remains, which look like a short alignment 
in the direction of e. and w., measuring thirty yards, and consisting 
of seven erect stones, some of which have been partially destroyed. 
The largest and best preserved is 6 ft. 9 in. above the ground, 
and 3 ft. 8 in. broad. In a field upon the opposite side of the 
brook the present tenant of the farm, while constructing a fence, 
discovered an old sword, which he presented to a neighbouring 
blacksmith. If not destroyed, the weapon would materially assist 
in determining the. date of the skirmish or battle which appears to 
have been fought in the valley. 

Higher up the stream, about 40 yards from its left bank, is another 
erect stone, 6 ft 3 in. high, 7 ft. broad, with an average thickness 
of about 1 ft. 8 in. 

All these remains are just within the limits of the parish of St. 
Harmon, which in the eleventh and twelfth centuries formed part 
of the cantref of ArwystlL None of them are marked on the 
Ordnance map. 

Lewis Morris gives it as his opinion that Tylwch originally was 
Du-llwch^ Uwch or Icmgh being the Irish word for lake (Camb. Reg, 
ii, 493). The word is pure but very old Welsh. Llwch^ now 
obsolete, in the time of Taliessin, and even later, was synonymous 
with lake, and in this sense occurs in the Four Ancient Books of 
WaleSf ii, p. 154, and again in the same book, p. 204, we have 

" Kein gyfedwch 
Y am deulweh 
Llweh am pleit." 
[A bright festivity. About the two lakes. The lake on my side.] 

A striking instance of how entirely obsolete this old word has 
become is given by Mr. Wynn in the Camb, Rtg.y ii, 154. "There 
is," he states, "a parish in Caermarthenshire called Llan-llufch. 
Llwch is a veiy old word for lake, which being now unintelligible, the 
very lake or llwch itself, from which the consecrated ground origin- 
ally took its name, is now called from the church or village Ll^ 
Zlan-lliffch." Again we have a similar reduplication in the name 
of a lake in Brecknockshire, Llyn Cvrm-y-llwch, In Tal-Uychau 
(the name of an abbey and parish in Caermarthenshire) is another 
instance of the old word Uyehau being the plural of Uwch^ and Tal 
(which suggests the original form of the Tyl in Tylwch) meaning 
the end or head (of the lakes) which is exactly descriptive of the 
situation of the old abbey. We may, therefore, pretty safely con- 
clude that the modem Tylwch is a corruption of Tal-llwch^ being 
synonymous with Pen-y-llyn and Tal-y-Uyn, head of the lake. 
But no lake exists at Tylwch now ; yet the word affords undoubted 
evidence that a lake once existed in the immediate vicinity, perhaps 

1 C. f. TaUcMdu, in Brecknockshire ; tol (the head), Alvoch (lake), Ddu 
(black) ; Loklwch, in Anglesea ; Maesltcc^, in Badnorahire ; Ynys-pen-ltrcA, 
in Glamorganshire. See also Word* and Placet, pp. 219, 227. 



in the neighboorhood of the preaent factory, which is once more in 
fuU work. The prospects of the little hamlet look very encourag- 
ing at present, owing to the mines being in active operation. 

Ty-mawr, large house, a f. of 68 ac. t.p. Llanifjnu, o. Mr. Williams. 

Ty-Newydd, new house, a small f. of 9 ao., t.p. Glyn-Brochan, o. Col. 

Ty'n-y-cobd, house in the wood, two f&,one of 58 ac.,t.p.Glyn-Brochan, 
another 65 ao., t.p. Ccfn-yr-hafodau. 

Ty'n-y-cwm, house in the hollow, a f. of 40 ac., t.p. Llanifjnu. 

Ty'n-y-ddol, house in the mead, af. of 171 ac., t.p. Llanifynu, part of 
the Clochfaen estate. 

Ty'n-y-fron, house on the slope, a f. of 77 ac., t.p. Glyn-Glynwydd, 
o. Dr. Davies. 

Ty'n-y-m AES, house in the plain or field, a f. of 1 72 ac, t.p. Llani wared, 
pcu-t of Clochfaen estate. 

Ty'n-y-rh6s, house in the rhos, (see Rhos), a f. of 88 ao., t.p. Llani- 
fjnu, o. Mr. Hugh Llojd. 

Ty'n-yr-hbndrb, house in the old ville, a f. of 25 ac., t.p. Gljn- 
Brochan, formerlj belonged to Lord Mostjn. 

Tyn-yr-wtra, house in the lane. Formerlj there existed two small 
fs. of this name, but thej are now united, and form a farm of 90 
ac., t.p. Gljn-Hafren, o. C. J. El well, Esq. 

Ystrad-Olwyn, various explanations of this name suggest themselves. 
If derived from Stratay we should have OlwyrCs Street^ but there are 
no traces of a street or paved roadwaj in the neighbourhood ; 
neither are the farms situated in a vallej, so that we have to fall 
back upon (1) Ystrad-olwyiiy the circular plat, in the form of a 
wheel, or (2) Ygtrad-y-ddl-weny the plat of the fair mead, both of 
them descriptive of the situation. The latter is the suggestion of 
Mr. J. C. Hughes, and I am inclined to think it to be the true 
meaning. The two fk which bear this name are in the tp. of Gljn- 
Gjnwjdd — ^the larger (fawr) is 89 ac., o. Mrs. Owen ; the smaller 
(fach) is bb ac. in extent, and forms part of the Clochfaen estate. 

Warrbn-houbb, a f. of 20 ac., t.p. Llanifjnu, o. Mrs, Owen. 

Wabn (a mutation of Gwaen) is defined as "a flat marsh j tract "by 
the late Rev. W. Davies (Works iii, 537), and as "a meadow, a down, 
a plain,** in the latest edition of Dr. Pugh*s Dictionary, It is the 
name of a f. of 20 ac., t.p. Gljn-Brochan, o. Mrs. Owen. A large 
marahj tract in the t.p. of Cefn-jr-hafodau is known as Waen- 
Cilgwyuj deriving its name probablj from the farms so called. 
Waen goch (the red down) forms part of Esgair Maesnant. 



Bedd Gwrtheijni (p. 41). One of the names of the 
traditional burial places of Vortigem is thus preserved 
in stanza xl of the collection entitled the " Verses of 
the Graves," or the " Verses of the Warriors," in the 
Black Book of Caermarthen : — 

'^ Ebet yn ystyuachen, 
Y mae paup yny amheu/ 
Bet gurtheyrn gurtheneu." 

Four Atident Books of Wales, ii, 32. 
'^ The grave of Ysty vachau. 
Which everybody doubts.^ 
The grave of Gwrtheym Gwrthenau." 

Ibid., i, 314. 

Pillar of Eliseg (p. 41). Below is a specimen of 
the inscription on this important monument — so valu- 
able to the future investigator of the early history of 
the Principality of Powys — as given by Edward LI wyd 
in his Arch. Bnt, tit. vi, p. 229. This pillar, or monu- 
mental cross, was erected at a place formerly called 
Maes-yr-y chert, but subsequently Pant-y-groeSy about a 
quarter of a mile distant from the abbey of Valle Crucis, 
by Cjmgen, or Concenn, Prince of Powys, in or before 
the year 850 (for he was slain at Rome that year), in 
memory of his great grandfather, Eliseg. Cyngen was 
the son of Cadell (who died in the year 804), the son of 
Brochwel, the son of Prince Eliseg, sixth in descent 
from Brochwel Ysgythrog, 

— BEf»Ed— gEnmcC^'qj' qt[z — bened — germanus que 


^J^^gCC'*^ ^ t. EOMANO 

Rqm*cof.maRchpi/*xiC ^^^ ^ conmaech pinxit 
hoc ^ 

CHiRosROCFif RESE ruo 




1 or, The grave in Ystafachau, 

Which everybody suspects to be, 
The grave of Gwrthcym Gwrthenau. 


Mr. Haigh {Conquest of Britain by tlie Saxons y p. 
230) reads the first part of it thus : " Giiarthimer whom 
Germanus blessed, the son of Guarthigem whom Severa 
bare to him, the daughter of King Maximus, who killed 
the king of the Romans." Nothing is known of the 
Cynfarch, or Conmarch, who carried out the design of 
King Cyngen. 

Jenhjn Goch (see pp. 49-50) is stated to have 
maiTied Catherine, daughter and heir of Maurice Fy- 
chan of Kerry. Some doubt has been cast upon the 
accuracy of this statement. The authorities for it are : 

1. Add. MS. 9865, one of the vols, of that celebrated 
genealogist John Davies, of Rhiwlas, to whose labours 
the editor of Dwnn's Visitations is indebted (i Intro., 
pp. xxix,-xxx, Lhjfryddiaeth, 311). This MS., which 
contains a fully drawn out tabular pedigree of the 
descendants of Elystan Glodrudd, asserts that Catherine 
was heiress to Maurice Fychan. 

2. Harl MS., 1973, p. 96 (Heraldic Visitations, by 
Randle Holme) also states that Catherine was daughter 
and heir of Maurice Fychan. 

Owen, son of Maurice of Clochfaen (p. 51), married 
Tangwystl, daughter of Morgan (ab Maurice, younger 
son of Thomas ab Maurice Fychan, of Aber-Magwr, in 
the parish of Llanfihangel-y-creuddyn, descended from 
Einion ab CoUwyn ab Tangno, lord of Eifionydd and 
Ardudwy), by whom he had one daughter, Mallt. He 
died on the evening of January 7th, 1500, and his Marw- 
nod (or elegy) has the name of Huw Arwystl attached 
to it. In it the writer describes him as a " soldier of 
the sea," and laments that the festival should have been 
saddened by his death. 

Note to x>p. 63-4. — Colo7iel Ilinde died at Brus- 
sels on the 15th of May, 1870, and was buried at Ucle, 
near that city. The following is the inscription upon his 
tomb : — 



Cabolub Thomas Edwabdus Hikdb 

Lboionis BENaALiENSis Tbibtjnus 

Obiit Idibus Maii mdocclxx ^tatis bvm An L^ 

Requiescat in pace. 

Note to p. 66. In addition to the information pre- 
viously given respecting the castle and lordship of 
Whittin|ton, we take the foUowing aJlusion to the 
matter from the Add. MS. 9865 : — 

'* The township of Trefor was divided between Cuhelyn and 
Menrig^ the third and fourth sons of Tudor ab Rhys Sais. The 
second son of Tudor was Goronwy^ sumamed Pefr^ who was 
the Wrennoc of the early romances^ and had the lordship of 
Whittington for his portion. By his first wife he had (I) Sir 
Roger, of whom presently ; (2) Sir William de Powys, Knt. 
{Llywih Ovoydd y Benven) ; he had an only daughter, named 
Miletta, who became the wife of Sir Fulke Fitz- Warren, son 
and heir to Sir Warren de Weauz, a nobleman of Lorraine ; 
(3) Jonas of Penley {Llywth Llanerck Banna), who bore az. 
three boars passant in pale or. The Penley estate passed by 
marriage into the family of Dymoke, who still possess it (p. 

*' The eldest son. Sir Roger de Powys, lord of Whittington 
(Blancheville) was a knight of Rhodes, and bore vert a boar or. 
In a note at p. 13, vol. ii of Dwnn's Heraldic Visitations there 
is the following notice of him : ' In an Anglo-Norman life of 
Fulk Fitz- Warren lorwerth (Drwyndwn) it is said 'dona a 
Rogier de Powys Blancheville e Maylour,' and, after his death, 
' Morys le Fitz Rogier de Powys' became ' Seigneur de 
Blancheville e Maylour,' and when he died we are told that 
Llewelyn ab lorwerth regretted his death, ' par ce que Morys 
fat son Cousyn.' Sir Roger married Cecilia, daughter of Hwfa 
ab lorwerth ab Gruffydd ab leuaf ab Niniaf {gules two hons 
passant arg, for lorwerth ab Gruffjrdd) by whom he had issue : 
J . Sir Maurice or Meurig Llwyd, lord of Whittington, who was 
slain by Sir Fulk Fitz Warren, who took possession of the 
castle and lordship of Whittington, and had it confirmed to 
him by Henry III. 2. Sir Roger de Estwick, heir to Sir 
Meurig Llwyd, by an estate of settlement made by Llewe- 
lyn ab lorworth. Prince of Wales, and confirmed by Henry 
UI of England. He had issue a son Meredydd. 3. Roger 
Fvchan, whose only daucfhter and heiress Gwerfyl, married to 
Sir Philip KynastoB, anLtor of the Kynastons of Hardwicke 
(Dwnn, i, 326). 4. Owain: he had an only daughter and heiress, 
Gwerfyl, married to Einion ab Gwilym, which Gwilym was an 
illegitimate son of Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Powys. 


5. Goronwy, ancestor of the families of Pentre Madog in Dnd- 
dleston and the Estwicks of Estwick." 

Note to Edward Lloyd of Pen-y-lan (p. 77). 

Mary Lloyd, heiress of Pen-y-lan, married Roger 
Kenyon, Esq., of Cefti, brother of Lloyd, first Lord 
Kenyon, and was mother of 

Edward, bom 1771, who assumed the name of Lloyd 
and subsequently that of Williams. He married Anna- 
bella (bom 5th April, 1777), eldest daughter and co- 
heiress of the Rev. Philip Puleston, D.D., and heiress to 
her uncle, Watkin Williams, Esq., of Penbedw (son of 
Richard Williams, Esq., youngest brother of the first 
Sir Watkin), M.P. for Montgomeryshire, and afterwards 
for the Flint Boroughs ; the youngest daughter and co- 
heiress, Elizabeth, married William Wynn, Esq., of 
Peniarth, and was mother of the present W. W. E. 
Wynne, Esq, of Peniarth. Mr. Edward Lloyd Williams 
died without issue, and his widow married secondly 
Major General Molyneaux, who assumed the additional 
name of Williams and is now living (1870). 

Corrections : 
On illnfitration facing p. 22 for " Rhyd-yn-onen," read "Rhyd-yr- 


On p. 42, line 16 from top, /or " Gwawrddyd," read " Gwawrddyd^/." 
" p. 43, „ 4 „ bottom, for " Gwrstan ab Gwaethhvod,'' read 
" Gwrystan ab Gwaeth/otfrf/* 

On p. 50, note 1, instead of " son of Maelgwyn, lord, etc.," read '* son 
of Meredydd ah Maelgwyn, lord, etc." 

On p. 50, line 1 from top, for *' Einion of Kerry," read ** Einion ah 
Howd of Kerry." 

On p. 51, line 6 from top, /or " Gwaethfod," read " Gwaeth/o^rf." 
" p. 52, „ 7 „ bottom, for " Glandywedog," read '* Glanc^y- 

On p. 53, line 17 from bottom, /or " collided," read " co^riaed." 
„ p. 54, „ 10 „ top, for *' Edwyn Goronwy," read " Edwyn ah 

On p. 59, line 15 from top, after 1766, insert^ leaving an otdy daughter 
and heiress^ Sarah. 
On p. 61, line 12 from bottom, /or " Cyfeiliog," read '* Cyffyllio^r 
" p. 68, „ 9 „ „ for " bromoslipe," read " irooiwslipB." 

„ p. 74, „ 7 „ „ fcr " lowerth,^' read " IdneHh:' 

„ p. 74, note 2, line 11 from bottom, /or " Corbet of Moreton Corbet," 
read " Corbet of Wattlesborough, son of Sir Robert Corbet of Moreton 
Corbet and Wattlesborough." 

On p. 75, line 15 from top, after 4, insert " sable." 
In the Glossary, for '•'' Nant Tidnerthy''^ read ** A'ant Idnerthj*^ and was 
probably so called from Idnerth ap Madog Danwr. 




It was to be expected that the district of Arwystli, 
abounding no less in pictiu-esque scenery, than in his- 
torical associations, lying in and about the majestic 
Plinlimmon, the cradle of Severn, Wye, and other 
illustrious streams, should have given birth to poets, 
^hose genius, fired no less by tSe gmndeur of thek 
native scenery than by the love of country, always con- 
spicuous in the breasts of mountaineers, should have 
left to posterity memorials worthy of such sources of 
inspiration. Accordingly we find several whose works, 
few of which have hitherto been committed to the press, 
are scattered among the manuscript collections in the 
principality, in the British Museum, and elsewhere. 
Research has brought to light some poems among them 
which are not a little interesting in connexion with the 
local history of Llangurig, whether regarded from a 
social, religious, or historical point of view. These it 
is now proposed to introduce to our readers, together 
with translations, a<)Companied by such preliminary 
matter as may be requisite for the purpose of eluci- 
dating the sense, which is not unfrequently obscure, 
and also their relation to the special subject of our 

ITie first in chronological order, with the exception, 
perhaps, of the author of a poem or two of tmcertain 
date, which wiU be referred to presently more fully, is 
leuan Tew, called leuan Tew H6n, or Hynaf, who was 
bom at Llanidloes, and is known to have presided at a 
" Gorsedd," or session of bards, held at Glamorgan in 



1420.^ Twenty-four of his compositions are enumerated 
in the catalogue of the Britisn Museum as extant in 
that collection, none of which, however, appear to 
relate to the subject of this paper. The next is Huw 
Cae Llwyd, said to have flourisned from 1450 to 1480, 
and known to have presided at the Glamorgan Gorsedd 
in 1470,^ eight at least of whose poems are preserved 
in the British Museum. The third is Huw Arwystli, 
whose poems are exceedingly numerous, and whose 
period, though not yet precisely settled, would appear 
to have extended from the latter part of the reign of 
Henry VIII to nearly the close of that of Elizabeth. 
And lastly, we have his contemporaries, Sion Ceri, and 
Sir leuan of Camo, who, though not apparently natives 
of Arwystli, were denizens of its neighbourhood, and 
maintained intimate relations with its inhabitants. Of 
these we have one poem by Sion Ceri, another by Huw 
Cae Llwyd, and several by Huw Arwystli, most of which 
however have unfortunately reached us in a mutilated 
state, in which is presented a life-like picture of some 
of the principal features of the social and religious life 
of Llangurig in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
Prior to any of these in order of time is the following 
by leuan Deulwyn, a poet who flourished from about 
1460 to 1490, and is known to have presided at the 
Gorsedd of Glamorgan in 1480.^ It is entitled "an 
Elegy on Dafydd Fychan of Curig's Land,'* and relates 
apparently to an incident of warfare, which, if the period 
ascribed to the author be correct, must have occurred 
considerably later than the battle of Mortimer's Cross, 
fought in February, 1461, when Sir Owen Tudor, grand- 
father of Henry VII, was slain, and his half-brother, 
Henry VI, lost his crown. Perhaps it is to be referred 
to the revolt of Clarence and Warwick, 1465-70, which 
ended in the battle of Bamet, and in the course of 

^ Williams's Dictionary of E win en t Welsh-fnen, p. 241. 
* If the poem of The Four Brothers is correctly ascribed to him, 
he must have been living as late as the rei^ of Henrj VIII. 
s Williams's Dictionary of Eminent Welshmeiiy p. 120. 


wluch was fought the battle of Danesmore, near Ban- 
bury, at which the Sir Richard Herbert, whose elegy 
by our bard is also extant,^ was taken prisoner, and 
beheaded by the Lancastrians, together with his brother, 
Sir William, who, after the surrender of Harlech Castle, 
had been created Earl of Pembroke by Edward IV. 
As the poem has already been printed in Welsh,^ it is 
imnecessary to reproduce the original here. Davydd, 
with his brother leuan, are referred to as having fallen 
victims to an ambuscade on the Wye, and one of them 
is stated to have been biuied in the churchyard of 

Elegy on Davydd Vychan and leuan of Gurig's Land» 

In tears for whom is Powys found. 
And all the south, the country round? 
I mourn, when I would rouse the chase. 
On bank of Wye, in glen of Euas ; 
Woe's me ! a host is come and gone, 
Where two youths came, now come not one. 
From Maelor one, too well I wist ; 
From Curig's Land another missed ! 
Mine office brings me nought but pain. 
On moor and glen I call in vain. 
For two — our best — ^we stay forlorn; 
They come not — ^we may wait and mourn. 
As Mary moum'd, so I their loss. 
Her Son's fell wounds beneath the cross. 
She from her eyes wept tears of blood. 
May mine weep, too, a kindred flood I 
I can no more than turn my gaze. 
Wistful, on yonder upland haze ; 
Long tho' I wait, there comes not one. 
From moor to dell — both, both are gone ! 
Sole remnant from the slaughter, I, 
Since when Siac TJwyd doth yonder lie; 
I call — nought boots me to complain — 
For gen'rous Davydd Vychan's slain ! 
For both drear sorrow chills my bones, 
Llewelyn also heaves my groans. 

^ Printed in Bice Jones's GorchesHon y Beirddy p. 185, Edition 
' Ibid,y p. 189. See also Montgomeryshire GoUectionSy vol. i, p. 890. 



For Davydd and for lenan vent 
Two thousand hearts their one lament. 
For these two tribes are sunk in grief. 
For these two lands find no relief; 
In Llinwent's^ mansion sorrow reigns. 
And all Saint Idloes' town complains. 
I, too — whom Llinwent led — complain 
For Llinwent*s chief, by ambnsh slain. 
Deep laid the plan — thro' foul deceit — 
He gave his hand — his fate to meet. 
So was he slain — O shameful deed ! 
As tho' 'twere Arthur's self to bleed. 
His wont was never to appear, 
When raged the combat, in the rear; 
In battle he the first to meet 
The foe, the hindmost in retreat. 
The rear that he should cover, I 
Lamented, on the bank of Wye. 
To quit their post, to break their troth. 
Were false of him and leuan both. 
Twain brethren of devoted mind — 
It stirred them sore to stay behind. 
Two lands diverse are reft of joy. 
For leuan's land hath sprung from Troy- 
Fair Curig's church is wrapped in gloom. 
There lies the lion in the tomb. 
FalFn is that ancient line fuU low. 
Glides HowePs stream with weakened flow. 
Like land of court and church bereft 
Is Powys without leuan left. 
Vengeance in flood burst forth of yore. 
For greater now the need is sore ; 
My heart would never broken be. 
Such deluge for such men to see. 

We now revert to the poems already glanced at as of 
uncertain date, and so far as onr present knowledge will 
carry us, also of nameless authorship. In the MS. 
volume, indeed, from which they have been extracted, 
the name of Huw Arwystli is subscribed to them, pro- 
bably by a conjecture of the transcriber. The first poem 
is an eulogium upon a person named leuan, the son of 
Gruifydd, of Clochfaen, together with his wife GwenUian, 

^ This is a mansion in the parish of Llanbister in Radnorshire. 


and Jenkyn Goch, their son.^ Huw Arwystli, whose 
life extended late into the sixteenth century, was a con- 
temporary of the grandsons of this Jenkyn Goch, who 
is known to have been living in 1470. It cannot there- 
fore be supposed that he could have been living early 
enough to celebrate the virtues of Jenkyn's parents 
during their lifetime, as this would imply that his own 
life was protracted for as much as fifty years beyond 
the ordinary span. It may be as well to premise that 
this, and most of the following poems, are taken from 
a MS. collection, called the " Llyfr Ceniarth," from the 
fact of its preservation at a place of that name in Mont- 
gomeryshire, to the kindness of whose owner, Mr. D. 
Gilbertson, we are indebted for the liberty to copy them. 
The original compiler of the collection has not been 
ascertained with certainty; but there is reason to be- 
lieve that the poems in it relating to Clochfaen may 
have been transcribed from the original (which were 
preserved at that place until its destruction by fire in 
1 760) by Mr. Morgan Lloyd, son of Mr. Jenkyn Lloyd, 
of the Clochfaen, who settled at Llanbrynmair towards 
the close of the seventeenth century. The MS. may 
have come into the possession of the Ceniarth family 
through his daughter Sarah, who was married to 
E. Pritchard, Esq., of that place. ^ The style and 
orthography of the MS. are the same as were in vogue 
at the commencement of the eighteenth centiur. Several 
of the leaves have been lost, and the volume has others 
wise suffered from exposure to damp ; many of the 
compositions, therefore, have come down to us in a 
deplorably fragmentary state. From the violation of 
the rules of consonancy in several instances, incon- 
ceivable in the composition of bards of such high repu- 
tation among their contemporaries, it is to be inferred 
that the text has undergone additional mutilation from 
the carelessness of the transcriber, or his ignorance of 
the rules of " cynghaneddJ'^ As none of these have 

^ Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. ii, p. 271. * Ibid., p. 276. 

^ i. e. Alliterative consonancy. The Cijwydd deuair, in which 


been hitherto printed, so far as is known, it has been 
thought proper to insert them here in the original text, 
as well as in the necessarily imperfect form of a prose 


Duw a'i roi gynt, nid ar gam, 
Drwy Ebrwy Dir [i] Abram, 
Dyfawd iddo'r blaid [uf] ydd 
O'i gordd, cyn amled a 'r gwydd. 
Bhoed [ganj Dduw i rwyd dwyrain, 
I'w rhwysg deuddegUwyth y rhain. 
I ddawn Abram ddoen' Ebryw, 
A'i rodd a ddiolchodd ei Dduw. 
Py rodd innau, 'nghefn^ yr haf, 
I Ddaw eilwaith a ddiolchaf : 
Mae Duw 'n rhoi i ni dy'n rhydd, 
Rhwng gwar min Grwy a'r mynydd; 
Mab Gwilym Gam, ddinam, ddoetb, 
A gae leuan iV gyfoeth. 
Myfi'r haf, mwy yw fy rhan, 
Yw gwr y ty ar Gwrt leuan : 
Mwyn, brud yr wyf mown bord rydd, 
Mawl a^i hyder mal hedydd, 
Cywydd a wna ef, hedydd haf, 
Yn fwrw' n ochr y fron uchaf ; 
Cerais, ar hynt cwrs yr hydd. 
Felly i fwrw fy lleferydd.^ 
Gwych, tiym, oedd iach iV tramwy, 
Clochfan &wrt cylch afon Gwy 
. . gynnes gwar mynydd 
. . . d iach frig dy dydd 
Ba le bynag y bai 'r nod, 
By w yno y mae'n benod. 
. . a geiff enwog wedd 
Morys [ar] ol a mawredd. 
Mab y w, ni bydd i'm dydd dig, 
Mur ceraint? ymro Curig, 

most of tbese poems is composed, consists of rhyming couplets, 
each verse of which contains seven syllables, and is divided into 
two clauses, in the last of which must be repeated consecutively 
three of the consonants contained in the first. 

1 Cefn, pars superior, Dr. Davies's Pic^., 8. v. ' "E. lly ei" in MS. 

' In MS. 2W Coraint The metre requires a word beginning 
with m. 


Corflf Bolant Siancyn ffriwlwyd 

Goch hil Uin gwych Howel Llwyd. 

C&r Rhys Llwyd accw rboes Ian 

Cr»ig ruddaur Ceri Crenddjn. 

Llawn ei bord Wenllian bydd, 

Hwynte rywl [iant] mewn trefydd. 

Tstyried Is y Daren 

A wna hi wrth wan a hfin. 

6ras a rboes gwir lesu i'w rhan, 

Syn i ran synwyr lenan. 

Araf yw'r gwycha' o'r gwyr, 

Araf yw hedfa'r eryr. 

At genedl pan fo'r gynhen^ 

Oni bydd Pont, ni bydd Pen. 

Bhain geidw gweilch hengoed gynt 

Heb wanh&n neb o honynt : 

Cad[ar]na'r corner coed allt, 

I'w ennyn ar war wen'r allt. 

Ond da yw yntan lenan,^ 
Gy] da' i' droed gadw 'i ran.* 
]Tra fydd ei r] hwysg, llew'r trefydd 

Arwystli fawr ar ei ol fydd. 

[Nid] dyn fn* mwy yno 

[Yn ei fam] leuan tra fo, 

[Ni bydd] gwaed heb unben gwyr. 

•«> « # * # 


God, of old time, granted not nnjustly 

To Abraham, thro' the Hebrew land. 

The coming to him of the obedient people. 

By his impulsion, numerous as the forest. 

God gave the east to be taken as in a net. 

By the onslaught of their twelve tribes. 

To the endowment of Abraham came the Hebrews, 

And for his gifl he gave thanks to God. 

For my gift, too, in the height of summer. 

To God in my turn will I give thanks. 

It is God who freely gives us a house. 

Between the slope of Wye's bank and the mountain. 

The son of Gwilym (Jam, blameless and wise, 

^ The MS has " d da in gnlan Icnan.*' The reading, as amended, 
is conjectural only. 

* The original has " waed," and " a'i ran" in the next line. 

* Dynm in MS. 



Possesses leuan for his weal. 

I, myself, in the summer — the greater is my portion — 
Am goodman of the house over leuan's court : 
Courteous and free am I at the generous board. 
In praise whose boldness is like the lark's. 
A strain he utters —he, the lark of summer. 
Throwing his breast askant in its ascent. 
I have loved, in following the chase of the hart. 
In like manner to pour forth my voice. 
Gay, trim, and pleasant to frequent, 
Is Clochfaen Court on the winding of the Wye. 
. . Warm is the slope of the hill. 
And wheresoever my lot be cast. 
To live there is best of ail. 
Morys^ shall gain distinguished rank 
And greatness in the future. 
A youth who will never be angry with me, 
A wall of strength to his kindred in Curig's land 
IsJenkynGoch,of pale complexion — a Roland' in stature- 
Scion of the noble line of Howel Lloyd, 
Kinsman of Rhys Lloyd* yonder, who gave him 
The rock of Ceri, Creuddyn,* red as gold. 
Pull will the table of Gwenllian be,^ 
They also shall rule in towns. 
Consideration beneath the oak 
Will she entertain for the weak and old, 
Grace verily hath Jesus given for her portion, 
Marvel at the understanding allotted to leuan. 
Deliberate is the noblest of men — 
Deliberate is the flight of the eagle. 
In the Tribe when strife hath arisen. 
No Head will there be, except there be a Bridge. 
These shall preserve the hawks of the ancient forest. 
Not one of them shall be made weak. 
In the strongest comer of the wooded upland 
To incite them* on the crown of the smiling hill. 
But leuan also is well able 

^ Perhaps the son and successor of Jenkyn Goch, and grandson 
of leuan, is the person alluded to. Moiit. Coll., vol. ii, p. 273. 

2 The hero of romance, and nephew of Charlemagne. 

3 Probably his uncle, Rhys Lloyd, of Pont y Rhyd Galed, ancestor 
of the Richardses of Llangurig. 

* One of the three comots of Cantref Penwedig in Cardiganshire. 

^ An allusiou to the words of the Psalm, " Thy children like the 

olive branches round about thy table." * The MS. text has swyr. 

e H7 


With his foot to hold his ground. 

So long as his lion's career shall last^ 

Shall the towns of Arwystli be great at his back. 

There no man has been greater than he. 

. . . . so long as leuan shall live. 

Its men shall not want a chieftain of their blood. 

The next poem, although in the MS. subscribed with 
the words and date, ** Huw Arwystli ai kant, 1503/' has 
been, but perhaps with less reason, referred to the 
same category of doubtful date and authorship as the 
last. The title runs thus; Coivyddy neu Englynion 
Marwmid Men, gwraig Howel oh Morys Goch o Lan- 
gurig yn Uwchgoed, i. e. " A Poem, or Elegiac Stanzas 
on EUen, wife of Howel, son of Morys Goch of Llan- 
gurig, in Uwchgoed." No such connexion as " Howel" 
is, however, to be found in any of the Llangurig fami- 
lies. The statement probably has arisen from a mis- 
take of the transcriber, who, in his ignorance of the 
descent of the dochfaen family from an ancestor of 
that name, concluded hastily that the " Howel" re- 
ferred to in the third and fifth stanzas, could have 
been no other than her husband. It is strange that he 
should have overlooked the fact that the latter is more 
fitly represented by "Llewelyn," who, in the sixth 
stanza, is designated by the title of "Llyw Ael- 
wyd," the " Lord of the Hearth," an expression appa- 
rently equivalent to the prosaic one of " Head of the 
Family." It is in Llewelyn, therefore, that the hus- 
band of EUen must be sought. Accordingly, we find 
that a lady of that name, a daughter of Maurice ap 
Jenkjm Goch, and great granddaughter of leuan, the 
subj^ of the last poem, was married to Llewelyn ab 
Morys ab Rhys of Llangurig.^ She was a sister of the 
" Four Brothers of Llangurig," whose fame has been 
preserved in the curious poem by Huw Cae Llwyd, 
which will be presented the next in succession to our 
readers ; both poems, therefore, must be assigned to 
the same period. The name of one of this lady's bro- 
thers, Evan of Crugnant, appears as sixth on the grand 

1 X'ontgomery shire Collections, vol. ii, p. 273. 


jury, A.D. 1546. We shall not be far wronff in as- 
iding to them, therefore, a somewhat eaxlier^date,- 
not too early, however, to have been actually composed 
by the poet indicated in the MS. as its author. 




Mair ! pond du ein arddelydd — ^bla 

Blin yw gwaith elorwydd : 
Mair I Mair ! ni chawn ddial lawnddydd ; 
Mwy lie i minaa maen mynydd. 


Oer fydd blaen mynydd, blin i *m yw — mlila 

Am Elan dda ei wyth ry w : 
Nid braendod ond b&r un Daw^ 
Ni henwyd fath bono 'n fyw 1 


Difyw* brig bro Cirig o'r cerydd — hil^ Hon 

Howel Lloyd nis gorfydd : 
Dodau'r dull dyn o^r dydd. 
Da rew'n glwyd ar ein gwledydd. 


I'r gwledydd trist troes Duw faith — bla 

Pn blino nosulgwaith : 
Hwyr fydd i 'n byw, Duw, o'r daith ; 
I wan esgor y nosgwaith. 


N8s glaf a fu'n anaf i fonedd — ^Howel 

Tynnu'n hoU ymgeledd : 
Nid k, a ni *n byw dan nenn bedd 
Wraig rywogach o^r gwragedd I 


Cai bedd pen gwragedd Creuddyn* pan gadd 

Pen gwaed Curig breuddyn ; 
Alaeth oedd ar dylwyth hyn, 
A Llyw aelwyd Llewelyn. 

1 The MS. has " Howel." « The MS. has "Dewrw." 

8 " Bill" in MS. 

* " Ai gryn" in MS. I have ventured to restore "Creuddyn," 
which satisfies both context and metre. 



[Aelwyjd bywyd torri bon — y pren 

Adfyd prudd ei dylodion ; 
A rhoi anaf ar weinion^ 
Le ymlaen fa'r glan blant bon. 


Glan feibion gwychion'n rhoi gawr — *n dost 

Yn dwyn derwenllawr ; 
Ni chwardd na thylawd na chrythawr, 
Weled roi lied gwlad i'r llawr ! 


Aetb wlad i ddwyn cwyr iwch canol — ^llo 

Lie 'r k 'r byd olynol ; 
Ond rhoi gair da rhagorol, 
Ei cho' yw hwn — serch i'w hoi. 


Elen yn ol pen He 'i poenwyd^ — ni than 

Ac ni thyrr yr anwyd ; 
Llwyr o'r cwyn yn ei^difwynwyd. 
Lie bu ar ben llwybr roi bwyd. 


A m o 'i bwyd a gladdwyd Llysgelyddon^ — ^braf 

Lie bn briflTordd tylodion ; 
Mawr y w 'r anap ar weinion, 
Mair ! bydd hwyr marw bath hon 1 



Mary I how black is onr gloom ; a grievous 

Affliction is the work of the bier : 

Mary I Mary I a day of full vengeance may I not have ; 

For me were a stone on the mountain a fitter abiding-place. 

^ This line seems cormpt, nor can I do more than guess at its 

' Llys Gelyddon. 1 know not if this place is named in other 
Welsh writings, or whether it is here referred to as Elen's burial- 
place ; or, with greater probability perhaps, as connected in some 
way with her beneficence to the poor. 



Cold is the mountain-peak, painful to me is my sorrow. 
For Elen, noble thro' her eight descents : 
God alone is the cause of dissolution ! 
Her living like hath ne'er received a name. 


Lifeless is the Upland of Curig because of the chastisement. 
The gentle race of Howel Lloyd will not endure it : 
Like the outspread of a black forest over our lands 
Is the closing of the day to her mortal form. 


God on our sorrowing lands hath laid a lasting grief, 
To afflict us with vigils : 

Wearisome, God I will be the travel of our life. 
Unto the faint outbreak of the dawn from the night. 


A night of sickness and of pain to the noble stock of Howel, 
Calling for all our care : 

While we live shall not one more amiable among women 
Go under the roof of the grave. 


The grave hath gained possession of the first of Creuddyn's 

women ; when it was found 
That the best blood of Curig could perish, 
Then upon the family came mourning. 
And upon Llewelyn, the Lord of the Hearth. 


The Hearth whose life — the trunk of the tree — has been cut 

A sore calamity to its poor, 
A wound also to the sick. 
In the land where the foremost were her fair children. 


Her fair and gallant sons uttering a bitter cry. 
As they bear the oaken bier ; 
Neither poor nor crowder make merry. 
To see half the land laid low. 



Gone is the land to make mourning^ in your midst. 

Where all that is human shall follow ; 

But the best of naroes^ and the love 

That she leaves behind her — that is her Memorial ! 


To Elen's suflFerings there is an end, — ^now 

Nor heat nor cold shall hurt her ; 

The spot only mourns its bereavement of her. 

Where she was wont to distribute food at the end of the path. 


She who gave of her food is buried ; a brave sight 

Hath Llys Qelyddon been, with its highway thronged by poor; 

Great is the calamity to the sick ! 

Maiy I far off is the day ere her like shall die I 

By the aid of the little glimmering of light shed 
upon it by the grand Jury list of 1546, we see no 
reason to doubt that this little poem was actually in- 
dited by the bard of Arwystli If so, it is not impro- 
bably the earhest of his eitant compositions ; notvdth- 
standing that the supposition may appear somewhat 
ra^h, wLn it is coni^aered how many of these have 
stiU to be disinterred from the volumes of decayinj 
MSS., in which they he mouldering away. To our mine 
there is evidence of youthful poetic aspiration in the 
simple, but genuine, pathos that peeps out in some of 
the lines through the difficulties and imperfections of 
the text. Some of these may be attributable to the 
practical inexperience of the bard in the art of weaving 
the metric lay, of which he since became recognised as 
a master. And it must be admitted that the life-like 
picture presented to us, in a few gentle touches, of the 
Lady of Creuddyn, borne to her grave by her own 
sobbing children, followed with the tears and lamenta- 
tions of the whole coimtry-side, to whom she had en- 
deared herself by her humble and tmostentatious 
charity to the sick and poor, carries with it a certain 
foreshadowing of his future pre-eminence. 

^ *' Dwyn cwyr," to bear wax tapers in the faneral procession. 


From this elegy on Eleo, their sister, we are led on 
by a natural tiunsition to the poem addressed to her 
brothers by Huw Cae Llwyd, a bard who, though 
partly his contemporary, belonged to the foregoing 
generation. It were to be wished that some more pro- 
saic record would reveal to us fuller particulars re- 
specting these gentlemen, for which our appetite is 
decidedly whetted by those derived from the poem. 
But unfortunately we have none, save their names, 
leuan, Owen, Jenkyn, and WiQiam, connected with 
the few facts recorded in their pedigrees, and enu- 
merated in the second volume of this work ;^ also that 
already adverted to respecting leuan, viz., that he sat 
sixth on a grand jury in the last year but one of Henry 
VIII ; and last, not least, the one which, but for their 
" vates sdcer" would have been consigned to oblivion, 
that they were known and regarded with more than 
ordinary respect in their day, as having earned by their 
character and conduct, exhibited in distinctive traits, 
the title par excellence of " The Four Brothers of Llan- 


Pwy a rydd peunydd aur pwys ? 
Piau hoU iachau Powys ? 
A'r soldau gorau a gaid ? 
Pond wyrion penawduriaid ? 
Piau 'r glod pwy ar gwledydd. 
Pa frodyr yn filwyr fydd ? 
Pedwar cymar, rhag camwedd, 
Cedym iawn y caid yr un wedd. 
leuan, tarian anturwyr, 
Torri y'mlaen tair mil o wyr, 
Owain ddewr, yn y ddwy ran, 
Awdr yw ni edy ei ran : 

1 P. 273. See also Arch. Camh. for 1867, p. 26. 
^ From the MS. in the British Museum called " Y Melynhir," 
and numbered Additional MSS. UllL^s. The last twenty lines are 

1 fl 7 • 

found also in the " Llyfr-Ceniarth," tacked on to the fragment of 
another poem, ascribed to Huw Cae Llwyd, containing park of the 
Legend of S. Cnng. 


Siancyn, roddwin wreiddwych, 

A Hew dinam^ Wiliara wych : 

Meibion Morys, fur awchys frig, 

Llyna geirw Llangurig, 

Ag wyrion enwog eryr ; 

Siancin, a roe win i wyr,^ 

Gwych a gadam y 'th famwyd, 

A hael y w llin Hywel Llwyd. 

Gwaed Padog, enwog o wr, 

Gwaed Einion, ag o Danwr,^ 

Coed Rhys, yn cadw 'r oesoedd, 

Cawr o wr, Llwyd, car larll oedd. 

Caid o hil coed wehelyth, 

Caterw fydd coetir fyth. 

Caid anian yn cadw ynys, 

Cawn roddion gorwyrion Rys. 

Ond haelion, gwychion, y w^r gwyr ? 

Ond tewrion, ac antarwyr ? 

Ond tyfeilch yn eu tyfiad, 

I rannu 'r tir, o 'r un tad ? 

O dderwen fawr, o 'r ddar flfon, 

Y cadeiriodd coed irion : 

Ceingiau yn golofnau gwlad ; 

Ceirw a 'u hofn a 'u cariad ; 

Cyd tyfu y caid hefyd, 

Cyd fiynnu a'u earn i gyd ; 

Curig, o, fewn y cnras, 

A'u cryfed, cadwed rhag cas ! 

Cyd treulio y caid rheolwyr, 

Cyd gildio, cyd gostio gwyr : 

Cyd henaint y caid^ en heinioes, 

Cyd rhannn hwnt,* cyd rhoi 'n en hoes ; 

Cyd gam* 'r Cymm y caid ; 

^ This wine mnst have been imported direct from France to the 
neighbouring port of Aberystwyth. This passage, and one in an- 
other poem, in which Llaognrig is described as noted for the ex- 
cellence of its wine, furnishes a curious proof of the existence of a 
trade with France in wine on the Welsh coast at that early period. 

^ Madoc Danwr, the immediate founder of the Clochfaen family. 
See his History, Mofit. Coll., vol. ii, p. 269. 

* Y caid. The LI. Oeniarth has " cadwo." 

* Cyd rhannn hwnt. The LI. Cen. has " Cydran himp." 

^ Cyd gam. This is the reading of LI. Cen. The British Mu- 
seum MS. has '' ffynnn," probably repeated by mistake from the 
seventh line above. 


Cyd gynnal^ cadw gweiniaid ; 

Cadw meirch ar frasgeirch fry^ 

Cadw gwyr, a 'a cyd garu, 

Cadw eu gwlad mal eu tadau, 

Cadwasant naw cant yniaa.^ 

Os gwyr yn garwyr a gaid^ 

Oes gerddiant yn esgweiriaid.* 

Tyfasant at twf asen, 

Mal ar hyd y milwyr hen. 

Tri wyr o 'r nn bortreiad, 

Tri maen, gwn, tryma 'n y gaad ; 

Tri ag un a fydd unair. 

Tri chapten, tri phen y ffair. 

Teiroes oil i 'r tri sydd, 

Tedeiroes i 'r pedwerydd. 

Huw Cae Llwyd a 'i c&nt. 


Who gives daily gold by weight ? 

Who possesses all the descents of Powys ? 

And the best soldiers that are found ? 

Is it not the grandsons of chieftains ? 

Who possess renown over all lands ? 

What brothers are they who are warriors f 

Four comrades^ who, against wrong. 

Alike have been found mighty. 

leuan, the shield of daring men. 

Would rout three thousand men before him ; 

Stout Owen, in the two divisions. 

Will suffer none to quit his post.* 

Jenkin, the noble wine-giver. 

And gallant William, the spotless lion. 

These are the sons of Morys, a bristling rampart. 

These are the Stags of Llangurig, 

And the grandsons of an Eagle of renown.* 

Thou, Jenkin, who givest wine to thy men, 

Art deemed to be a man noble and powerful ; 

^ Yniall. LI, Cen, The British Museum MS. has "nosan," which 
is noD sense. 

2 The British Museum MS. has "gerddiant ysgweireriaid." 

* I doubt the soundness of the text in this line. The meaning, 
anyhow, is far from clear. 

* See the pedigree of Jcakyn Goch and of Catherine his wife. 
Vol. ii, p. 272. 


And generoas is the Line of Howel Lloyd^ 

Of the blood of Madoc ;^ a hero of renown. 

From Einion^ and from the Fire-bearer, 

Comes a perpetual forest of scions of Rhys Lloyd, 

A gigantic hero, and kinsman to an Earl. 

From that line hath proceeded a forest of descendants : 

Wide-spreswiing for ever will that forest-land be ; 

In defending the Island hath its spirit been proved. 

From the great grandsons of Rhys* shall we receive gifts; 

Are they not men generous and gallant ? 

Are they not men resolute and daring ? 

In their increase are they not proud, 

As sons of one father, to share the land between them ? 

From a vast oak, from the stock of a female oak. 

Hath spread forth a flourishing wood. 

Whose branches are pillars in the land. 

Stags are they alike feared and beloved. 

They have been found both to grow together. 

And all to prosper together in love. 

May Curig, beneath their cuirass. 

Strengthen them, and keep them from hate I 

As rulers have they been proved to spend together. 

Together to raise, and to pay their men, 

Together hath their life attained its prime. 

Together do they share in their life, together bestow. 

Together have they been found to love the Cymry, 

Together to maintain and support the sick. 

To keep their tall steeds on finest oats : 

Together to maintain, and love their men. 

And preserve their country, as their fathers 

Preserved it, with nine hundred energies.* 

As their men have been found to love them. 

So have they led the Ufe of esouires. 

They have grown to the growth of a rib,* 

Like the warriors of old in stature. 

Three of the heroes are framed on one pattern, — 

^ The great-grandson of Madoc Danwr. Though no special ex- 
ploits or characteristics are connected vrith his name, yet, from 
the frequency of reference to it, it would seem to have been asso- 
ciated in the minds of the bards with somewhat more noteworthy 
than the single quality of birth. 

* Rhys Lloyd of Greuddyn was the great grandfather of these 

* J. 6., With courage and spirit inexhaustible. 

* I. e., to a nicety. 



Three rocks, the heaviest I know to be found. 
The three and one will hold one language. 
Three captains, three presidents at the fair. 
The three will have three lives ; 
The fourth will have a fourth life.^ 

The extract, of which the following is a translation, 
is from a poem by Cadwaladr ab Rhys Trefnant, who 
is stated in Enwogion to have flourished about the 
middle of the sixteenth century. In it are celebrated 
the virtues of Llewelyn, the husband of Elen, the sub- 
ject of the above elegy ; and her own praises are soimded 
in the closing lines, although she is not actually named 
in them. The poem is entitled, " An Ode to solicit 
the loan of a Bull for the Lady of Peutyn,^ from Lle- 
welyn, son of Morris, son of Rhys, son of Adam, of 

Who is the man of renown, of pure virtue. 

Resolute and gallant, of a bearing free from vanity ? 

It is the Lion of Battle called Llewelyn, 

The falcon of the hill-country of fair Curig, 

Of bright aspect, sign of a pure heart. 

In steel mail, quick as Dervel with his staff.^ 

A gallant wine-giver is Jenkin,* 

Morris* is noble for his humility of speech ; 

A man to draw the yoke of Rhys 

Lloyd, like to a tawny lion. 

Thou art the angel of the blood of Howel 

Lloyd, the soul of all goodness ; 

A man the best offspring of Griffith, 

The pure progeny of highest descents. 

With noble increase from the blood of David 

Tabam, mayst thou grow to be an Earl ; 

If thine eight sires be reckoned. 

Thy pedigrees become numerous ; 

1 J. e., The life of each brother will be quadrupled, as it were, by 
its perfect unison with that of each of the other three. 

^ A place in Radnorshire. 

3 The patron Saint of Llandderfel, in Edeymion. See his History 
in Enwogion. 

* The third of the "Four Brothers," and Llewelyn's brother-in-law. 

^ The name of the fathers of both Elen and Llewelyn. 


Uncorrupt are thy four lines of descent, 

Of no vile or base extraction is thine ancestor. 

If thine ancient blood be stirred up. 

No better blood exists in distant lands. 

Than that which a sweet significance 

Bespeaks in thy delicate features. 

The blood of Rhys is a rampart, with his vast forest' yonder. 

To prosper together with the Blood of Llawdden. 

A wide-spread forest is the Blood of Trevor.^ 

Pure are thy degrees of afimity wherever the language is 

Mighty Mathavam, with its men. 
Is a portion of the fruit of the ancient warriors. 

From Urien came a privileged line of descent, 
Degengl, a scion of branches many and illustrious ; 
Gwaithvoed, a stag whose work is of excellent fashion. 
Came— together with thy kindred that loved thee — 
Came from Rhys. Good are thy roots : 
The veins of Gethin's roots are one with theirs. 
This does not touch 
The sixth part there of what is yours ; 
On you, as on Ivor,* hath God bestowed 
The greatest store of wealth ; 
How true is it that, with a brave hearty 
By wealth is gained the world 1 

Who doth not love thee, thou Chief over the multitude, 
Thou Falcon yonder, circling round the cultivated land ? 
Thy Spouse — worthy of praise is she^ 
Llewelin^s Lily, bright as the moon, 
A Gwenhwyvar, a second Avarwedd. 
In manj virtues is she perfected. 
Savoury messes are in her pantries. 
Rampart of thy Tribe ! may Mary uphold it ! 
Thou art one to distribute — thy fame shall endure. 
Like that of the hero Bran, in the Upland of Curig. 

With this poem we do not yet lose sight of the Fotir 
Brothers. The Llyfr Ceniarth contains others addressed 

^ A forest, in Welsh poetry, often means a host of kindred or 

* Tudor Trevor. 

* Literally, " throughout the language." 

* Ivor Hael. 


respectively to three of their number, as far as may be 
gathered from internal evidence, for their titles in the 
MS. speak only of their being written in honour of " the 
Clochfaen Family;" a circumstance which, together with 
the numerous gaps and corruptions or mutUations of the 
text which occur in them, tends greatly to obscure their 
meaning. In the MS. they are aU (one by Sion Keri 
excepted) subscribed with the name of Huw Arwystli, 
with the addition of dates, which, however, are either 
too early or too late to be calculated to do otherwise 
than mislead ; one being fixed at 1570, and the others 
so far back as at, or about, 1500. As many of these 
poems have, with more or less appearance of proba- 
bility, been ascribed to Huw ArwystU, who is thus, 
pernaps, more than any other, entitled to the appella- 
tion of " Bard of Llangurig," it may be fitting to intro- 
duce them with an epitome of the few scattered notices 
which we have been able to collect of his career. 




Part II.* 

Sketch op Huw Arwystli. 

The latest oral tradition relative to Hugh Arwystli, 
still, perhaps, current in some districts of Wales, is 
that he was remembered as a very old man and a 
cripple, who had no fixed abode, but was to be seen 
now at one place, now at another, chiefly at the man- 
sions of the gentry, with whom he was wont to ingra- 
tiate himself, and to requite their hospitality, after the 
manner of the ancient bards of his country, by the com- 
position of poems addressed to some member of the 
family, generally its head, in which its praises were 
sounded in a somewhat high-flown strain of panegyric. 
Such poems were usually commenced by a reference to 
the antiquity of the family-stock, traced up to the ninth 
degree. This was followed by details connected with 
the pedigree, deduced in the male, and, if possible, also 
in the female line, from some British hero, the foimder 
of a royal or noble tribe, or failing that, of one of its 
collateral branches ; concluding with a special encomium 
on the character of its existing representative, in which 
bravery, generosity, noble bearing, and last, not least, 
hospitality, were ever the conspicuous features. To 
this were generally added allusions to the profusion of 
his banquets and the excellence of his cellar; the former 
presidea over by the lady of the house, whose beauty, 


grace and birth were surpassed only by the inexhaustible 
resources and economy of her mSnage, as weU as bounty 
to the poor. Occasion for such effusions was furnished 
by any current event of domestic importance, as a birth, 
a wedding, or a funeral — especially the latter — so far as 
may be inferred at least from the predominance among 
their extant compositions of poems bearing the title of 
Marwnad, or " Elegy on the Dead." 

Respecting the birthplace of Huw Arwystli we pos- 
sess, liifortunately, but little or no infomation. His 
surname, however, may be itself accepted as evidence 
that it was somewhere' in the hundred of Arwystli ; 
and this is confirmed by the circumstance that, in the 
heading of a poem assigned to him in the British Mu- 
seum, he is called Huw Arwystli of Tref Eglwys, in 
that district, as well as by the familiar allusions to this 
village which occur in his poems.\ Some evidence, 
moreover, is afforded by the compositions, now for the 
first time printed, that part of his early life was passed 
in the village, or at least within the parish of Llan- 
gurig. It would lie beyond the scope of this paper to 
examine the question minutely ; but, as tending to 
such an inference, may be instanced his perfect acquaint- 
ance with, and affection for, the locality — ^its ancient 
church, its bright and lovely Wye, its sacred and war- 
like traditions ; together with his intimate acquaintance 
with all its principal households, and the most intimate 
details of their several connexions and relationships ; 
the heartfelt interest which he displays in even their 
most trivial concerns, particularly of Clochfaen, which 
he sets forth to us as the fountain-head of the rest of 
the same descent from Madoc Danwr, or the " Fire- 
bearer," and more remotely from Einion, and Tudor 
Trevor. His devotion to Curig, its patron saint, springs 
manifestly from some pecuHar tie, which he feels to be 
binding on him personally. There is a passage in which 
he alludes mysteriously to his own residence within the 
parish at some prior, and seemingly very early period 
of his existence ; and, in another, the strain rises sud- 

1 " Cywydd y Benglog,'' in Add. M88., 14,875, British Museum. 


denly from its commonplace alliterative style to one 
simply and unaflfectedly poetical, when adverting epi- 
sodically on the one hand to the picturesque features, 
and on the other to the well-remembered faith and de- 
votion of his own beloved " Bro Gurig/'^ 

A traditional story, in which is depicted the manner 
in which the peasantry loved to believe that their coun- 
tryman came by his " Awen/' or poetical genius, is pre- 
cious for the characteristic morsel embodied in it of the 
old Welsh folk-lore, the spirit of which is now to all 
appearance extinct. It tells how a poor despised cripple, 
Hugh Arwystli by name, was Wont upon occasion when 
a wayfarer through Montgomeryshire, and in want of a 
night's lodging, to turn aside into the church of Llan- 
ddinam and there compose himself to sleep. It chanced 
one May eve that, in this sacred refuge, he fell into a 
deep slumber, when he beheld a vision as of one who 
approached him, and made a sign as it were of causing 
somewhat to enter into his brain. On the morrow he 
was awoke by the merry voices of a bevy of maidens 
who came tripping by with their laps full of fresh-gath- 
ered may. One of these tossed to mm a branch through 
the windQw^under which he had reposed, remarking 
playfully tocher companions, "I wUl bestow on this 
poor cripple some may, as none of you wUl give him 
any.'' Thereupon Huw, who had heretofore never com- 
posed, or learnt to compose, a single stanza, improvised 
a sonnet of thanksgiving to the maiden for her gift. 
From that day forward he was able to compose poetry, 
and attained to such excellence in the art, that he 
maintained himself in high favour with the Welsh 
gentry by means of it throughout the rest of his life. 
The last fact is abundantly certified by the number and 
diversity of the compositions ascribed to his pen, many 
of them addressed to persons of rank in almost every 
part of the Principahty. The tale ends simply with 
the explanation that what he had seen entering his 
brain was the " Awen,'' in which, it is added, in proof 

1 Gang's Land. 

T 2 


of the estimation formed of him by his countrymen, not 
one of his contemporaries surpassed him. Of this no 
slight corroboration is found in the Visitations of Lewis 
Dwnn, the Welsh herald,^ who places the names of 
" Huw Arwystli and Morgan Elvael, chief musicians", 
among those " of the generation which I saw aged and 
grey-headed, who were perfect poets, duly authorised, 
and all graduated," And it is confirmed by the testi- 
mony of William Lleyn, the " Poet Laurel," as John 
Rhydderch terms him, in Elizabeth's reign, who, reply- 
ing to some stanzas sent by Hugh to felicitate him on 
his escape from drowning at the hands of a man who 
had thrown him into the Dovey at Penal, writes 

" Arwystli ! to thy poet Huw 
Both Lore and Art belong ; 
And Nature liath inspired him too. 
To weave the sprightly song/^^ 

It would scarcely, however, be fair, with our present 
limited knowledge, to attempt a critical survey of his 
poetical merits. The remarkable fecundity of his muse 
is testified by the number of his extant compositions. 
Sixty-six of his poems are enumerated in the " Cymm- 
rodorion Catalogue" in the British Museum, and fifty- 
five more which appear to be in his handwriting (be- 
sides some in other MS. volumes), are bound up with 
others in a single quarto volume of the Hengwrt 
Library, now at Peniarth. If to these be added thirty- 
three, the first lines of which are given in the famous 
** Repertorium" of Moses WUliams,^ omitting to reckon 
three poems, which are found also in one of the above 
lists, and one ascribed, in " Gorchestion y Beirdd," to 
Howel ab Rheinallt, together with one in the collec- 
tion of the late Rev. Walter Davies : the sum total of 

1 Vol. i, p. 8. 

* Djsg ag addysg go weddol — o gy wydd 

Ag awen ysbrydol ; 

Odid tm nad ydyw 'n ol 

Huw Arwystl ntLtuviol— Add, M8S,f 14,892. 
' British Musuum Catalogue, No. 872, 1. 4. 


his compositions will amount to no less than one 
hundred and fifty-five. Of these, perhaps from twenty 
to thirty may be dispersed in different collections, and 
thus are more or less known to the poetical public of 
the Principality. Into them a considerable number of 
errors have crept in the process of frequent transcrip- 
tion, increased doubtless also, in many instances, by 
the fact that his handwriting is extremely difficult to 
decipher. It would be necessary, therefore, that his 
works should be carefully collected, and edited in a 
scholarlike manner, to enable the public to form a 
sound judgment on the question of their average merit. 
Still the remark may be hazarded, in arguing from the 
known to the imknown, that it is unlikely that many 
of these would be classed in the highest rank of classical 
Welsh compositions — at least in the condition in which 
they have reached us. Not a few of the poems best 
known to us bear the appearance of having been in- 
dited with facility, indeed, and with a considerable 
admixture of humour, but hastily, on the spur of 
the occasion, and (with certain exceptions) with no 
great regard to the rules of metrical symmetry, or 
even of grammatical construction. In regard to the 
former, indeed, so frequent are the instances of laxity 
as to suffffest the idea that the author must have 
declined, on some preconceived principle, to suffer him- 
self to be trammelled by the more stringent require- 
ments of his art ; unless it is rather to be supposed 
that they were loosely put together in the first in- 
stance with a view to revision and amendment at some 
future opportunity, which in fact never arrived. Be 
the explanation what it may, it is a fact that, in the 
quarto volume at Peniarth already mentioned, the 
compositions, which are in Huw's handwriting, but 
unattested by his signature, are for the mopt part 
penned in so cramped and attenuated a character as 
to puzzle even a practised eye to decipher ; and, in 
one of them, a copy of which has been kindly furnished 
to the writer by the owner, who was unwilling, how- 


ever, tx) certify fully to the correctness of the transcript, 
these seemingly characteristic defects of composition 
appear largely to prevail. They cannot, therefore, be 
wholly accounted for on the hypothesis of carelessness 
or ignorance on the part of transcribers, or even by 
the seeming impracticability of determining, in every 
passage, the words which the author actually wrote. 
It is strange that the text of the copies of some of his 
works in the British Museum which, from the fre- 
quency of their transcription, would seem to have been 
most popular, should be in so defective a state as to 
lead naturally to the inference that their very tran- 
scribers must have failed to understand them, or at 
least to appreciate their beauties ; whence it may, per- 
haps, further be inferred that we owe their preserva- 
tion rather to the inherent passion in our nature for 
heaping together a collection, rather because it is a 
fashion, than because its contents will improve or 
bfenefit ourselves. 

In a few, however, as, for instance, the " Cowyddau 
Mab y Ffalsder a Chywirdeb," there is a certain appear- 
ance of finish and elaboration which is lacking to many 
of his compositions ; whence it is natural to conclude 
that they were the favourite offspring of his fancy, upon 
which he bestowed an amount of labour and thought 
which he scarcely cared to expend upon lines that ori- 
ginated merely with some jovial occasion, or were jotted 
down at once in the very shape which they first assumed 
in his teeming imagination, excited after a merry- 
making with the desire to glorify some hospitable host, 
or glowing with the frankness and abandon of a satirical 
correspondence in verse, with an appreciative and kin- 
dred spirit, like Sir leuan, the jovial and rollicking 
minister of the village of Camo in Arwystli, who would 
be slow to mark trifling inaccuracies of composition 
while enjoying and reciprocating his humour, even when 
too freely lavished at his own expense.^ This sense of 

^ There is a passage in one of Sir lenan's poems which tells in 
act the other way, in which, while deferring to his antagonist's 


humour in his character was largely intermingled with 
practical g5od sense and knowledge of the world, such 
as peep out in the following lines, translated, or perhaps 
more correctly speaking paraphrased, from the remark- 
able poem addressed to Rhys ap Morys of Aberbechan.* 
These qualities would probably be far more often appa- 
rent in the works of Huw, and of other Welsh poets, 
if not lost in the obscurity of tacit allusions to social 
habits and modes of thought now become almost unin- 
telligible because obsolete. It may be added that the 
poem in question would seem to nave been composed 
on the occasion of the young man s attainment of his 
majority, or entry into public life, an event which must 
have occiured in the reign of Henry VIII. It is re- 
markable for a certain tacit assumption of the old bardic 
authority to inculcate instruction and instil counsels 
of wisdom into the minds of young men of rank and 
position. In the palmy days of the bards, such counsel 
was far from being resented by its recipients; an|i, 
even at this later period, the language of the poem in 
question is a sign that the old social landmarks had not 
as yet become whoUy effaced. * There are, however, 
expressions in it which go far to show that 1-he privi- 
lege, though still to a certain extent claimed and ac- 
corded, had need to be cautiously exercised ; and any 
offence which might naturally have been taken at sucn 
freedom in the person of one who, albeit a graduated 
bard, was, in point of social position, but a poor wan- 
dering minstrel, is ingeniously obviated by the delicate 
way in which words of warning are rather insinuated 
than outspoken by the poet, who contents himself, 
moreover, with glancing indirectly at certain defects of 
character in their object, the mischievous tendency of 
which to mar an otherwise promising career he plainly 

marked superiority to himself as a poet, he complains that Hnw is 
unmercifnlly hjpercntical in his judgment of his own petty faults 
of composition. 

* For the original, and a prose translation of the former part of 
the poem, see MoiU, Coll.f vol. iii, pp. 395, 397. 


foresees, unless subjected to the timely counteraction 
of a powerful self-control. 

" Thou dealest justice, lovest truth. 
Sewer ^ and Squire,^ a gallant youth I 
As grows thy favour, be discreet. 
So shalt thou rise, yet keep thy seat. 
The shoot that springs from deep ploughed land. 
With earliest wheat shall fill thine hand ; 
From rays that warm the spring-time shower. 
Will sprout in tufts the primrose flower ; 
And of the noon-day heat is bom 
The fructifying ear of com. 
So, with thine auburn locks, at length, 
Thou'lt ripen to thy prime in strength. 
Well shall it be with thee, if wise. 
Thou suffer not thy wrath to rise. 
Of men uncouth thou canst but deign 
To slacken, as thy steed^s, the rein. 
Rhys ! be not proud. Man's haughty ways 
6od will not speed to length of days. 
Thou needst it not ; yet I bestow 
On thee the Seer's full mind to know. 
Thus also. Heir and Lord I twofold. 
Thy counsel shall to fools be told. 
No double tongue should e'er presage 
An office from thy patronage. 
The double-faced will overreach ; 
Unjust is he of double speech. 
No ill-considered judgment give. 
Confirmed by learning's page, 'twill live. 
Nor rail — thine ignorance to hide — 
Ere judgment given on either side. 

* By an error of the press the word " sener" in the Welsh poem 
has been translated " receiver," on page 394 of vol. iii, for " sewer," 
an office, the qature of which has been described in note 2 to the 
Welsh original, page 398. The name is derived from the old French 
esculier, or the scutellarius, i, e., the person who had to arrange the 
dishes, in the same way as the acuteUery (scnllery) was properly the 
place where the dishes were kept. Domestic Architecture, v. 3, p. 80, 
n., quoted in a note to John BusselVs Boke of Nurture, p. 162, of 
Manners and Meals in Olden Time, published for the Early English 
Text Society, Triibner, 1868. 

^ Possibly an esquire of the body to the reigning sovereign. See 
the notice of Edward Herbert, vol. iii, p. 356. 


Temper thy too impetuoas fire. 

Nor lose thyself thro' treacherouR ire. 

By sound discretion wind thy ball. 

Discretion will nnravel all. 

Whatever may hap, gaze npward still ; 

When yokes of oxen climb the hill. 

The sober, even-temper'd beast. 

Will longest last, and saffer least. 

In framing honest oath be nice. 

Nor ever frown for prejudice. 

Tho' folly thwart thee, do not strike, 

And sleep upon no man's mislike. 

Of kith and kin uphold the brood, 

'Tis thine — why weaken, then, thy blood ? 


The poetical correspondence, if it may be so termed, 
between Huw Arwystli and Sir leuan of Camo, above 
alluded to, is suffffestive of another quality inherent in 
the muse if our^led bard, » Jy. a ^un^nt vein 
of satire, which is readily discernible under its outer 
integument of a rich, but not always delicate, humour. 
The actual circimistances which occasioned it are pro- 
bably lost to history ; they are partly traceable, how- 
ever, through the medium of the somewhat obscmre 
allusions to them in the course of the poems. The first 
of the series is a " cywydd'' or ode,^ in which a young 
lady is urged to exert upon the too susceptible Sir 
leuan the influence of her charms, yet not to the extent 
of incurring risk to herself, for the purpose of restrain- 
ing him from following the bard into Pembrokeshire to 
" Castell Gv^rys,"* or Wiston Castle, the mansion of Sir 

1 Commencing thus :—' 

" Y ddyn sad, wych, ddawnos, deg, 
Ag ael fain, a gloyw &Tieg.'' 

In a copy taken from a MS. by the Rev. D. Ellis of Gricaeth, in 
CaernarvoDshire, it is entitled " Cy wydd i Ferch i ddymnno ami i 
ddenn Syr lenan rhag canljn y Bardd i dy Mr. Wg^on o Grastell 
Gwys vn Sir Benfro." There is another copy in the British Mu- 
seum (Add. M88., 14,874). 

* " Rhyfig praff sy'm iV gafiael, 

Ym mnriau cwrt marchog had, 
CofiV da lie 'r ceifT Huw V dewis 
Cistiau He 'r gwn Castell Gwys." 


John Wogan, the then representative of the Wogan 
family.^ To Huw the consequences of her failure would 
be serious ; the wine and the gold that would form his 
proper guerdon would fall, in part at least, to the share 
of the rival bard ; and so enamoured, in fact, would the 
"reverend prelate" become of Sir John Wogan's hos- 
pitable entertainment that, once enthralled by its allure- 
ments, he might never thereafter be prevailed upon to 
quit them.* 

It is difficult to imagine how a poor wandering cripple 
could be serious in attributing to the beneficed clergy- 
man the intention of rivalling him in minstrelsy for the 
favours of the great ; and we should simply be left to 
imagine that, beneath the semblance of such a charge 
was veiled a real compliment to the excellence, qxialify- 
ing him for success in the imaginary competition, of the 
ecclesiastic s poetical powers, did not the appeal to the 
power of feminine charms^ over the impressible temper- 
ament of the supposed rival, lead to the suspicion that 
more is intended than actually meets the eye. To this 
poem, as there is no rejoinder from Sir leuan, so should 
we be left to the merest conjecture on the subject, were 
it not that Huw has twice again reverted to it, and 
that in a manner which leaves us ultimately little room 
to doubt of his ulterior meaning. To tne object of 
attack, in fact, was conceded, in the first instance, no 
interval for reply ; for this was at once followed up by 
another of a similar character,* though somewhat vary- 

1 " Rhwystr i 'r lieu, rhy ystor lanwych, 

Flas gwln Syr Sion Wgon wych." 

2 " Nad S. 'r Prelad parchadwy, 

Barfog, o dai 'r marchog mwy." 

3 " Addaw *n deg, e ddaw *n d' ogylch, 

W ad i *th gael, nawdd Duw i *th gylch, 
Dy lun, Gwen, delw neu gauwyll, 
Dy liw byth a' i deil o' i bwyll." 

* This appears, from the nse of the word " ddoe" (yesterday), in 
the following lines of the " Ode to the Blackbird" : — 

" O Dduw mawr ! fu ddoe 'mwriad, 
I 'w rwystro i Ben fro heb wad ; 
Da fyddai na fedrai fo, 
I dai 'r Wgon i drigo." 


ing in form. It is entitled "An Ode,* wherein a 
blackbird is sent to Rhys of Camo (Aberbechan) to in- 
duce him to withdraw his protection from Sir leuan of 
Camo, and send him away." After apostrophising the 
bird with some poetical compliments to his character- 
istic features, qualities, and plumage, he bids him speed 
with a letter to Rhys ab Morys,^ on whose mansion, 
spacious and wealthy, he skilfully introduces an enco- 
'"mium, and requests him to cease entertaining this dig- 
nified (urddawl) clergyman at the wine-banquet, nor 
suffer him to remain at Camo, where, though of acknow- 
ledged learning and eloquence, unless Rhys were at hand, 
he would be fain to deprive his flock of both matins 
aad even song, in his haste to seek him at Aberbechan ; 
nay, on one occasion, he had left for that purpose as 
many as nine of his sick parishioners bereft of ex- 
treme unction.^ The priest, moreover, would insist 
upon following Huw throughout the Principality, divert- 
ing to lus own behests the presents that were his per- 
quisites as bard, and had even possessed himself of the 

[0 great Gk)d ! but yesterday I purposed 
Undonbtedly to keep him away from Pembrokesliire ; 
Well woald it be that he should be nnable 
To go and stay in Wogan's mansion.] 
^ Beginning : — 

" Yr edn a' i big is gwig gwydd, 
A fflam awch, a ffla mnchydd." 

* " Draw mae'n rhaid, was byrfras big, 

Danfon llythyr dan fin llithrig ; 
Marcia di, ym mro Cydewen, 
Orsedd barch wr sydd ben, 
Glymais ddoe 'nghyd gwynfyd gof, 
Gerdd at Rys, cerdda drosof." 

3 " Ni erys yng Ngamo dirion, 

Oni cheir Rhys yn ochr hon ; 
A' i geisio, didro, dendroed, 
Plygain i Gydewain dod, 
Ki cheir Gosber, nid erys, 
On 'd eir i 'w ol i dai Rh3rs. 
Caiff, sy 'n dal clwyf o' i blwyfwyr 
Gam, na ch&n' gymmnn, och ! wyr : 
A meirw fydd, mwy rhyfeddir, 
Heb Clew, naw o' i blwy 'n wir." 


parlour appropriated to his use in Rhys's house. For 
such enormities the poem ends with a suggestion that 
the only remedy was to send him wandering for the 
remainder of his days, as an incorrigible vagrant, from 
Camo, it might be, to Cornwall. 

To these effusions a reply from Sir leuan is extant,^ 
in which he seems partly to affect to regard them in 
the light of ironical compUments, parrying, at the same 
time, in a sort of mock-serious tone, the seeming attacks 
upon his conduct. Calling the blackbird again into re- 
quisition, in a strain in which Huw's previous descrip- 
tion of him is elegantly paraphrased and amplified, he 
desires him to return to Rhys ab Morys, and, with 
encomiastic speech,^ outvying even that of Huw, to 
plead his cause before hun. Adroitly ignoring the 
young lady, to whom Huw s first poem was addressed, 
the priest limits his defence to the justification of his 
visits to Wiston and Aberbechan, enlarging upon " the 
Nightingale of Arwystli's" proneness to exaggerate, not 
these faults only, but those of his poetical compositions.^ 
If a service or two had been missing in his church on a 
Sunday, this had been simply owing to a necessity 
for the administration of extreme imction to some of 
his sick parishioners, an office, he significantly adds, 
which he would never fail to perform for any one of 
Rhyss fine. As for Huw's complaints, "chief bard" 
{hrifardd) as he is, they arise from an excessive appe- 
tite, which he would do weU to restrain, for the good 
things of this world ; and adds that, while himself en- 
titled to share the liberality of the great, his advanced 

1 Commencing: — 

" Yr edn sy 'n dwyn, gwych, mwyngall, 
T&n o'r llwyn tew iawn, i *r Hall." 
s See tlie translated extract from this poem in Mont, Coll., vol. iii, 

pp. 396, 396. 

8 «* Mae bai ar fardd gloywfardd glyd, 

(Awydd yw 'r bai ar dda V byd,) 
Ac ni chair nn gair angerdd 
Fan, yn y gwaith o fewn y gerdd ; 
Na cbai *r ddwyran, mab anfodd, 
Eos Arwystl a sorodd." 


age might have sufficed to secure him from the envy of 
one so young. 

From the tenor of Arwystli's rejoinder, we may gather 
either that the poet felt himself piqued into acrimony, 
or that, agreeably to his original plan, he was now to 
immask his battery, and commence in earnest a fire 
more calculated to produce a serious eflfect than volleys 
of mere playful irony on his opponent. Be that as it 
may, the style of this, his last attack, seems bitter, even 
to virulence ; still, however, there is an overflow of 
exaggeration and hyperbole about it, which seems to 
prove that he by no means intends the charges intro- 
duced into it to be taken as hterally true. The poem 
is addressed to a certain " Philip Goch,* an appellation 
to which that of " the Fowler" is added by Sir leuan in 
his rejoinder. This Philip is clearly reierred to as a 
person of considerable wealth and influence, but in so 
vague a manner as to furnish a very slight basis for 
identification. His physical courage is compared to 
that of " Svr Ffwg" (Fulk Fitzwarine,); the hero of 
Welsh Border romance, and the constant theme of the 
Welsh bards. He is compUmented, also, for the cou- 
rage and pertinacity evinced by him in the extermina- 
tion of vagrants,' and it is in this special capacity that 
his aid is invoked by the poet.* Sir leuan, a reverend 

^ The opening lines are : — 

" Y dyn ay 'n dwyn, er *8 enyd, 
Draw 'n i balf draian byd, 
Ffarf Syr Ffwg, flTerf surian ffon, 

Ffilip, gyflymwip fflowmon ; 
Cur Biolan beilcfa Uaer Sialed, 

Y gwreng rhydd, gorau ynghred ; 
Dean, Arfon, Meirionydd, 

Dwy Went, a' n sel, danat sydd." 

' Vide Lewis's Olyn Cothi^ p. 216, note to line 55 ; also Arch, 
Camb,, iii, new series, p. 282. 

* " Byrh& 'r hwaran, briw 'r herwyr, 

Brinara gig bronnau gwyr." 

* " I'm rhan, fy Nghymro hoynwyf, 

Bnost erioed, bostio 'r wyf ; 


dignitaiy. a man of learning, whose praise is in pedi- 
grees, follows Huw everywhere throughout the Princi- 
pality, from Mona to Aeron, from Aeron to the two 
Gwents, playing (the harp ?) as he goes, gaining fame 
as a second leuan Deulwyn, or lolo Goch, and this 
partly by plagiarising the verve of Huw's own verses,* 
so that, like tne celebrated eagle, though 

Keen were his pangs, 'twere keener far to feel. 
His own the pinion that impelled the steel/' 

Hence results a popular distaste for the poor crippled 
bard's poetry. He finds himself completely* ' cut out," as 
it were, by an imauthorised intruder, and, as a natural 
consequence, his bardic guerdons of hoimd, hawk, and 
gold,^ — nay, more, the smiles of the fair, henceforward 
are lost to him. " Thomas^" would maintain him ; but 
there again at his side, " like his shadow," is the rev- 
erend greyheaded gentleman. He concludes, therefore, 
with a humorous appeal to Philip to come to his rescue. 
The prelate must be brought to reason, or he will leave 
him no room in the land. He must be driven forth by 
threats, and (if these suffice not) by the actual applica- 
tion of staff and spear. Let his hair be torn out oy the 

Y mae nrddawl, a mawrddjsg, 

Yn iachau inawl, yn eich mysg, 
Mae i 'm cerdd csskd i 'th wlad Ian, 
Oes, o ryfig Syr lenan. 
• • . ■ 

Lie 'i bo, cerdd ni ehaf dafod, 

Lie *i bwyf, er hyn, e fyn fod ; 
Ni tbroediais, ni fedrais fan, 
Bowys, na bai lenan." 
^ Upper and Lower, called also Nether and Blaenan Gwent. — E.H. 
2 " Dwyn fenrnerth, barcb, Dnw 'n famwr, 

Am enro' i gerdd, y mae'r gwr." 

^ *' Ni ehaf, ni cheisiaf na chi, 

Yn Nehenbarth, na hobi, 
Na marcho gaetb meircb hirwen, 
Nag anr, er llwnc y gwrllen. 
* Perhaps Thomas Mce, son of Rhys of Aberbechan, whose 
mother, Gwenllian, was danghter of " Tudor Rhydderch." Vol. iii, 
p. 393, n. 5. 


roots, and his body belaboured with buffets, till nought 
be left of the old " crane" {sic) but his crown.^ 

In all these attacks there would seem to be too much 
of an assumed appeai^ce of levity and of hyperbole to 
admit of the hypothesis that they were meant to be taken 
literally. Sir leuan, indeed, in his reply, consisting of 
a hundred and twenty verses, so affects to deal with 
them ; but he must inwardly have felt that a some- 
thing was implied by the author, the expression of 
wS in wori he cieftiUy studied to avoid. Their 
positions were essentially different. The poet, a poor 
wandering cripple, albeit a graduated bard, depended 
upon his talents for his bread. The ecclesiastic was 
comfortably established in the world, and basked in the 
simshine of its favours. Putting a bold front on the 
matter, he begins by demanding, "Who is this that 
projects alliance with a gallant gentleman ? Let him 
not meddle with powder and fire. A tall man, the very 
prince of fencers, with his long lance, ready to disperse 
whole cart-loads of vagrants, is the noble Philip Goch 
the Fowler. Woe to the vagabonds if they await his 
eagle's swoop !"* Then launching into the midst of his 


Dithan, Ffilip, doeth, glan, goch, 
Tris dwjs, chwym, trustiais amoch, 
Par reoli y Prelad, 

Ni &d le i 'm yn dy wlad. 
Bwriwch ef hynt o 'ch bro cbwi, 

Bygythiwch bigo ei wythi, 
Ag, oni ffy gan y flTon, 

Trwy'r Hen tro 'r gwaew Uinon. 
Yng Ngwynedd ni gai awen, 

Ymlyn k V palf ymlew *r pen, 
Yngbyd & 'r gnawd, dygnawd ddyn, 
Na ad garan ond ei goryn." 

" Pwy 'n bwrw alvums paan brenlan ? 

Peidier k thi powdwr a thin ! 
Gwr hir, k *r ben gwara 'r byd, 

A gwaew anian hir genyd, 
Gyrr williaid, fenaid, ar ffer, 

Gwych Ffylip Goch y Ffowler. 
Gwae 'nhwy i 'th arcs, gnith eryr, 

Genyd k gwaew i gwnidio gwyr ; 
Gwnewch olwg, (gwae ni chiliai !) 

Gwiber gpvyllt, ffoi gwibwyr rai. 


subject, lie complains that his poetical powers have 
subjected him to the assaults of a malice not inferior to 
that of Melwas, the ravisher of Gwenhwyvar, King 
Arthur's celebrated Queen. Praised though Philip 
might be by any number of bards, Huw would ima^ne 
himself superior to them all, from Tudiu- Aled to lolo 
Goch, not omitting Davydd ab Gwylim/ He would 
not, if he could, suffer bard, singer, or beggar to ap- 
proach him but himself. He proceeds to express his 
amazement that Huw should desire to interdict him the 
presence of Thomas,* who had honoured him with his 
affection, as well as his gold. Were Huw to be credited. 
Sir leuan would leave him not a single steed, hawk, 
hotmd, nor yet a pretty lass in South Wales ; but the 
fact was that, when the latter received the horses, dogs, 
and rich vestments, and the former glory and gold, uie 
profits were fairly divided.* In sober earnest, however, 
the land was not large enough to hold Arwystli. He 
would chase all the bards away from it. He would un- 
dertake to decide for Sir leuan what part of the globe 
he was to live in. Did he so much as cast a look towards 
Powys, presto 1 Huw's harp was on his shoulders to fol- 
low him thither. Southwards did he cross the Dovey, 
Huw was off straightway to Gwent. Did he so much 
as cast his eye towards the Herberts' border, this clerical 
opponent must at once be got rid of, and, in default of 

Gwr wyt a gwg ar dy g4s, 
A geidw 'r dwfr gjdl 'r denfras." 

^ " Eithyr mae yn athro mawr 

I'th foliannn fyth, flaenawr ; 

Euryd cerdd i*th wryd cai, 

A Hnw Arwystli a' i haerai ; 

Od & 'r feirdd, awdwr yw fo, 

Wedi Aled i lolo, 

Nid yw 'n yr iaith dano rym, 

Heb gael Dafydd ab Gwilym.'* 
* See vol. iii, p. 396. 
^ "0 chawn y meirch, a chwn mawr, 

A *r trwsiad gwych ar trysawr, 

A gair mawr, ag aur melyn, 

Ynte eu cae— *on 'd teg hyn ?" 


other means, cudgelled to death. The poem concludes 
with a spirited appeal to Philip Goch to stay his hand, 
and with a warning that he who wrongf'ully slays 
another shall die " the death of a Jew/'^ Malice for 
the nonce may gain its end, but has brought thousands 
of those who practise it to their graves. 

The subject of this correspondence has been dwelt 
upon at some length, as not only illustrating the per- 
sonal character and genius of our poet, but also as fur- 
nishing a glimpse of the social habits, feelings, and 
modes of thought of our countrymen at the period of 
its occurrence. Probably," as has been already inti- 
mated, much is significantly referred to in the poems, 
which, dark and mysterious to us after the lapse of 
three centtuies, would be readily intelligible to the 
parties inmiediately concerned, and to their respective 
sympathisers. The clue to this, so far as it can now be 
imravelled, must be sought in the religious and political 
circumstances of the time. 

To ascertain, however, with precision, what these 
circumstances are, is a matter of no little difficulty. 
No reliable date, in the first place, has been assigned to 
the poems themselves. Still they contain certain, notes 
of time whereby their composition may be fixed within 
a definite period of years. 

1. They were written during the lifetime of Rhys ab 
Morys, for allusion is made to him throughout, and we 
know that Rhys died in or about the year 1568.^ 

2. Huw was then a yoimg man, and Sir leuan an 
old one, for their ages are contrasted in the concluding 
lines of the latter s first poem.'' 


^ "A laddo yn llywio yn Hew, 

Efe a leddir fal laddew ; 
Malais a bair bedd miloedd, 
Malais Haw am ei les oedd ; 
Malais i 'th ddwjn i 'r hoenyn : 
'Mop^el, Huw, y magi er hyn." 

^ Supra^ vol. iii, p. 395. 

5 " G&d na all, i gyd yn un, 

Wr ifanc i warafun, 


3. Sir leuan was then vicax of Camo, a benefice of 
which Rhys was the patron, and probably also lay im- 
propriator, having received a grant of the revenues of 
that parish on the dissolution, in the year 1540, of the 
Knights Hospitallers, to whom they had previously be- 
longed,^ doubtless in consideration of the acknowledg- 
ment on his part of the title and authority of Supreme 
Head imder God of the Church of England, assumed 
by King Henry VIII. 

4. Rhys was at this time, probably, a man of advanced 
e, since he had apparently a son, or son-in-law, 

omas, who was of age to support a separate esta- 
blishment, as a member of which, in Huw's opinion, he 
would be able to maintain Sir leuan. 

5. The use of the words ^^Flyqain" and *' Gosper" 
for the morning and evening sendee, together with the 
complaint of neglect to administer the Catholic Sacra- 
ment of extreme unction to the sick parishioners, points 
to a time when, although the use of Protestant formu- 
laries had been enjoined on the clergy, that of the rites 
of the ancient Faith had not yet been discontinued. 

The poetical altercation, then, could not have taken 
place so early as during the reign of Henry VIII, nor 
yet in that of Queen Mary, when the only public offices 
of religion were those of the Catholic Church. The 
only remaining periods that can be assigned to it are 
the short reign of Edward VI, and the first few years 
of Elizabeth, prior to the penal enforcement of the revived 
innovations on the public offices of religion. Of these 
two periodfi the probability lies, perhaps, in favour of 
the former, for reasons, the discussion of which would 
scarcely be warranted by the scope of this pubUcation. 
It is sufficient to remark that the vigorous protestations 
of our bard against the interference of the vicar of Camo 
with his own bardic peregrinations and their customary 

Er hjnnj, gan wr hen oed, 

O chaffo ei ran, na cbyffroed." 
^ See nnder " Commandeiy of Hawston," GamoOy in Valor of 
Henry VIII, supra^ vol. ii, p. 104. See also Collier's Ecclesiastical 
Hist.f vol. ii, p. 179. 


emoluments, would not unnaturally have originated at 
either period in the troublous vicissitudes of the times. 
Either bard, both the clerical and the lay, may have 
weakly felt it expedient, as so many others are known 
to have done, to conform outwardly to changes against 
which their hearts revolted, consoling themselves fondly 
with the hope and belief that the new state of things 
would expire with the removal of the causes that had 
led to it. If the mind of Huw Arwystli were preoccu- 
pied by such feelings, it is easy to conceive that it 
would have been deeply scandalised by the conduct of 
an ecclesiastic, who degraded the character of his min- 
istry, and exposed it to obloquy by the assumption of 
that of one of the wandering minstrels, or clerwyr, as 
they were called, who did not in all cases bear the best 
of reputations. We may readily believe, therefore, that 
he was far from desiring to impute literally to this 
" grave and learned ecclesiastic," as he terms him, the 
actions which he seems to insinuate ; nor, in their re- 
spective positions, could he venture to depreciate openly 
the employment by Sir leuan of his time in a manner 
unworthy aUke of Ins sacred calling, and of the dangerous 
crisis to religion. He seems, accordingly, to have at- 
tempted to divert him from his perilous course by 
veiling his real intent under the semblance of personal 
antagonism, and conveying to him some timely warn- 
ings in the guise of irony and satire. It is true, in- 
deed, that Sir leuan, in lus replies, to all outward 
seemiDg. ha« dealt with these criticisms aa though meant 
to be literally imderstood. But it must be remembered 
that we possess now no means of judging how far they 
may have affected his subsequent conduct ; nor would 
it be a fair argument against the goodness of their pxn:- 
pose if they proved eventually to have been thrown 
away upon their object. 

This view would appear to derive not a little con- 
firmation from a remarkable couplet in one of the anti- 
thetical poems ^ already referred to, entitled "Cywyddau 

* The one commencing : — 



o Achau Ffalsder a Chywirdeb" (The Pedigrees of the 
Child of Truth and the Child of Falsehood). In the 
British Museum copy/ the date assigned to the latter, 
A.D. 1550, agrees very nearly with that attributed above 
to this poetical passage of arms. 

After contrasting the virtues and excellencies of .the 
one with the vices and mischievous propensities of the 
other, he suddenly bursts forth into an exclamation ex- 
pressive of amazement and sorrow that truth should 
have perished out of the land : — 

" Rhyfedd na welir hoywfab, 
Mewn rhinweddau, parthau 'r Fab" 

It is wonderful that no gallant youth is seen. 
In [possession of] virtues, on the Pope's side. 

The sentiment is one of protestation against the time- 
serving spirit of the day, which preferred present worldly 
gain and prosperity to the risk which might be incurred 
by earnest and single-minded advocacy of the Faith 
once delivered to the Saints, with the expression of his 
own stedfast adherence to which he proceeds to the con- 
clusion of the poem.^ Whether our bard remained true 
to the end of his days to that Faith, to the feelings 
animated by which in his earlier compositions he gives 

" Ffalsedd, fab anwiredd nerth, 
Fab ffol udonol dinerth." 
The other :^ 

" Fab cywirdeb, fab hoywdeb hedd» 
Fab gw&r iawn, fab gwirionedd." 
1 Add. M88,, 814, 972. 
^ " Wychlan diogan digoll, 

A chwi o waed ncha' oil ; 
Och ! anamled yw 'ch nawmlwydd, 
Eich trasau, a 'r hyntan rhwydd ; 
Rhyw annedd clod, rhinwedd clan, 
Er hyn gara 'i hwn goran. 
Cyn dyddgwyl cwyn diwedd cnawd, 
Fy ngobaith fydd drwy Ffydd ffawd. 
Na bydd gradd yn y bedd gro, 
Un doeth, gwar, ond a 'th garo. 
Na bo enwi neb aned, 
Ond yn g&r i Vch un dan gred." 


such simple and pathetic expression, would be an inte- 
resting subject of inquiry, but one for which the material 
is not now forthcoming. There is, however, nothing, 
80 far as the writer has had opportunity of judging, in 
any of his compositions relating more immediately to 
religion, to* warrant a different conclusion. 

Although Huw Arwystli seems to have been far from 
aiming at the sublime, or indulging in lofty flights of 
fancy in his poetry, still there are ever and anon pas- 
sages to be met with in his compositions which snow 
that he was not only a true worshipper of nature, but 
that he possessed the faculty of expressing his devotion 
to her with vividness and pathos. Of this remark, the 
following lines ascribed to him in Dr. Owen Pughe's 
" Welsh Dictionary,"^ but not hitherto foimd in any 
collection of his poems, may serve for an illustration : — 

" Llwydlas edn^ call odliad, 
Gofion sercli cyfanerchai, 
Cofl mab, dan frig cwfi Mai.^' 

The grey bird, with skilful melody. 

Would bring recollections of love with reciprocal greeting 

To the bosom of the youth under the skirts of the veil of May. 

And the follovnng sweet little sonnet : — 

'' Gwych natur dymur dymunaf— o 'r deuddeg 
Yw dyddiau Orphenaf : 
Gwisg 'r /wen ei g^^sg or^f, 
Dydd o hyd, hyd ddiwedd haf.*' 

The conception in which is perhaps partially conveyed 
in the following paraphrase :— 

" Of all the twelve I love the most 

The month of bright July ; 
Then genius fires the poet^s lay. 
Then is no night, but one long day. 

Till summer's self shall die.*' 

Huw possessed also pre-eminently the faculty, cha- 
racteristic of most Welsh poets, of expressing apo- 
phthegms in alliterative verse with terseness and ele- 
gance, as in the couplet : — 

^ ». v., " Cyfanercha." 


'' A fo 'n gam ni fyn y gwir, 
A fo 'n iawn ni fyn anwir." 

Honest men love Tmth with zest^ 
Wlio do not are not honest. 

The period during which Huw Arwystli lived an 
wrote has not hitherto been precisely determined, Ii 
Enwogion he is stated to have "flourished betwee 
1540 and 1570." Both Dr. Davies in his Dictionary^ 
and Edward Lhuyd in the ArchcBologia Britannicaj 
give the year 1550 as his acine. Yet, if the poems in 
the Llijifr Ceniarth} have been truly assigned to him by 
its compiler, at least one of them must have been com- 
posed in the early part of the reign "of Henry VIII. 
There is a note by Eichard Morris, m one of the Peni- 
arth MSS., to the effoct that he died in 1583. If,# 
however, the elegy, still extant, on Eichard ab leuai. 
Lloyd, of Nant y MyneicV in the parish of Mallwyd, 
be correctly ascribed to him, he must have been livmg 
so late as the year 1594, as it is stated by Lewis Dwnn' 
that he received the sum of five shillings from this 
Eichard ab leuan Lloyd on the 1 5th of July in that 
year. That he attained to a great age is not only 
attested by the local tradition above mentioned, but 
appears also from a passage in one of his poems, in 
which he laments the decay of the poetic fire within 
him by reason of his age. According to a notice in a 
MS. in the British Museum* he was buried in St. 
Asaph ; whether in the cathedral or parish church is, 
however, not stated. 

Next to the poem addressed to "The Four Bro- 
thers " collectively, those wiU naturally follow which are 
intended to honour them individually. The subject of 
the first of these is manifestly leuan of Clochfaen, the 

^ The writer desires to express his acknowledgments to Mr. N. 
Bennett, of Olan yr Afon, near Llanidloes, for his kind permission 
to make use of his yaJnable transcripts from that MS. for the pur- 
poses of this paper. 

2 Add. MSS., 14,989. 

•^ Vuitaiion of Wales, vol. ii, p. 244. 

* Quoted in the " Brython" for 1860, vol. iii, p. 137-8. 


eldest of the four, according to the pedigrees. We learn 
from it a fact on which they are silent, — ^that leuan was 
married to a lady named Gwenllian, whose origin is, 
however, left in obscurity. This, and the subsequent 
poems, are assigned in the Ceniarth MSS. to Huw 
ArwystU, with the addition of the suspiciously early 
date of the 12th of July, 1501, in the case of the two 
first. Though of no great intrinsic merit, they are 
valuable for the glimpse of light which they let in upon 
the social and domestic manners of the period. The 
scene of the first appears to be a fair, or a festival, 
perhaps the annual wake of Uangurig, held in honour 
of its patron saint, in which leuan is represented as 
maintaining order by means of his own personal prowess 
and that of his retainers, while his wife Gwenlhan dis- 
tributes alms and hospitality to the poor. 

CowTDD I RAi o Hbnafiaid t Clochfan Lanqubio tm 


" Pwy, yn lew trin ar fyddin fawr, * 

Pan fai lewnach, pwy *n flaenawr 
Pwy draw 'n cael y powdri . 
Palfau cawr gwych . . . 
Plad^ a dyrr, plaid a dery 
Post ar frig y Pwysdir^ fry ? 
Ifan, flFurf ei* ewin a' i ffon, 
Tn square ac* yn seyrion 
Milwr gwrdd, mal a gwyddynt, 
A mawr wayw square Morys gynt. 
Coed gwin o Siancyn sydd 
Cyd genedl i goed . . 
Rhoen' wyr 'r hen .... 
flaen y Ueill . . . 
Llwyn Ue derw .... 
Llewod hil Howel Llwyd hen. 
Dwyn d^ enau fawr dan dy fys 
Dy wain y bioedd dwy Bowys, 
Crwn i d[r]oi wyr Ceri /n d' ol, 

pawb olynol. 

' Plat in MS. ^ Qy. for Powysdir — Powys-land. 

3 i in MS. * ai in MS. 


Pedair llinell ar goll. 

oded yn ddidaw 
allan draw 

a gwych cefho^ wyd ; 
un cadarn yw ein ceidwad 

wedi eich tad 
dy gar wyf 
ffwrdd ydwyf 
bam i 

Pob rhai ddaw, pob rhyw ddyn^ 
At dy deir bort i 'w derbyn : 
Dy wraig, Ifan, dragywydd 
I 'r byd rhoddai bwydau 'n rhydd, 
Ni bydd gwyl Heb weddi *r gwan 
Nac yn llaw wag Wenllian : 
Ni lanwai o lawenydd 

Heb weini dewr o ben y dydd, 
I^ w dylawd hen, o deled hwyr, 
Ifan addwyn weinyddwr ; 



Dy ran a phwys dwm a ffon 
Hwn drwy havog^ a rhyfel 

Tair llinell ar goll. 

Ni bu erioed^ heb angaa 
Far Owain frod Einion frau : 
Trwm o* i gedym train* gydiwyd 
Du aros llew dewr Rys Llwyd. 
Dy wenith pur down i'th [barth] 
Ydyw hoiew barch Deheabarth. 
Da yw *r achau^ glan [odduchod], 
Dichwyn yw dy achau ynod, 
Dy les yn dy lys ennyd 
A gaen' y Beirdd, gwyn eu byd, 
Da lea oedd dy lys iddyn*, 
Saig y wraig a wisg siwgr gwyn ; 
Gwell y doe gwellhad i 'r gwan 
ganllawiaeth Gwenllian : 

* Angl., havock. ^ Tried in MS. 

* Angl, train. * Dowchar in MS. 



Gair mawr hyd gwrr m8r aeth, 
Ag ei djg eu gwaedogaeth ; 
Fe roP i 'r milwyr aur melyn^ 
Ifan ei tliad a wnaeth hyn ; 
Dyn wyd a fydd dyn difalch, 
A dant ar bob dyn taerfalch. 
Ei arwam i ben trwyn 7 bangc, 
Nawdyn cryf a dynn a crafangc, 
Nid ae dyn^ o[n]d oedd annoeth^ 
Ae ran draw dyn chwym dewr doeth^ 
Ni bu ddewr hael ni bydd y rhawg 
• • • • • 
na ddyg o wynt 
wr distaw diwynt 
nid hwynt a fid hwy 
edwyn ^r adwy 
dyn olwyn oes 
am dy einioes 
draw bin . et tra balch 

ifan ni ddygid ' * 
Bonyn bach o ran neb yd, 
Nid oes wr o[n] d ei sorri 
Na cbryno chais i 'ch ran chwi 
O red ar y iad orie 
Waed nnLu ddaS, od ei yn ddig, 
Ac ni ddwg dim yn ddig di 
Ond ai eithei 'n dywcliwi. 
Cwynion bod cynnen ni bydd 
TJwch y Ian, o chei lonydd. 
Ni ddy^i law 'n dy ddagarr, 
Oni red y gwaed ar dy warr ; 
Nid da aros hwynt orig 
Dan dy ddwm o ei 'n dy ddig ; 
Chwym wr wyd, chwymia 'r adwen ; 
Chwarddwn bawb eich rhoddi 'n ben/' 

Hugh Arwystl ai c&nt, Gorphena y 12ed., 1501.^ 

Ode to Ieuan and Gwenllian of Clochfaen.' 

" Who is the valiant arrayer of the mighty host f 
When its complement is fall, who is its leader f 

^ The date is doubtless as apocryphal in the case of this as of the 
other poems to vrhich dates have been afi^ed, probably from con- 
jecture only, bv the compiler of the Ceniarth MS. 

' In the MS. this poem is entitled merely " An Ode to some of 
the Ancestors of the Clochfaen of Llangurig, in Powys/' 


Who is it yonder holds the powder . . , 

With the hands of a stately hero 7 

Who will shatter a plate [of armour]^ who will strike its side^ 

A pillar on the' topmost height of Powys-land? 

It is lenan — ^in frame, g^^sp^ &Qd staff. 

Square-built and impetnous, 

A vigorous soldier, as they well know. 

With the huge square spear of old Morris. 

From Jenkyn there comes a forestful of wine.^ 

JP(mr imperfect lines. 

Lions of the lineage of old Howel Lloyd. 
Bring but thy potent lips beneath thy finger. 
And the two Powyses are subject to thy scabbard. 
To turn the men of round Ceri behind thee 
all in succession 

A gap of four miaaingy and four imperfect lines, 

A mighty one is our g^rdian, 

. Five imperfect lines. 

All — every sort of person will come 
To thy three ports to be received ; 
Thy wife, leuan, for ever 

. Would be fireely distributing meats to all the world. 
No festival will there be without the prayer of the poor. 
Nor will Gwenllian be empty-handed, 
leuan, a courteous server. 
Would not fill (his cup) for joy. 

Without ministiaring constantly, from the close of day. 
To his old and poor one, if he come late ; 

Two imperfect lines. 

Thy portion with weight of fist and staff. 
He, thro^ havoc and war 

Three imperfect lines. 

Never at any time has Owen's' spear. 

Fervent with Einion^s onset been without death. 

A heavy train of his strong men were joined together 

To await the black bold lion, Rhys Lloyd,* 

Thy pure wheat, if we come thy way. 

Is the [object of] the lively respect of South Wales. 

^ Viz., the wine-giver ; so named from his supplying his soldiers 
with Bordeaux wine, thence brought by sea direct to a Welsh port, 
probably Aberystwith. Vide supra, vol. iv, p. 70. 

« The second of the " Four Brothers." 

* Of Creuddyn, his grandfather. 


Good are thy pure pedigrees from their source, 

Faaltless are thy pedigrees in thee^ 

Thy bounty in thy mansion for a while 

Would the bards obtain^ happy they ! 

A good profit to them was thy mansion^ 

The lady's dish was covered with white sugar ; 

Yeiy soon would the sick begin to mend^ 

From the ministration of Gwenllian ; 

The great reputation hath reached the (extreme) comer of 

the sea^ 
That her illustrious blood hath brought her ; 
She bestows on the soldiers yellow gold^ 
leuan, her father, bath caused this ; 
Thou art one who will be a man free from pride. 
With a fang on eveiy man obstinate in his pride ; 
Nine strong men shall drag him in their grasp. 
And shall lead him to the farthest end of the bench. 
No man would go unless he were unwise. 
When yonder man impetuous, resolute and wise bears his 

There hath not been — ^there will not be hereafter one resolute 

and generous 

A line wa/rdmg. 

Seven imperfect linss. 

A line wanting. 

• . . . By leuan hath not been taken 

The least grain of any one's share of com ; 

There is not a man but it would be worse for him 

Who would not quake at an inquiry on thy part.^ 

If there flow upon the cheek but for a little while 

The blood of one or two, thou wilt become angry ; 

And when thou art angry, no one will take anything in thy 

But should he have decamped, will bring it back. 
Complaints tho' there be, dissension there will be none 
Over the hill, if thou hast thy way ; 
Thou wilt not lay hand on thy dagger. 
Unless the blood run on thy neck ; 
They had better not remain an instant 
Under thy fist, if thou get angry ; 

Thou art an energetic man, the most energetic that I know. 
We shall all be merry, now that thou art made our head/' 

^ (Or) an attempt upon thy share. 


CowYDD I Ieuan ab Mobts ab Siancin Goch o 'b Cloohfajen 


'* Da faw Duw^ a difai dyn I 
Ai at rediad y tri dya^ 
Ifan ; tri chant ar eich ol 
A ddaw yn geraint dyn gwrol ; 
Pen wyt heddyw pont iddyn', 
Palf cawr gwych, plwy' Curig wyn ; 
Doeth, iraidd^ a da y 'th riwyd, 
Dewr a i wynt* erioed wyd ; 
. dwyn ^r 6d yna 'r ydych 
Dau tkr dwm, Edn Forys wych. 
. mae 'r anian mawr ynoch^ 
Eres Ian gwr, wyr Siancin Goch. 
Coed da Ifan cyd tyfant 
At hen ryw gweilch Tanwr gynt. 
Hil o wydd Howel oeddych^ 
Hael Hew dewr Howel Lloyd wych. 
. . yw» elw dwy 'n ol di 
. . . cawr f&r Cerri* 
. . fawr bar edn Forys, 
. . bawb dan nn bys.^'* 

Ode to Ieuan^ Son of Mobts, Son of Jenktn Goch 

OF Cloghfaen in Llanoubiq. 

God has been good, and man blameless. 

Thou goest to the course* of the three men, 

Ieuan ; at thy back come three hundred 

As kinsmen of a valiant man; 

To-day thou art at the head of the bridge for them — 

The people of Blessed Curig — with thy gallant giant's palm. 

Wise, vigorous and well bred art thou, 

Resolute ever art thou . . . 

. . there thou bearest the palm. 

With a spear in thy two fists, thou chick of noble Morys I 

. • great is the nature within thee. 

Thou marvellous man, grandson of Jenkyn Goch 1 

I The title id the MS. is " Cowydd i 'r Clochfan" only. 

^ Sic ; the line seems corrupt. 

» iw in MS. * Corn in MS. « bos in MS. 

* Rhediad, literally, a rnnuing. Perhaps a foot-race is meant. 



To lenan shall a noble forest of sons grow up together 
To, the old breed of hawks of the *' Tanwr"* of yore. 
Prom the wood of Howel were ye sprung — 
The generous, resolute, gallant lion, Howel Lloyd." 

The neadfour lines are imperfect and untranslateable. 

Ccetera desunL 

The following "Cywydd" would appear to have 
been written in the time of leuan of Clochfaen, with 
whom, as well as with his wife Gwenllian, it shows the 
author to have been on terms of intimacy. 


'' Amcenais,^ yma ei cwynaf, 
Mewn dull dewr myn 'd lie nesaf. 
Trist&u 'r wyf am Iwy brau i lys 
Ifan, fawredd hen Forys : 
Ymrydd* i 'w dy mawr ydoedd, 
lachau da ^leni uwch dol oedd, 
Blysais fod Ue bai loewsaig 
Ifan ireiddlan, a ^i wraig : 
Tynu tros* Wy He tramawdd 
At hwn i 'r Clochfaen nid hawdd : 
D'rysdawdd i 'm llif dd'rysglawdd draw, 
(Rhwydd lef Gwenllian rhoddaw), 
Ffurf daer lif rhydaw redeg 
Ffwrdd a dam o 'm ffordd deg ; 
Bwriodd Gwy i lawr bruddgolwaith 
Ben trwyn y bont ar lyn waith ; 
Y Bont-goed bu hwnt gadarn, 
A wnai ddoe ddwr yn ddau ddam, 
suo . bryn wasgfa. 

dam gan Wy ddaeth. 

Iwyd wedi 'r wlaw 

am anreithiaw 

osod rhyfalch 

punt feddw hynt^ falch 

* t. e., Madoc, snmamed " Tanwr," or Firebearer, the founder of 
the. Clochfaen family. 

' Ymcenais in MS. 

^ Third person future indicativo of the verb ymroi used as a 
noun ? * Dros in MS. 

6 Hunt in MS. 



. . fwlith ganafloer 

goledda i ^m gwlaw oer 

gynilwraig y nant 

arglwydd o 'r comant 

yw harferodd fan 
gwpl a gipian 
Pont rhyfedd gwnai 'r dialedd dig 
'Does garw yn ymyl drws GurigJ 
Cyfodwch hon, cyfion ei caid. 
Coedio dwyn cardod enaid. 
Er hyd aros, rhoi dirwy. 
I mendio gwaith garw daith Gwy 
Caf gan Dduw hoyw flfordd loywl&n 
O 'r diwedd i dy Ifan, 
O wnewch er fy mwyi achwynwr,' 
Godi 'r dam aeth gyd& 'r dw'r. 
Trwsiwch hi, am gael, trwy Jesu, 
WeU y bont ar Wy He bu/' 

Huw Arwystli, ai cant, 1570.' 

Ode to the Bbidoe op the Wye. 

" I purposed^ — ^here will I lament it — 
In resolute gnise to go the nearest way, 
I am sad for (want of) paths to the court 
Of Evan,^ who possesses old Maarice's greatness. 
There was a vast gathering to his honse. 
Good families this year were above the dale ; 
I longed to be where was the rich broth of Evan and his wife : 
To draw^ across the Wye, where it is wide-spread^ 
Towards Clochfaen to him is not easy : 
A tangled dyke impeded the flood before me, 
(The iree speech of Gwenllian urged the gifl^). 
In impetuous fashion the flood rushed on unheard^ 

^ Eight syllables in this line. Perhaps the second y in " ymyl" 
is not reckoned. ' Achwymyr in MS. 

' This date, of course, like the preceding, is an anachronism, as 
leoan, the eldest of "The Pour Brothers,'' is referred to in the 
poem. The compiler, doubtless, confounded him with leuan ap 
David of Clochfaen, the grandson of his brother Jenkyn. Vide 
eupra^ vol. iii, p. 274. 

* leuan, eldest son of Maurice of Clochfaen. 

^ The meaning seems to be that Gwenllian was herself moved by 
an impulse of her will to give the dyke, or that she persuaded some 
one else, her husband, perhaps, to give it. 


And carried away a piece of my fine road. 
The Wye threw down the projecting earth-work. 
The end of the bridge's nozzle, with its water-work. 
Of the wooden bridge^ — hitherto its wood was strong — 
The water yesterday made two pieces. 

Twelve imperfect lines. 

The vengeance of wrath made a strange bridge.* 

Is it not cruel, close to Curig's door ? 

Raise it up again ; to bring wood for it 

Would be found just. 'Twould be alms for the soul. 

Against long delay, to grant a rate 

For mending the work of the rough onset of the Wye. 

I shall obtain of God a brisk, clear, and clean road 

At last to the house of Evan, 

If, for the sake of me, the complainant. 

Ye will replace the piece that is gone with the water. 

Repair it, that so we may, through Jesu^, 

Have a bettei: bridge where it has bpen over the Wye." 

The poem to be now introduced to our readers con- 
tains several expressions which, together with certain 
obscure references to historical events, render it matter 
for regret that it has not reached us in a more complete 
form. It commences with a panegyric upon Siancryn, 
the third of the " Four Brothers" of Llangiuig, after 
which it would seem to launch out into an encomimn 
on them all collectively, were it not that, in the twenty- 
third stanza, the reference to two only appears to sig- 
nify that this was the number of the survivors at the 
time it was written. 

Enolynion I Genedle Clochfaek.^ 


" Hir iechyd, sadfyd, i wr syth— cry' 
Crafanc hawl o 'r gwalnyth ; 
Hir garw hael o 'r gwehelyth ; 
Hir hoedl, boed hwyr dy ail byth ! 

^ The bridge destroyed appears to have been near the church. 

' The precise meaning of these lines, following close upon an im- 
perfect one, is not apparent. 

^ The vagueness of the title shows that it was devised at a late 
period, by a person who was unable to comprehend with certainty 
what persons were referred to in the poem, or what was its subject. 





Byth bro Curig at ragor — ^hil Hon 
Howel Lloyd a Threfor ; ^ 
Byrdde i'th barth, beirdd a 'th^ borthor, 
I V byrdde 'stent^ beirdd a 'u stor. 


Mae 'n feirdd fel dy gael gelwyr— dawn 
Duw *n dy ran, gobeithir ; 
Dan dy adael, donian d'wedir, 
Siancin^ wyr Siancin,^ wers hir. 


" Ffurf g^ryf Siancin tyst ti wyd — ^i 'th [rhan] 
lach Danwr a Rhys Llwyd ;* 
Pfriw 'n ganllaw hoflF raen gwynll [wyd] , 
Ffurf gwr a' i faint ffyrf gryf wyd. 


" Carw Moras* ffarf gryf cydgyfiawn — dy wg 
Dithau 'n gadarn coffhawn ; 
Ceri fyth gwaith cryf y *th cawn, 
Carai^ fi^niant ceirw cyff Einiawn. 


" Gwalcb Einiawn gloewddawn glewddwys-— cadarn 
Da genym dy gynwys ; 
Byw mal y *ch cawn, bacli, ddawn[ys], 
Tn ddigamwedd^ oedd gymwys. 


'' Dyn* He rhof y 'cb caf i 'ch cyfan — . . 
Catrin^^ hael Mercb Morgan ; 
. da iwch iach Fort^^ lydan, 
• • • . Dnw 'n eicb rhan. 

* See vol. ii, pp. 215, 271. » Breyddeath in LI. C. 

' This word would seem to be a cormption of the Latin " ex- 
tentns." ^ See vol. ii, p. 274. 

^ Bhys Lloyd of Crenddyn. 

« The father of the "Four Brothers," vol. ii, p. 274. 

7 Care, LI. Gen. ^ Digainwedd, LI. Cen. 

^ The Don-repetition of a word from the Isiat line of the preceding 
stauEa shows an hiatus here. 

^^ This Siencyn married Catherine, daughter of Morgan ab Bhys 
ab Howel. In the Glochfaen pedigree, in the Wynnaiay M88., it is 
stated that this lady's mother was Catherine, daughter of Bedo ab 
Bhys ab Llewelyn ad Dafydd Chwith of Cynwyl Gaio in Caermar- 

" Fort, i, e., bord. 



" , . . gw!n . gwenllys — j Clochfan 


. Iln mawr gl&n Hew Morus 
. adolym yn dy lys. 


" . i'th nod amod yma — yw Uadd y bai ; 
Lladd y byd y mae traha ; 
Nid aeth yn^ dy waith yna, 
Yn dy oes dim onid sy dda. 


'' Bjrv 'n dda draw i endiaw i gytundeb — Duw 
Ydyw dull cyfiawndeb ; 
Byw ^n ddrwg y w trin trawsineb ; 
Byw y wneist heb gynwys bai neb. 


'' Apia' n fyw d' wythryw o dreth wyd — ^y gwg 
Pen fa *r gwaith diarswyd ; 
Apia' gwaed palfog ydwyd, 
Apia' grym palfau gwr wyd. 


'' Dyn draw, wyd canllaw da i ei caid — egni sad 
Gynwys help gwirioniaid ; 
Da 'n gynwys hyd wyn gweiniaid, 
Dyn heb nn plyg> da 'n ben plaid. 


" Ni phlygest, onest, union, — gyfiawn swydd 
Ni byw o 'r bolchwydd neb o 'r beilchion ; 
Ni roddest, ddurfrest ddewrfron, 
I ddinas er torddynion. 

thenshire, descended from Selyf (Solomon), King of Dyfed (Dime- 
tia), son of Sawl Hir Felyn, Lord of Hwlffordd, King of Dyfed, ab 
Tegwas of Abergweyn ab Gwyn ab Alan ab Alsar ab Idwal or 
Tndwal, Prince of Dyfed, fourth son of Rhodri (Roderic) Mawr, 
King of Wales. The armorial bearings of this family, as also of 
the Williamses of Llwynrhyddod, in the parish of Llangurig, were, 
quarterly, 1st and 4th «a6^, a wolf argent^ his head and claws (Gwyn- 
edd) gtUes, for Meurig Goch, Lord of Oil y Cwm ; 2nd and 3rd 
ermine,& chevron or, on a chief argent, a lion passant gtdes, for Gadi- 
for ab Selyf, Lord of Gil y Gwm. For a further account of this 
family, see supra, " History of Llangpirig," vol. iii, p. 243. 
1 Ond. LI. Gen. 



" . rydd gynydd i gweinion — ^neb^ awr 
A Uawr dy weddillion ; 
. . . . tan tylodion, 
Gael weddus Llys Gelyddon. 

There is here a considerable hiatus in the M8. 
Some stanzas probably are wanting. 


'' Chwerw 'stad fres wiad nid .... 
. Ar helw Harri Wy th ; 
Y rhain oedd oil o 'r un llwyth, 
Caent rediad cyn troi adwyth. 


" Cirig adwyth y daethom — ^moes 
— Moes^ Wynn, gyrru 'n halon : 
Bod, ar dyrfa, haeldra hon, 
dref Idlos draw, fodlon. 


^' Boed brig plwyf Cirig o 'i cyd — ^hyna [fiaeth] * 
Yn odiaeth ar heidyd : 
Da 'n Hafren ydyn' hefyd' 
Glewon a gwyr glsLn i gyd. 

The following ten lines must have belonged to two' or more 

different stanzas. 


'^ Glewder Hid i 'w casau^ glewder Uewod . . 
Wyr a glewder milwyr ar glod yr amaelant^ 
Glew iawn rym difeiaidd, glew [on ynt] er modd[iant] 
Glew a neb o feddwl, glew i 'n byw a fyddant, 


" Glewon, myn Mair, y ceir, carant Idlos^ beunydd, 
GlS,n eu* deaau gynydd, glewon er digonant, 
Tylodion gofal cAs erioed nis dygasant, 
Cirig a *i r&s Uuddiodd, Cirig a roes [Uwyddiant], 
Gair i V coflywenyd . . Cirig foliant, 
Cirig a 'i lAd iddyn^ Cirig anrhydeddant. 

» Heb, LI. Can. 

^ This reading seems required by the rhyming word "odiaeth" 
in the next line. 
8 Idis, LI. Cen. * Ei, LI. Gen. 





Gwyr a geir, [my]n Mair, a mynant — wrth ei alw 

Cwyr, ag yna' i ddelw, Cirig Wyn addolant, 

Am Cirig a' i ddelw yma . . 'r ymgroesant/ 

Cirig a 'i groeso,« pawb Cirig a garanb, 

Cirig lor ei hunan accw*r gwr a . . 

Cirig hoiew Dduw lesu^ Cirig [a] wed[diant]. 


An hiatus of four lines, 
[Cirig . . wyr iw 'r bryd i gyd a gadwant^ 
[I 'r Nefjag un negeswr Cirig Wyn a [4nt]. 





waed reiol gytun iawn a t'rawant, 
yniol wiwddysg, gytun 'r ymladdant^ 
howaidd welion, gytun 'r heddychant. 


[Nid y] dynt ffwl, nis dull na dall chwant — na dwl 
Caid hwn un feddwl^ cytun iawn a fyddant ; 
Cytun eu caid Eleirch, cytun a* cwerylant, 
Cytun yw *r hoiew garwyr, cytun a rhagorant^ 
Cytun hap ar fywyd, cytun eu pyrfeiant, 
Cytun eu gwiw hoiewddysg^ cytun eu gwahoddant. 


Cytun bod dan ^r gwyliau y galwant — ger bron 

Cytun y caid haelion, cytun y cyd-talant, 

Pen difai waed oeddyn', pendefo[d] a wyddant^ 

Pen aig ydyn', ie, ymadrodd penna' i gyd a medrant, 

Penna' Uu trwy olud^ penna' oil eu treblant, 

Penna' n y bwlch anfeddwl^ pen beilchion a fyddant. 


" Pennaf y caid Meistraid Mwstreant — hyd ym Mynyw ; 
Penna' fiTelof* heddyw, penna' fydd eu llwyddiant. 
Pen gwraidd wiw gamp, pen y gair a ddygant, 
Pen eu gwlad 'n holla wl, pen y glod ynnillant. 
Pa le fwy Ian hoiewlin, aplaf a gynhaliant, 
Pa le fwy gwres a phenaeth,*^ plwyf & gras a ffyniant. 

^ Mgroesmaent, LI. Cen. * Gros, LI. Cen. * Bi, LI. Can. 
^ Tbjs word is unintelligible as it stands. The poet may have 
written " Pennaf helynt," or " Penna 'n hollawl." 
s Peneath, LI. Cen. 


Odb to Jbnkyn ab Mobys of Clochfabn and anothbb of 



" Long and lasting be thy health and life, thou upright man ! 

the privilege 
Of the strong-taloned bird from its sheltered nest is thine ! 
Thou art the tallest, the most generous gentleman of thy 

race ! 
Thine be it long to live, and late may thy son succeed thee I 


" May scions of the line of Howel Lloyd and Trevor, 
In the land of Curig be ever on the increase I 
Tables hast thou — thy porter ushers in bards — 
For bards are the tables outspread with cheer. 


" They who are invited are bards, to the end that thou mayest 
As it is hoped, a gift from God in thy portion ; [obtain. 

At parting with thee are recited the virtues 
Of Jenkyn, grandson of Jenkyn, a long narration. 


" To Jenkyn's powerful frame art thou witness, to thy portion 
Thou hast the pedigree of the Fire-bearer,^ and of Rhys 

Lloyd :^ 
Thy mien bespeaks his character, amiable and holy ; 
The hero's form and stature reappear in thy powerful frame. 

^ Madog Danwr. 

2 Rhys Lloyd of Creuddyn. His pedigree is given in Mmit. Coll., 
vol. iii, p. 237. In vol. iv, p. 62, in a poem addressed to leuan ab 
Gruffydd ab Howel Lloyd of Clochfaen, another Rhys Lloyd is men- 
tioned, likewise of Creuddyn. This, in all probability, was Rhys 
Lloyd of Llanfihangel y Creuddyn, son of leuan ab Khys ab lor- 
werth ab Cadifor ab Gwaethfoed, Lord of Cardigan, who bore or, a 
lion rampant regardant, sable. He married Gwladys, daughter of 
lenan ab Madog ap Gwenwys of Cawres or Cause, in the parish of 
Worthyn, by whom he had two daughters, coheiresses, one named 
Gwladys, who married Rhys Goch ab Icuan ab Rhys Ddii, and had 
the estate of Aberpylli in Llanfihangel for her portion, where her 
descendants were living a.d. 1583 (Lewis Dwnn, vol. i, p. 48). The 
other, in all probability, was married to Gruffydd ab Howel Lloyd of 
Clochfaen, the grandfather of Jenkyn Goch of Clochfaen, who is 
expressly stated in the poem to have been possessed of lands in 
Creuddyn by the gift of Rhys Lloyd. 



"A Stag of Morys* powerful framOj and as just ; vividly 
Shall we recall thy stem aspect : 
Thou lovest toil, we find thee strong ; 
The Stags of Einion's^ stock love success. 


•' Brave progeny of Einion, bright is thy genius, sturdy thy 
courage ; in thy strength 
We are joyful to possess thee : 
It befits us that we live to enjoy thee, 
The gifted one we love, who hast no guile. 


" A man whom, when I give him away, I will have him all 
back again . . 
Catharine, the generous daughter of Morgan, 
. good for you is a solid broad table, 
. . . . God in your portion. 


" • . . wine . the bright mansion of the Clochfaen, 


The great host of the noble lion, Morys,' 
. we worship in thy mansion.' 


" The note of thy covenant here is the destruction of evil ; 
Arrogance is destroying the world : 
In the work of thy life there has been done 
Nought save that which is good. 


" Rectitude of life will lead to union at last : God 
Is the Exemplar of justice : 
To live wickedly is to encourage iniquity ; 
Thy life has been such as to uphold vice in none. 

^ Who this Einion was is an obscure point. He is frequently 
referred to as a patriarch in the family. 

2 Morys ab Jenkyn Goch of Clochfaen. 

' This seems to refer to a time when the monks of Strata Florida, 
who had the cure of sonls in the parish of Llangurig (see supra, vol. 
ii, p. 255), having been ejected from their monastery, the offices of 
religion had to be secretly solemnised in the house of Clochfaen, 
the " mansion of Jenkyn," son of the " noble Lion Morys." Tanner 
informs us from the Benet MS. that " the prior and seven religious 
had pensions, a.d. 1553." The monastery therefore had been sur- 
rendered some years prior to that date (see Arch, Camb,^ vol. iii, p. 



'' Of thine eight generations thine estate is the greatest ; in 
Thou art fearless when there is work to be done : 
Of a talented race thou art the ablest ; 
The ablest of men in the strength of thy hands. 


'' man^ to him who finds it thou art an excellent prop ; thy 
firm energy 
Undertakes the aid of the innocent : 

Well dost thou maintain the cause of the guiltless and weak^ 
Thou man that swervest not, well dost thou head thy 
followers ! 


" Honest and true, thou hast not swerved; just in thine office. 
The proud ones shall not live by their arrogance ; 
Thy dauntless breast, thine heart of steel hast thou not given 
To a city, for all its men of high stomach. 


*^ . . will give increase to the weak ; at no time 
Does the floor receive thy remnants : 
. . . . that the poor should obtain 
Fire is befitting to Llys Gelyddon.^ 

An hiatiis of several stanzas, 


'' A bitter condition 

. for the gain of Harry the Eighth ; 
These were all of the same tribe ; 

Ere our affliction can be reversed, they must run their 


" Curig ! we have come to affliction — give, 
Give us. Blessed One I to drive away our foes ; 
Such beneficence will greatly rejoice 
The populace in yonder town of Idloes. 

^ This is clearly the same place as that named in the eleventh 
stanza of the elegy on Llewelyn ab Morys (s^ipra, p. 67). At pre- 
sent no trace of auy such place is to be found. The last word, 
" Gelyddon," would seem to be identical with " Celyddon, in Coed 
Celyddon," the forest refuge of the bard Merddin Wyllt (Merlin) 
after the battle of Ardderyd in the sixth century. Can it be that 
some exile from North Britain so named it in association with the 
land of his childhood, on the same principle that one is reminded, 
for instance, of Shakspeare by a river and town called Avon and 
Stratford-on- Avon in the midst of the '* bush" in Australia ? 








May the uplands of Cnrig's parish, of its ancient people 
Be superabundant in population ; 
On Severn also are they good 
Brave and pure men all. 


Men are they animated with the bravery of wrath against 

their enemies — the bravery of lions ; 
With the bravery of soldiers do they grasp at glory ; 
Very brave is their blameless strength, brave are they to my 

heart's content. 
Braver than thought can reach, brave will they be during 

Brave men, by Mary, are they found, daily do they love 

Idloes ; 
Pure is the increase of both for the satisfying of brave men ; 
Never have they deemed distasteful the care of the poor. 
The favour of Curig hath prevented it, Curig hath brought 

prosperity ; 
A word to the memory, . . praise of Curig, 
Curig do they honour — Curig for his favour towards them. 


Men, by Mary, are they, who, in invoking him. 

With wax tapers worship Blessed Curig in his image ; 

For Curig and his image here . . . they sign themselves 

with the Cross, 
Curig do they welcome, they all love Curig. 
The Lord Himself .... the man Curig yonder. 
They earnestly pray to Curig, the energetic [servant] of 

Jesus our God. 


An hiatus of four lines, 

. . . all men bear Curig in remembrance. 

One — the Blessed Curig — is their conductor to Heaven. 


An hiatus of two lines and a half 

they accompany, 

. . . . of royal blood they strike very harmoniously 

. • . concordantly with surpassing vigour and skill do 

they fight, 
concordantly do they make peace. 



" They are not irrational, they follow blindly no phantom of 
passion or judgment ; 

If one have a thought, they agree well together : 

Like swans are they in harmony, concordantly do they 

Concordantly are they ardent lovers, concordantly they excel ; 

Concordant are their chances in life, concordant their pur- 

Concordant are their energy and skill, concordant their in- 


'' Concordantly do they both* invite to festivals, in public 
Concordantly are they generous, concordantly do they pay : 
Of a blameless race are they the head, they have learnt the 

best manners. 
They are the heads of society, yea, as to speech they are the 

best informed of all ; 
By their wealth they are heads of the host, at the head of all 

is their shout, 
Heading the ambush in the pass, of proud ones are they 

the head. 


''Chief masters are they of musters' — even so far as St. 
David's ; 

Chiefest in their career to-day, theirs is the chiefest pros- 
perity : 

The chief roots of noble achievements, they bear the chiefest 
fame ; 

The chief of all their country, they gain the chiefest praise ; 

The purer and livelier the blood, the abler the upholders of 
their line ; 

Proportionate to the fervour of their rulers is the favour and 
fortune of the people. 

* Viz., the two surviving brothers. 




Part IIL 

In the last poem we have seen that, while the virtues 
of two of the four brothers of Llangurig are commemo- 
rated, those of Jenkyn are the most fully and promi- 
nently dwelt upon. It appears from the genealogies 
that William, the fourth brother, died unmarried, and 
that the second brother Owen, though married, is not 
known to have left any surviving issue. Thomas, the 
eldest son of leuan of Clochfaen, having been provided 
with an inheritance at Crugnant, Owen would natu- 
rally have been succeeded at Clochfaen by Jenkyn, the 
third brother. Which of the three, together with 
Jenkyn, siunnved the other two, does not appear, as his 
name is not foimd in ajiy extant portion of the poem. 
If an inference may be drawn from the fact that the 
one was unmarried, and the other left no heirs, that 
they died early in life, leuan must have been the other 
survivor. It has been already remarked, how deeply to 
be regretted is the fact, that a poem so interesting from 
its political and social allusions should have come down 
to us in so very dilapidated and fragmentary a state. 

This is to be lamented the more, oecause, more than 
any other of the poems, it furnishes contemporaneous 
evidence not only of the high estimation in which the 
Clochfaen family and its kindred branches were held at 
that time in their own immediate neighbourhood, and 
far and wide beyond it ; but also of tiie causes which 
occasioned their being regarded by the classes below 
them, as in a peculiar and special manner their patrons 



and defenders. The devotion and affection rendered 
them did not spring from mere feelings of clanship, nor 
were these wholly uie fruit of the ordinary service paid 
in those days by inferiors to their superiors in education 
and worldly position. This is shown especially in stanzas 
8 to 16, wherein not only are the virtues ascribed to 
Jenkyn particularised in a way that differs pointedly 
from the common-place generalities of Welsh enco- 
miastic poetry ; but facts and events are referred to 
as having become special occasions for their exercise. 
Paraphrased in plain prose, these stanzas are very sig- 
nificant, and may, without much risk of error, be 
referred to the year 1549, when the celebration of the 
Mass was abolished throughout the kingdom by Act of 
Parliament. By a slight amplification of the text he 
seems to say, "In thy mansion — the bright mansion of 
the Clochfaen — O Jenkyn, son of Morys, by thy favour, 
and under the protection of thy men-at-arms, are we 
driven to solemnise in the privacy of thy mansion the 
holy rites of our ancient faith, deprived as we are of 
our parish church. To thee do we look to put down 
the evil that has come upon us. Thus will the recti- 
tude of thy life be eventually rewarded by God, and 
the wickedness of the evil-doers be brought to nought. 
In thy talent, energy, constancy and goodness lies, 
under God, our strength. Thou hast not oppressed 
us, like others, in the pride and arrogance of their 
hearts, nor abandoned thy faith m the hour of trial and 
danger at the beck of the proud nobles of Edward s 
court. The poor, who suffer elsewhere from the 
plunder of the religious houses, and the enclosure of 
the abbey lands, on which every poor family had been 
privileged to graze its cow, are fed daily from thy 
table. To a bitter condition, in sooth, has the country 
been reduced for the mere gain of Henry VIII and his 
profligate and unprincipled courtiers. Still we have no 
hope that this wretched state of things will be reversed 
till their madness has run its course. And thou, too, 
Cyricus, holy martyr, and patron of our district, who 


reignest with Christ in heaven, bestow on us thy bless- 
ing, and aid us with thy powerful prayers ! So shall 
we be strengthened to endure with fortitude the assaults 
upon our holy religion with which it has pleased God 
to try our faith, in patience waiting for the time when 
this tyranny shall be overpast, and the consolation we 
shall obtain by the restoration of our rites and altars." 

The Qochfaen and Uangurig families were content 
to dwell in comparative obscurity among their own 
people, at the head of whom they held themselves in 
readiness to place themselves at the call of duty. Driven 
from their parish church, their mansion became, as it 
were, a church in the catacombs among the mountains 
of Plinlimmon, for all those who loved the ancient ways 
and walked in the old paths. ^ 

In the poem now to follow Jenkyn alone is com- 
memorated, whether because he was at the time the 
sole survivor does not appear from any of the lines now 
extant. The poem is unhappily fragmentary, and the 
text frequently doubtful ; stUl suflScient remains from 
which to obtain, in this nineteenth century of omts, a 
curious and interesting glimpse of the social customs of 
our forefathers in the fifteenth and commencement of the 
sixteenth, which might otherwise have escaped notice. 
The occasion for its composition would seem to have been 
the annual "wake," or feast of St. Curig, the patron saint 
of the village, which was kept on the 1 6th of June, and 
continued, perhaps for some days, during the whole or 
part of the octave. It would seem that Jenkyn, as 

^ Strype significantly relates that the Protector's friend, Sir 
William Paget, advised him, among other things, " To appoint the 
Lord Ferrers and Sir William Herbert to bring as many horsemen 
out of Wales as they dared tnisV* — Eccles. Mem,, Edward VI, 1549, 
edit. Oxford, 1822, vol. ii, book 1, part 1, p. 265. But we learn 
from Holinshed that the 1000 Welshmen, who had been landed at 
Bristol, '* came too late to the fraie, yet soon enough to the plaie." 
For the city of Exeter, having been already taken by siege, " the 
whole countrie was then pat to the spoile, and euerie soldier fought 
for his best profit ; a just plague,*' as onr chronicler naively adds, 
'* upon rebels and disloiall persons." — Chron., vol. iii, p. 10j5, edit. 


head of the chief family of the place, unless it were in 
a magisterial or other official capacity, presided at the 
fair, and considered it his prerogative at least, if not 
his duty, to arbitrate at the games, to prevent or extin- 
guish brawls, and punish disorderly conduct of the kind 
which subsequently, for want of such a check, brought 
into discredit the pastimes which were otherwise calcu- 
lated to provide the peaaantry with harmless recrea- 
tion, and led to their discontinuance. His also was the 
place at the head of the festive board, to which, as well 
as to the drinking-bout after the banquet, all contri- 
buted their quota, called the "gild." On the occasion 
in question a dispute would seem to have arisen with 
regard to a second contribution, and the discretion of 
Jenkyn in promoting its peaceable settlement, appa- 
rently by assuming the responsibility of the whole of 
the payment, is made a special subject of encomium. 
Obscure as is the passage, a ray of light is thrown 
upon it by a usage which is said still to subsist at 
Llangurig. On every rent-day it is customary for the 
landlord to allow as much liquor as he may deem 
proper for the consumption of the guests at the tenants' 
dinner. If more than this allowance be required, the 
additional expense is defrayed by the subscription of 
all the guests. 

We Team from the genealogies that Jenkyn was 
married to Catherine, daughter of Morgan ab Khys ab 
Howel of Llangurig, ab Davydd ab Howel Vychan of 
Gilvachwen, CO. Cardigan, Esq., descended from Cadi- 
vor ab Dyfnwal, Lord of Castel Howel, Gilfachwen, 
and Pant Streimon. It is this lady, with "mind on 
hospitable thoughts intent," who is commemorated in 
the poem. In the manuscript the latter is entitled 
vaguely, like most of the others, A Poem to the Family 
of Clochfaen in Llangurig. From the fact that there 
are no titles prefixed to the poems in Huw Arwystli s 
autograph in the quarto volume at Peniarth,^ it may 
be inferred that those in the Llyfr Ceniarth were not 

^ Peniarth Gaialogue, No. 250. 


copied by the transcriber from the originals before him, 
but supplied from his own resources, an hypothesis 
which accounts sufficiently for their general looseness 
and inaccuracy. 

Ctwydd I Gbkedl y Clochpabn yn Llanoubio. 

Gwr & maint a grym yntaw, 
Y'th mentor^ wrfch y maint draw, 

. tan y fron 
Uwyd winan 'n^ He dynion, 
ystry w' yw dy wraidd, 
Siancyn wyr Siancyn* iraidd ; 
Breuddewr wyd, o bai ryw ddig, 
Breugy w eryr Bro Gurig ; 
Mur ranwydd mawr yr hen weilch, 
Mawr yw 'r balf am warrau beilch ; 
Llia edn^ Howel, Uawn odiaeth, 
Llwyd, trwy waed leirll, draw y daeth ; 
O daw rhywiau® da i *r heol, 
Edn i edn Tanwr wyt — aent ar ol. 
Duw a *i rhodd, Ffwg^ dewriad flfon, 
Doraeth® hynod wrth Einion. 

Gerri dau' gwraidd wyd, 
Craig yn ol carw gwinealwyd.^o 
DewT o ddymod oedd amynt 

ly arcs, llid gweilch Rhys Llwyd gynt. 
o' th wobrwyaety^ briawd, 

1 ddai Rent,** lea iddyn', tylawd. 
Cathrin l^n cydranai wiedd 

I' th fyw, Eryr, a' th fawredd. 
Porthiant ^d i 'th parth hwnt oedd, 
A mawr, sad, o 'r Mars ydoedd. 
bob peth i *r wyneb wych 

^ *' Menter" is sot found in the dictionaries. An ancient Welsh 
melody, still in nse, bears the title of Mentre Owen, It would seem 
to be a corruption of the English word " venture," itself perhaps 
corrupted from the Welsh " antur ;" pace Dr. Johnson, who deduces 
it from the French " avanture." But whence comes this last, unless 
from the Celtic ? * 'r, L. C. ^ ystriw, L. C. 

* t. e., Jenkyn Goch. ^ eow, L. C. * rhiwiau, L. C. 

7 fwg, L. C. ® doreth, L. 0. ; ynod, L. C. ^ dai, L. 0. 

1*^ gwinelwyd, L. C. ^^ obrwayth, L. C. 

1* For " y deuai Rhent." 



Ni roed, eumer wyd arnyn'. 
Win, fedd, er anfodd un. 
Triniwr^ beilch dy ran o 'r bri, 
I was gwaedwyllt nis gadewi ; 
Ni fagech law fwg awch[lym] 
Yn y ffair, on 'd pherid[grym] ;* 
Gwr [h]ynod a gyrr wenwyn, 
Cadwed yr ael gyd& i drwyn. 
Ni thynwyd arf o' th wain di, 
Heb roi bar obry i 'w beri. 

rhoed hwynt far, rbaid hwyn' fu, 
Erchi 'r enaid, a chrynu. 

Ni thrwsiwyd, o' th nawfed acli 

Un a chalon uchelach. 

I' th dai odiaeth diodydd^ 

A bwyd i bawb, o daw bydd. 

Braidd^ a' u nych, a 'r breuddyn chwyn* 

Etto i yfed i 'r terfyn. 

Troi gwirod traw ag agos^ 

Yn rhawiau [w]naen 'r hyd y nos ; 

Ai da hyn, wedi hynny, 

Roi i gytild^ gwraig y ty ? 

Talwyd un gild,^ dyled yw 'n gwaith, 

1 gael talu gild^ eilwaith ? 
Da genyd ei digoni, 
Dalu dy hun ei dyled hi, 

Ni chawdd® gair, iechyd ffwerin 

I V addoli ar dy ddeulin^ 

Gwr ni ddwg graen weddw wych 

ar warr dy waith 
08 dymunwn 

aur ar dwn. 

Huw Arwystli ai cant, Mehefin Ibed,, 1600.® 

A TriDiwr, L. C. 

' The last two syllables are supplied from conjectnre. 

' Beirdd, L. C. ; ai, L. C. 

^ chwyrn, L. C. The sense of this conplet is obscnre. 

* tild, L. C, and " gilt" in next line. 

• hi chawd, L. C ^ dai lin, L. C. 

® This date is clearly apocryphal. David Lloyd of Glochfaen, 
Jenkyn's son, was Mayor of Llanidloes, Escheater, and Justice of 
the Peace in 1574. See supra, vol. ii, p. 1U4>. 


Ode to Jenktu ab Mobys of Clochfaen in Llanguetg. 

Man of statnre^ and of strength^ 

Thy daring is proportionate to thy size^ 

Three imperfect lines. 
Jenkyn, thon grandson of Jenkyn the Sturdy, 
Thou art ready and resolute, if there be any provocation. 
Thou spirited fledgling of the Eagle of Curig's Land. 
Thou huge rampart of the domain of the ancient Falcons. 
Mighty is thy talon's clutch of the necks of proud ones. 
Wondrously perfect is the line of Howel 
Lloyd, that hath come down from afar, through the blood of 

If families of high birth enter the street 
Thou art a pullet of the Fire-bearer'ia* pullet — let them g^ve 

Thy staff hath the stoutness of Fulk's* — ^it is God's gift. 
Distinguished on Einion's side is thy race. 
From Kerry thou possessest two roots. 
Who art a rock in the path of a tawny stag. 
Stout, if a blow from thy fist fell upon them. 
Would be those who await thee, whose wradi is that of Rhys 

Lloyd's falcons of old 

by thy special donation 
Has rent come to the poor for their benefit. 
The fair Catharine* hath distributed the banquet. 
For thy support, O Eagle, and for thy greatness. 
There was provision of corn for thy party yonder. 
And great and powerful was it over the March, 
everything fair to the view. 

An hiatus of two lines. 
There hath not been given — so bountiful a lord art thou over 

them — 
Wine or mead to the discontent of any one. 
A marshaller of proud ones, thou wilt not leave 

^ Tudor Trefor, Lladdoccaf, and Garadog, who were successively 
£(irls of Hereford and Gloucester. 

* Madog Danwr. 

* Sir Fulke Fitz Warren, a Lord Marcher, son and heir of Sir 
Warren de Weaux, a nobleman of Lorraine. He attacked, defeated, 
and slew Sir Meurig Llwyd, Knt., Lord of Whittington, and took 
possession of his castle and lordship, which were confirmed to him 
by Henry UI. 

* For the pedigree of Catharine, wife of Jenkyn Goch, see vol. 
ii, p. 271. 

z 2 


Thy meed of honour to a hot-tempered servant. 
Thou wouldst not support a hand as sharp as smoke 
In the fair, wert thou not compelled to it : 
A man of mark will dispel mischief; 
Let such a one use his nose to guard his eyebrow. 
Never hath weapon been drawn by thee from its sheath. 
Save when necessitated by offence given from below. 
If they have given thee offence, of necessity they must 
Tremble, and beg for their lives. 
Never was equipped, since thy ninth ancestor. 
One of higher mettle than thou art. 
At thy mansion is the very best of drink. 
And of meat, for all who enter it. 

Scarcely will it pain them, when the gallant gentleman urges it, 
Again to drink on to the end. 
They would toss off the liquor, far and near. 
In shovelsfull, all the night long. 
Is it a decent thing that, after this. 
All should pay their quota to the good wife ? 
One contribution^ has been paid ; is it a duty on our part 
To have to pay a contribution a second time ? 
Thou wert pleased to satisfy her. 
By paying her due thyself. 

There is no offence in a word — the weal of the pojiulace 
Is to be worshipped on both thy knees. 
A man who will not bear a smart widow's temper 

The poem concludes with one hlanh, and three rmperfect, and 
(in their present state) unintelligible lines. 

The next poem appears in the Llyfr Ceniarth in the 
shape of two disjointed fragments, the latter of which 
is found tacked on to that printed above,' commencing 

" Da fu Duw, a difai dyn," 

and relating to leuan of Clochfaen, the eldest of the 
" four brothers." Its concluding lines prove it to be 
part oi an elegy on Owain, the second brother. The 
other fragment, which terminates abruptly in an hiatus, 
is as plainly the commencement of an elegy on the 
same Owain. Taken together, the two fragments be- 

^ "Gildio, compotationum expensas persolvere, — Davies's Dvct^ 
» P. 7Q. 


come intelligible, and form a tolerably harmonious 
whole. Gwenllian, the wife of leuan, appeara as 
Owain's sister, and swoons away with grief for her 
brother-in-law. The fragments which may have origi- 
nally formed but one elegy, or may be separate portions 
of two by different authors, are here thrown together 
under the title of one of them, viz. : — 

Cywydd Mabwnad Owain [ab Mobys] ^ ab Siancyn Goch o 


Gwae ninnau. Daw gwyn ! o'n dig, 

Gae 'r bryn cwyr ger bron Curig, 

Du oedd wyneb dydd lonawr 

I gwyno mab Gwinai mawr. 

Doe fa torn daear a phren, 

Bhoi daear ar iad Owen : 

Yn ol y corph wylo y caid, 

Dydd angladd deaddeng wlad ; 

Oerodd y wlad ar ddwy lys, 

Heddyw i farw hydd Forys ; 

E fai tres ar* fSr trosoch^ 

Wars gan gwymp wyr Siancyn Goch : 

Oeriai 'stlP grSf Arwystl gron 

O frig Ceri i fro Caron.* 

Gwae 'r Creyddyn I garw ceryddwyd ! 

Gwae drasaa llin gwaed Rhys Llwyd ! 

Pan edrychwyd paan drechach ? 

Pa an oedd well pan yn iach ? 

Mentrai wyneb y trinoedd, 

Mwy na deg mewn adwy oedd. 

Ni ddoe Arthur oddiwrthaw. 

Ban fai drin heb anaf draw^ 

Nid ae gawr ond a garwyd^ 

Dan hawl law edn Howel Llwyd. 

Cyn o' i farw cae nea fdr oeddj 

Adwy fry wedi ei farw ydoedd. 

chladdiad wych laddwr 
well ag arf yn He gwr. 

^ The bracketed words are omitted in L. C. 
« Tressai, L. 0. » ADglic^, " steel." 

^ t. e., from Kerry in Montgomeryshire to Tregaron in Cardigan- 


Bydd waeth-waety oes byth weithian^ 

Gladda glaif^ neu gleddan glan, 
Iwyddiant y flwyddyn, 
leinw hap ymlaen hyn. 
fod gwlaw E brill tawel, 
aid a' i ffrwd cyd y ddel 

E ddaw rad oedd sor hoywdeg, 

O flaen twrf oleuni teg ; 

Anian 'r heulwen, yn rhylew, 

Aiaf garw hwnt a fag rew ; 

Cynnydd ai, cyn ei ddiwedd, 

Ar Owain wyrch yr un wedd : 

T dyn oedd a dawn iddaw, 

A' i olud tros y wlad draw, 

Ar hoel ddoe 'r haul oedd wen, 

A niwl yno'^ 'n ol Owen. 

Galw ar ei fedd gwelir fi, 

Ynte Owen yn tewi. 

Gwae ^r tir isod, gwae 'r trasoedd, 

Gwae wlad gwalch goludog oedd, 

Gwae dri brawd a goidw 'r brodir, 

Gwae 'r tir o hyd agor tir ; 

Gwae ninnau 'n llwyr gynne 'n Uaa 

Gwae erioed gweled gwr dulas ; 

Mawr weled [y] mor-filwr 

Mwy bo 'n gael meibion y gwr. 

Mor oor [i ^n] ucho, Mair won ! 

Here a leaf is torn out of tlie MS, 
Oer oedd unllef roe ddoe [wan] 
Yn ei He wig Wenllian. 
Car gwiw hael, carw Gwehelyth, 
Tra* chwaer oedd fyw, ni chwardd fyth. 
Merched hyd nef yn llefain : 
Mae 'r ia neu^ rew ymronnau rhain. 
Och I heb wleddoedd chweblwydd[yn] 
Och ! brydded, och ! briddo dyn ; 
Och I oferedd, och I farwn ; 
Roi ar Dduw^ Saint air dros hwn ; 
Och I drymed ucho dramwy ; 
Och ! mwy nag ym min*^ Gwy. 

1 Wyth, L. C. 2 V glais, L. C. » Tw 'n ol, L. C. 

* Na, L. G. ^ Ne, L. C. « Deany, L. C. 

7 Ymin, L. C. 


Och ! yngan ; och ! a gwynwn, 

A mwy fyth am y fath hwn ! 

Och Dduw 'n glain wych duai glew nerth I • 

Och^ drom am na chaid ei worth ! 

O 'r Uif pa well, er lies pen, 

Na chrio oni cheir Owen ? 

Aed — bu ewyllys Duw bellach — 

Owen i nef wen yn iach. 

Hmw Arwystli a' i cciut, lonawr Sed.j 1500. 

The Mowing is an attempt at a metrical paraphrase, 
rather than a translation of the foregoing poem. Care, 
however, has been taken to adhere to the substance of 
the original by avoiding, as far as possible, the intro- 
duction of new ideas. It may serve, by comparison with 
the prose translations, to convey a notion to the English 
reader of the extent to which the genius of our bards 
has been cramped by the strictness of their metrical 

Elegy on Owain ab Morys ab Jbnkyn Goch op LiJiNauEio. 

Woe to us, blessed God ! because of thine anger towards us. 
Bearing is all the hill-side sad tapers of wax before Curig. 
Lo ! the January day hath dight its visage in blackness — 
Mourns the day itself for the son of Gwinai the mighty ! * 
Yesterday hath there been cutting of earth and of wood for 

the laying 
Over the temples of Owen the earth, as he lay in his coffin. 
Full twelve lands made wailing that day, as they followed his 

In cold sorrow is steeped the country for two of its mansions,* 
— Sorrow that death hath snatchM the noble scion of Morys. 
Now should the ocean chant a funeral dirge for Owen, 
" Fall'n is the grandson of Jenkyn the Red'' should be its 

Cold is the heart of steel that beat high for the round Arwystli, 
From the heights of Ceri as far as the region of Caron.^ 
Woe is Creiddyn now ! chastised hath she been severely ! 

1 This may be the name of an ancestor ; or it may mean " the 
excellent auburn-haired youth," if the word be read as " gwinau." 
* Clochfaen, namely, and possibly, Llya Gelyddon. 
3 Literally, " hart.'' 


Woe is the line of Rhys Lloyd's blood, and all of his kindred ! 
When hath there ever been seen upon earth a more powerful 

gallant? ^ 
What man better than he^ when whilom in health and in 

Boldly the hero would face the foe when arrayed for battle ? 
Not ten men in a pass, if they met, could overmatch him ; 
If King Arthur himself had fought him in single combat. 
Not King Arthur himself had ridden scatheless after. 
Surely a giant were worsted, if giant had dared to attack him. 
Under the process^ made by the hand of Howel Lloyd's pullet. 
Like to a fortress or rampart was Owen before his departure ; 
Now is the rampart a breach, for Owen lives no longer ! 

Two imperfect lines,- 
Worse shall the world wax now, for the bright blade of Owen 

is buried ! 

Four imperfect lines. 
Then shall that which was gloom be changed into lively en- 
Just as the light serene oft-times is foreshadowed by tempest ; 
'Tis the bright sun's nature, by anticipation, to nurture 
With its pervading force, the frost of the rugged wii^ter ; 
So, overcasting the time, in similar manner, hath increase 
Haply befallen Owen for a season before his departure, 
Owen gifted with talents, of wealth far and wide the possessor. 
Yesternoon on the street the sun with its rays fell brightly ; 
Owen is gone, and to-day it is buried in gloom for Owen ! 
Lo, I am here, on his grave, and calling — but Owen is silent. 
Woe to the earth beneath, woe, woe to his kindred above it ! 
Woe to the country around, that rejoiced in the wealth of the 

rich man I 
Woe to the Brothers Three, the defenders now of the district ! 
Woe to the earth itself, for the earth it is constantly opened ! 
Woe to us all beside, for we all have been slain with sorrow ! 
Woe that we e'er should have gazed on the livid corpse of the 

hero ! 
Great have we seen the soldier by sea, may his sons be yet 

greater ! 

Hiatus of one y or three Unes, 
Mary, blest Virgin Mother I how grievous it is to bewail him ! 

Here follows an hiatus of several lines, and a leaf 

^ The word " hawV seems to be here a figurative expression do- 
rived from a process of law. 


has been torn from the MS. The last line has cer- 
tainly the appearance of being a closing one, and if so, 
the above Unes must have formed a separate elegy, and 
the following fragment have been part of another. In 
that case, probably, each was composed by a different 

Faintly Gwenllian hath uttered a cry, ere she swooned in her 

Cold on our hearts hath it struck, — that cry of sorrow for Owen ! 

Owen, the pride of his race, her noble and generous brother ; 

Ne'er will his sister smile, while she bides in the land of the 

Up to the Heaven above hath ascended the wailing of 
maidens, — 

Frozen with grief are^ their bosoms I six years are we left 
without banquets. 

Woe for the burial ! Woe the world's vanity I Woe is the 
Baron I 

May the Saints offer their prayers for the peace and repose of 
his spirit I 

Woe for the greatest on Wye that we heavily make lamenta- 
tion I 

Woe for the tidings abroad I and the grief that it daily grows 
greater I 

Woe to us, God I that the lustre which shone in our jewel is 

Woe to us ! heavy the grief that its worth is departed for 

What, for the loss of our Owen, save rivers of tears can con- 
sole us ? 

And — to the Will divine sith nought now is left save submis- 

Speed him to Heaven with prayers that God may receive him 
to glory. ^ 

The statement appended to this poem that it was 
composed by Huw Arwyslli on the 8th January, a.1). 
1500, would seem to be possibly entitled to greater 
respect than others of a similar character. It is scarcely 
conceivable that so circumstantial a date should have 

1 This, perhaps, may refer to the eldest of Owen's sons, who 
may at this time have wanted six years of his majority, and nofc 
have lived to attain it. 


been the deliberate invention of the transcriber : hence 
it is reasonable to infer that he found it in the original 
manuscript from which he copied. But it is by no 
means equally probable that the author's name likewise 
was subscribed there ; it does not therefore follow that 
Huw Arwystli wrote it, and it is almost inconceivable 
that he should have done so at a date so exceedingly 
early. It is reasonable, then, to conclude from this 
date that Owen died at an early age ; a fact which is 
supported by the internal evidence of the poem, since 
it is stated broadly that his threfe brothers survived 
him. It is clear, however, from the context that he 
had attained to the vigour of manhood, and had even 
achieved some exploits by land, and also by sea, if as 
much may be inferred from the strange epithet " sea- 
soldier" (mor-filwr) which is applied to him. This he 
would probably have done in the service of Henry VII, 
before and during the expedition which led to the vic- 
tory on Bos worth Field, and the expression would 
seem to point to his having been engaged confidentially 
in the service of that monarch when an exile on the 
Continent, and aided him perhaps secretly to visit from 
time to time, as he is known to have done, his adhe- 
rents in the Principality. The wish expressed with 
regard to Owen's sons seems at variance with the gene- 
alogies, which represent him as dying without issue. 
They may, however, have lived for some years, yet 
have failed to attain their majority, as seems to be im- 
plied in the words : " Six years are we left without 
banquets !" Again, Owen must have survived his wife, 
of whose name all mention is omitted, while that of his 
sister-in-law Gwenllian is introduced. The vast wealth 
of Owen and his brothers, so frequently referred to in 
the poems, may be partly accounted for by the fact that 
they all held the Clochfaen property in common, instead 
of sharing it between them agreeably to the old Welsh 
custom of gavelkind. It would be interesting to know 
whether this arrangement was the effect of their father's 
will, or of the spontaneous abandonment by each of 
their distinctive rights. 


Of the remaining poems in the Ceniarth manuscript 
relating to Llangurig, three only, two of which are 
mere fragments, contain any direct reference to the 
families of the resident gentry. The others were written 
in. honour of Saint Cyricus, its patron saint, and, con- 
taining as they do some curious information calculated 
to throw considerable light on the vexed question of the 
origin of the ancient devotion to that martyr and his 
mother Juhtla in the principality, which extended to 
a far greater portion of it than the mere confines of 
Plinlimmon, they may . appropriately form the subject 
of a separate article. Of the three former poems, the 
only complete one, subscribed by Huw Arwystli, con- 
tains eighty-six lines, and bears the title of ** A poem 
{Cywydd) addressed to the families... in Curigs Parish.'' 
But, as in the midst of these occur more than one 
hiatus^ and the latter part, commencing from the forty- 
first line, is encomiastic of a parson of Darowen, Sir 
Lewis by name, with the view to obtain of him the 
gift of a horse, it is probable that they are no more 
than the " disjecta membra" of two separate composi- 
tions. The. poem commences thus : — 

" ApW yw lie cerdd plwy' [Curig.]" 
The parish of Curig is the seat of most skilful song.^ 

The only important lines which it contains germane 
to our subject are the following : — 

_ • 

*' Ni adawodd Daw nn dydd dig 
Wahanu 'r ceirw yii nhir Curig. 
Glana' gwaed He 'r gl&n gwawdyr, 
Ceirw 'n gad yn crynhoi gwyr. 
Liu 'n glwyd fs^ref yn llanw gwlad gron, 
Llewod unoed Llwyd^ union ; 
Gwyr oil yn bwrw gair well-well, 
Gwyr, mi wn, da, ni goreuwell.'^ 

" God hath not suffered a single day of wrangling 
To disunite the stags of Curig's land. 
Purest is the blood where the panegyrists are pure ; 

^ Or " grisly lions.*' 


Stags [are they] who array their men in battle. 
A host like a strong round shield^ filling the land^ 
Lions in even line are the Lloyds^ equal in age^ 
Men all growing ever in public esteem^ 
Men so good, that none I know are better/' 

Of the two more fragmentary poems one breaks off 
in the middle, consequently the author's name is mis- 
sing. It bears the title of " An Ode to the Families 
of Clochfaen." As much of its contents differ little in 
substance from those already given, an extract or two 
from it will suffice. In the first wiU be found an allu- 
sion, which it could be wished were less obscure as to 
its time and object, to an aid in men given to " the 
Saxon" by the family of Morys, i. e. probably the Four 
Brothers. It begins, in its present shape, thus : — 

" Un agwedd, wrth fynegi, 
A Mursen feinwen wyf fi ; 
Chwer[th]in, a thro[i] mln i 'r medd 
Wylo blin y 'r ail blynedd. 
E ^yr Duw y roed leuan 
Ymwrw 'n oed dydd ym mron t&n ; 
O lawer swydd hen flTordd yw lys, 
Gair mawr a gai dir Morys, 
Am ei roi i Sais mawr les wyr 
leuan worth tri o wyr.^' 

" I bear a likeness, if the truth be told. 
To a fair coquettish dame. 
Who laughs, and puts her lips to the mead. 
Yet weeps wearily in the second year.^ 
leuan, God knows, was given 
To place himself, as the day waned, before the fire ; 
To many an office^ is his mansion the ancient road. 
The land of Morys hath gained a high repute 
For its gift to the Saxon of a large aid in men. 
leuan the worth of three men.*' 

The next extract appears to relate to the choir of 
the Church of Llangurig, for which it was perhaps in- 

^ As this seems to have reference to a preceding passage, these 
lines can scarcely be the true commencement of the poem. 
* Or, "from many a shire." 


debted to the monks of Strata Florida, of which it was 
a vicarage. From the allusion to its wealth and libe- 
rality it may be inferred that the date of the poem is 
prior to the commencement of the Reformation troubles : 

*' C8r gloew Nef cwrr glan afon^ 
Gardd i hoU gerddwyr yw hon. 
Ami yw 'n gwln am Ian ganiad^ 
Ami an gael aur ymlaen gwlad. 
le trym i dylawd dramwy, 
teg yw i mi deatu Gwy/' 
" A resplendent choir of Heaven is in a nook of the river's 
A garden for all minstrels is this. 
Abundant is oar wine for the sacred song, 
Many a one obtains gold in sight of all the land, 
a spot delightful for a poor man to traverse^ 
fair to me are both sides of the Wye." 

The following extract is from a poem which is inter- 
esting for more reasons than one, It furnishes the 
solitary instance of a poem by Huw Arwystli, addressed 
to a member of the Clochfaen family, which has been 
found elsewhere than in the Ceniarth MS., being taken 
from No. 250 of the Collection of W. W. E. Wynne, 
Esq., of Peniarth, to whom the writer is indebted for 
the kindness of copying it. And it furnishes a con- 
temporaneous proof of the correctness of the pedigree 
(published in the ArcluBologia Camhrensis, vol. for 1867, 
3rd series, p. 27,) of the person to whom it is addressed, 
viz. Rhys ab Morys ab Llywelyn of Llangurig, who was 
the younger brother of Jenkyn Goch of Clochfaen, and 
therefore great uncle of the Four Brothers " of that 
ilk." Morys, the son of Llywelyn, and father of Rhys, 
seems to have been the first of the family to settle in 
Mowddwy, having married Mahallt, daughter and 
possibly heiress of Howel Mowddwy, Esq. The object 
of the poem is to solicit the gift of a horse, which it 
would seem, though the passage is somewhat obscure, 
was to be ridden by the poet to Arwystli, where he 
proposed to apply it in some way, which is not made 
apparent, to the payment of his debts. Of the animal 


no more need be said than that, to judge from the 
qualities of shape, speed, mettle, and trotting and leap- 
ing powers ascribed to him by the bard, he might have 
shamed all competitors in the hunting-field, if ne could 
now be brought out for a day with the Cheshire, or 
with Sir Watkin. Surely the bards must have deemed 
themselves seised of some poetical copyhold, entitling j 

them to claim as a heriot for their verse the very pride 
of the stable. 

Cywydd I Rys ap Morys ap Llbwblyn o 'b Clochpaen ym 

Meo Cubig, I ofyn mabch. 

Y Hew Ir braf oil o 'r brig, 

Brau a gerir bro Girig. 

Braich a chledd, amgeledd gwlad^ 

Rhys, aer Forys, ir fyriad. . 

Wyr Llywelyn, dir yn rhodd, 

Penaeth gw^r, pwy ni 'th garodd ? 

Gwr yn ara', od aeth grym, ydwyd, 

Gl&n fettel Hew How el Llwyd. d 

O 'r ach Benwyn wych benaeth, 

Natur ir ynot yr aeth ; 

Llwythau 'r gwydd pob Ueithigaur, 

Gwaed Trefawr yn goed hen aur ; 

Gwaed Philip iwraib aeth 

Fychan, tarian antariaeth. 

O Gydewen gwiw dywys 

Llwyth Blaenau trasau it^ Rhys ; 

Tref a gwlad marchnad am Wy, 

Aig meddiant Howel Mawddwy. 

Dy briod eigyr obrwyawl, 

Ammhech,^ a gyd ffydd a mawl ; 

Lloer Siancyn, tryff i 'n at ras, ! 

Nid o wr a hardder ei hurddas ; i 

Wyr Rhys Llwyd hardd i fardd fydd, 

0* i law win a llawenyd. 


Thou lion, brave and vigorous, for thy activity 
Art thou beloved by all on the upland. 

^ This word is doubtful. As copied from the original it is 
" awmech." 


Thine arm and thy sword are thy country's protection, 

Rhys, heir of Morys, thou hast a powerful arm. 


Grandson of Llewelyn, unwearied in bounty, 

Chieftain of men, by whom art thou not beloved ? 


A man of deliberation, when force hath assailed thee, 

A lion of Howel Lloyd's pure metal. 

A noble chieftain from the race of Benwyn. 

An energetic nature hath entered into thee ; 

A tribe whose every scion hath a golden seat. 

Of the blood of Trevor, a forest of ancient gold. 

Of the blood of Philip .... 

Fychan, a very shield in daring. 

Thy descent, Rhys, is nobly deduced 

From the tribe of Blaenau of Cydewen, 

From the town and land of merchandise on the Wye, 

Is the fount of the possession of Howel of Mowddwy. 

« « ♦ * * 

Thy bride was a maiden who requited thee. 

Faultless in virtue and fidelity. 

As from the moon is her favour turned towards us. 

Her dignity is not enhanced by that of Jenkyn her father.^ 

The grandson of Rhys Lloyd will be liberal to the bard. 

From his hand come wine and gladness. 

The next and last extract is from the last part of 
a long poem, in which is related the Legend of S. 
Curig, to which it does not seem properly to belong. 
The state in fact of the whole of these poems is sug- 
gestive of fire, mice, moth, everything in short that 
could have rendered the work of the copyist one of 
extreme labour and difiiculty. The lines are so genuine 
an outburst of love and aflfection for the spot tnat, in- 
dependently of the other evidence already adduced for 
the fact that the birthplace of our bard was in its im- 
mediate neighbourhood, the language is so far removed 
from the dry conventionalism ordinarily characteristic 
of Welsh encomiastic verse, as to have left no room for 
doubt, if any had previously existed : — 

^ " Rhys was married to Margaret, daughter of Jenkyn ap Rhys 
Lloyd of Llangurig," — Arch. Camb,^ 18G7, p. 27. 



" PMe well un plwy' ni elHr, 
Plwy' Cirig nid tebyg tir ; 

Hiatus of a line and a half. 
Fy nhir eisoes, fy nhrysor, 
A 'm maes ^d gynt, a^m 'stor, 
Py lluniaeth, a 'm llawenydd, 
Fy lies erioed, fy llys rydd, 
Fy ami win, fy melynaur. 
Fry yn mhwrs fy arian a 'm aur ; 
Fy llun, fy mhob peth, fy lies, 
Fy hoU iechyd, fy lloches. 
* * * * 

Llaw Dduw, a 'i barch llwyddo y bydd 
Liu ein genedl yn llawn gwinwydd ; 
Ni aned neb ond unwr 

o waed Himp y Tanwr. 
Canwaith, fel y cae weiniaid, 
Yr aeth fry i help wrth fy rhaid. 
Fy helpu 'n rhydd, rhag dydd dig, 

Y ceir carwyr cor Curig : 
Na ddont i lawr, ydynt l&n, 

Y gair da a gai rodd leuan/ 

" Nowhere can there be a better parish. 
There is no land like the parish of Gurig. 
Long since ray own land — my treasure. 
My cornfield, and my storehouse in time past. 
My maintenance and my joy. 
My gain since time began, my free mansion. 
My abundance of wine, my yellow gold. 
My silver and gold laid up in my purse. 
My picture, my profit, my all. 
My whole safety, and my retreat. 
♦ * * ♦ 

The hand of God, because we revere Him, will prosper 
The host of our race, as prolific as the vine ; 
Yet not a man, save one, hath been born 
A true graft on the blood of the Fire-bearer ! 
A hundred times, when he knew us to be poor. 
Has he come to help me in my need. 
My generous helpers, against the day of wrath. 
Are the lovers of the choir of Curig. 
Let them not be brought low, for they are pure, 
'Tis leuan's gifts that bring him good repute.^' 

A few remarks may be added in conclusion on the 


frequent occurrence in these, and most others of the 
Welsh poems of the same period, of the blemish in 
poetical composition known as confusion of metaphor. 
From a comparison of the heroes of the poetry with 
oaks or vines, we are stimned by the suddenness and 
rapidity with which they appear again as stags, falcons, 
eagles, swans, or lions, and this occasionally in the 
midst of actions grotesquely incongruous with the re- 
presentative qualities of the birds, trees, or quadrupeds 
with whose nomenclature they happen to be associated. 
In such cases a covert allusion might be suspected to 
the science of heraldry, and to the armorial bearings of 
the respective families, but this when it happens to 
occur is by way of rare exception rather than the rule. 
Yet from the high repute attained by the authors of 
these apparent monstrosities it would seem that the 
literary palate of the contemporary Welsh "public" 
was rather tickled than offended by them. The ex- 
planation would seem to lie in the fact that the sensi- 
tiveness of both reciter and recipient became deadened 
by constant repetition. The discordant epithets thus 
in process of time came to be regarded as synonyms, a 
certain number of which appeared necessary to the per- 
fection of every panegyric ; and the ideas which would 
be naturally appropriate to each figure of speech, 
though lost in the outward framework of the words, 
were found to be sufficiently suggested to the mind by 
a species of mental reservation. As a necessary but 
lamentable consequence it was forgotten, in process of 
time, that metre and alliteration are but secondary 
adornments of poetry, admissible only in strict subor- 
dination to originality of conception clothed in appro- 
priate imagery. Hence, by a not unnatural transition, 
the former in too many instances have been found 
gradually to usurp the place of the latter, and at length 
to supersede them altogether, while skill in alliterative 
consonancy came to be pursued as the end rather than 
as a means for the conveyance of poetical force and 
beauty. Thus the original play of fancy and imagina- 

A A 


tion, for which the Cymric mind had abundantly shown 
its capacity in the works of the earlier bards, became 
cramped and exhausted, until the very existence of the 
art became imperilled by its ultimate reduction to the 
mere study of alliterative surprises and a paltry play- 
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In the parish op Rhiwfabon in Maeloe Gymraeg. 

Cae Cyriog MSS. 

Bleddyn, the eldest son of Tudor ab Rhya Sais,' Lord 
of Chirk, Nanheudwy, and Maelor Saesneg (refer to 
the accoxmt of PlAs Madog), married Agnes, daughter 
of Llewelyn ab Idnerth, Lord of Buallt, son of Mere- 
dydd H^n ab Howel ab Seisyllt, Lord of Buallt, son 
of Cadwgan ab Elyatan Glodrudd, Prince of Fferlis, by 
whom he had issue Owain, Lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy, 
and Maelor Saesneg, who married Eva, relict of lor- 
werth ab Owain Brogyntyn, Lord of Edeymion, and 
daughter and heiress of Madog Goch, Lord of Mawddwy 
and Caer Einion, an illegitimate son of Gwenwynwyn, 
Prince of Upper Powys, by whom he had issue five 
sons: 1. lorwerth Hen, his successor; 2. Owain 
Fychan. ancestor of the Dymokes of Penley Hall in 
Maelor Saesneg ; 3. Thomas, ancestor of the Pennants 

> Ehjs Sftis died a.d. 1070. 



of Downing and Penrhyn Castle ; 4. Cynwrig Sais ; 

and, 5. Rhirid, and a daughter named Elen. ^ 

lorwerth Hen, the eldest son of Owain, was Lord of 
Chirk, Nanheudwy, and Maelor Saesneg, and married 
Angharad, eldest daughter and coheiress of Gruffydd,* 
third son of Meilir Eyton, Lord of Eyton Erlisham and 
Borasham {ermine, a lion rampant azure), by whom he 
had issue an elder son, 

lorwerth Fychan, Lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy and 
Maelor Saesneg. He married Catherine, relict of 
Meredydd of Rhiwfabon, second son of Madog ab 
Gruffydd Maelor, Prince of Powys Fadog, and daughter 
of Gruffydd ab Llewelyn ab lorwerth. Prince of North 
Wales, who bore quarterly gules and or, four lions 
rampant countercharged, by whom he had a son and 

lorwerth Foel (Llwyth Nanheudwy), Lord of Chirk, 
Nanheudwy and Maelor Saesneg. Roger Mortimer, 
Lord Paramount of Chirkland or the Swydd y Waun, 

f ranted lands in the townships of Gwem Osbern and 
^en-y-Clawdd to lorwerth Foel on payment of twenty 
pounds sterling per annum. The witnesses to the 
grant were, leuaf ab Adda,* Llewelyn his son," Owain, 

^ Omfiydd married Angbarad, daughter and heiress of Llewelyn 
ab Meorig ab Caradog ab lestyn ab Gargant, Prince of Glamorgan, 
who bore gules, three chevronels argent 

* lenaf ab Adda ab Awr of Trefor. He married Myfanwy, 
daughter of Madog ab Cynwrig Fychan ab Cynwrig ab Hoedliw 
of Christionydd Cynwrig, fifth son of Cynwrig ab Bhiwallon, by 
whom he had issue five sons : 1. David. 2. Howel, ancestor of the 
Trefors of Trefor Hall, Joneses of Frondeg, Lloyds of Trefor, and 
Llangollen, Joneses of GBirthgynan in Llanfair Dyfiryn Clwyd, and 
Roberts of Eglwyseg, Lloyds of Pentre Cuhelyn, and Lloyds of 
Berth and Bhagad. 3. Llewelyn, who witnessed the charter. He 
married Susanna, daughter and coheiress of Llewelyn ab Madog ab 
Einion ab Rhirid ab lorwerth of Ik], son of Meredydd ab Uchdryd 
ab Edwyn, Prince of Tegeingl, by whom he had issue four sons : 
1. Madog, for whose descendants see page 11 ; 2. leuan or John 
Trefor 1 : S.T.B. Bishop of St. Asaph, who built Llangollen Bridge, 
and died in a.d. 1352 ; 3. Adda ; and 4. David, ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Plas leuaf in Trefor. leuaf ab Adda, and his wife, My- 
fanwy, are both buried in the church of Yalle Cruds, where their 


son of Grufiydd Foel, and the Lord Hwfa, his brother; 
Llewelyn ab Cynwrig ab Osbem ; and Madog, son of 
Cynwrig Foel ; and attached to the deed was the seal 
of Roger Mortimer, with his coat of arms, and around 
it the inscription "Sigillum Mortuo Mare." Roger 
Mortimer got possession of the lordship of Chirk by 
grant from Edward I, October 7th, a.d. 1282, and was 
imprisoned in the Tower of London in a.d. 1332, where 
he died in a.d. 1336. 

lorwerth Foel married Gwladys, daughter and co- 
heiress of lorwerth ab Gruffydd ab Heilin of Frongoch, 
now called Celynog in Mochnant, Esq., ab Meurig ab 
leuan ab Adda Goch of Mochnant ab Cynwrig ab 
Pasgen, Lord of Cegidfa and Deuddwr. lorwerth ab 
Gruffydd of Frongoch, bore (1) sablCy three horses' 
heads erased argent; and (2) argent^ a chev. inter 
three rooks with ermine in their beaks sable ; and 
married Alice, daughter of Hwfa ab lorwerth ab Gruf- 
fydd ab leuaf ab Niniof ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. Gules 
two Uons passant argent^ for lorwerth ab Gruffydd. 
By his wife Gwladys, lorwerth Foel had issue, five 

1. Madog Lloyd of Bryncunallt, who bore the arms 
of Tudor Trefor in a bordure gules. He married Mar- 
garet, daughter of Llewelyn ab leuaf ab Adda ab Awr 
of Trefor, by whom he was ancestor of John Wynn^ ab 
John of BryncunaUt, who married Catherine, daughter 
of Richard ab Rhydderch ab David of Myvyrion, 
descended from larddur. Lord of Llechwedd Isaf and 
Creuddyn, by whom he had two daughters coheirs, the 

tombs are still to be seen ; tbeir fourth son, lenaf Llwjd, died with- 
out issue ; their fifth son, Adda Goch of Trefor, bore the arms of 
Tudor Trefor in a border g^bonated argent, and gvles pellatj, and 
married Angharad, daughter of David ab Adda ab Meurig ab leuan 
ab Adda Goch ab Cjnwrig of Mochnant, ab Gwyn ab Gruffydd, 
Lord of Cegidfa. Llewel jn ab Cjnwrig ab Osbern Fitz Gerald, was 
of Corsygedol in Merionydd. 

' John Wynn of Bryncunallt, was the son of John ab Thomas ab 
John Lloyd ab Madog ab Gruffydd ab Rhys ab Gruffydd ab Madog 
Lloyd of Bryncunallt, eldest son of lorwerth FoeL 


eldest of whom married Wynn of Tower ; and the 

second, who married Richard Lloyd of Whittington, 
died without issue. John Wynn ab John of Bryncu- 
nauUt sold that estate to Sir Edward Trevor, Knight, 
High Sheriff for Denbighshire, in a.d. 1622. The 
Wynns of Eyarth and the Lloyds of Seaton Knolls 
descend also from Madog Lloyd. 

2. Gruffydd of Maelor Saesneg, ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Tal y Wem and the Lloyds of the Bryn in 
the parish of Hanmer. 

3. Morgan of Maelor Saesneg, ancestor of the 
Yonges of Bryn lorcyn, now represented by the Con- 
ways of Bodrhyddan and Bryn lorcyn, and the Yonges 
of Croxton. 

4. Ednyfed Gam, of whom presently ; and, 

5. leuan of Llanfechain. 

Ednyfed Gam, the fourth son of lorwerth Foel, had 
Pengwem, in the parish of Llangollen, in the comot 
of Nanheudwy, for his share of the territories of his 
ancestors ; he married Gwladys, daughter and coheiress 
of Llewelyn ab Madog ab Einion ab Rhirid of 141, son 
of lorwerth ab Meredydd ab Uchdryd ab Edwyn ab 
Goronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, argent a cross flory inter 
four Cornish choughs ppr. ; by whom he had issue six 
sons, and a daughter Margaret, the wife of Gwilym ab 
Madog Lloyd. 

1. lorwerth Ddu, the eldest son of Ednyfed Gam, of 
whose line we shall treat presently. 

2. David, who married, first, Gwenllian, daughter of 
Adda Grocy ab leuaf ab Adda ab Awr of Trefor in Nan- 
heudwy, by whom he had a son named Edward or lor- 
werth, of whom presently ; and, secondly, David married 

, daughter of Gruffydd Fychan ab Gruffydd of Rhud- 

dallt, and sister of Owain Glyndwr, by whom he had a 
daughter Margaret, who married, firat, Robert Lloyd 
ab Gruffydd ab Goronwy ; and, secondly, Howel ab 
Llewelyn of Llwn On, in the parish of Wrexham, 

^ Adda Goch of Trefor, bore the arms of Tador Trefor, in a bor- 
der gobonated argent^ and gules pellaty, counterchanged. 


ancestor of the Jones-Parrys of Madryn and Llwyn 
On. Edward, the son of David ab Ednyfed Gam, 
married Angharad, daughter of Robert PnlestQn of 
Emerall, and Lowry his wife, sister of Owain Glyndwr, 
by whom he had issue three sons : 1. Robert Trefor, 
Steward of Denbighshire, Sheriff of Flintshire, Justice 
and Chamberlain of North Wales, who died unmarried 
in A.D. 1492, leaving an illegitimate son. Sir William 
Trefor, Chaplain to John ab Richard, Abbot of Valle 
Crucis, predecessor of David ab John ab lorwerth ab 
leuan Baladr^; 2. John Trefor HSn; and 3. Richard 
Trefor, who married Agnes, daiighter of Meredydd 
Lloyd, by whom he had a son Edward Trefor, Con- 
stable of Oswestry Castle, who married Jane, daughter 
and heir of Richard Westbury. 

John Trefor Hen, who died a.d. 1493, married Agnes, 
daughter and coheir of Sir Piers Cambray or Cambrea 
of Trallwng, knight, by whom he had fqur sons : 
1. Robert Trefor of PlAs T6g, who died in the lifetime 
of his father in A.i>. 1487, and was buried in VaUe 
Crucis Abbey. He married Catherine, daughter and 
heiress of Llewelyn ab Ithel of PlAs Teg in Yr Hob, by 
whom he had a son John Trefor, ancestor of the Trefors 
of P148 Teg. 2. Edward Trefor, Constable of AVhit- 
tington Castle, who died in a.d. 1537. He married 
Anne, daughter of Geoflfrey Cyflyn H6n, Constable of 
Oswestrv Castle, by whom he had two sons, John 
Trefor Goch of Wignant, who was ancestor of the 
Trefors of Bryncunallt ; and Thomas Trefor, ancestor of 
the Trefors of Treflech, near Oswestry. 3. Roger 
Trefor of Pentre Cynwrig, who married Gwenllian, 
daughter of Rhys IJoyd of Gydros, son of Gwilym ab 
Einion, by whom he had Roger Trefor of Pentre 
Cynwrig, who, by Angharad his wife, daiighter of 
David Lloyd ab John ab Edward of P14s Is y Clawdd, 
had a son, John Trefor of Pentre Cynwrig, ancestor of 
the Trevors of Bodynfol and Trawscoed. 4. Richard, 

1 Ilarl MS. 4181. 


who married Mallt, daughter and heiress of lenkyn* ab 
David ab Gruffycld of TrefalAn, by whom he had a son, 
John Trefor of TrefalAn, ancestor of the Trefors of that 

3. leuan ab Ednyfed Gam, ancestor of the Joneses 
of Weston Rhyn, in St. Martin's. 

4. Meredydd ab Ednyfed Gam, fourth in descent 
from whom was William ab Reignallt ab David of 
Carreg Hwfa, whose daughter and heir, Margaret, 
married Robert Lloyd of Bryngwyn. 

5. Gruflfyd ab Ednyfed Gam, who was ancestor of 
the Pughs of Ty Cerrig in Llanymyneich. 

6. Llewelyn of Halchdyn in Maelor Saesneg, who 
the Harl. MS., 4181, states to be the eldest son of 
Ednyfed Gam. He married Anne, daughter of Sir 
Roger Puleston of Emerall, knight, by whom he had a 
son, Madog of Halchdyn, ancestor of the Lloyds of 

lorwerth DdA of Pengwem, the eldest son of Edny- 
fed Gam, according to the Cae Cyriog and other manu- 
scripts, married Angharad, daughter of Adda Goch ab 
leuaf ab Adda ab Awr of Trefor, by whom he had issue 
four sons: 1. Adda; 2. Goronwy; 3. Tudor; 4. leuan, 
who was a bishop ; and three daughters : 1. Margaret, 
who married Madog ab leuan ab Madog, Lord of 
Eyton, in Maelor Gymraeg ; 2. Mvfanwy, who married 
Goronwy ab Tudor ab Goronwy of Penllyn, ab Gruffyd 
ab Madog ab Rhirid Flaidd ; and, 3. Eva, a maiden 
lady, who lived with her sister Margaret at Eyton, and 
built Overton Bridge. 

Adda of Pengwem, the eldest son of lorwerth DdA, 
married Isabel, sister of Owain Glyndwr, and daughter 
of Gruffydd Fychan ab Gruflfyd of RhuddaUt, fifth 

^ lenkyn ab David ab Grnffydd ab David ab Llewelyn ab David 
ab Goronwy ab lorwerth ab Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, 
Lord of Morton in Gresford. Vert, semy of broom slips, a lion 
rampant or, lenkyu married Angharad, d. and heiress of leuan ab 
Einion ab lolyn ab lorwerth ab Llewelyn ab Gruffydd ab Cadwg^n 
ab Meilir Eyton, Lord of Eyton. Ermine^ a lion rampant azure. 


Baron of Glyndyfrdwy, by whom he had issue three 
sons : leuan, Hhys, and Meredydd. 

leuan of Pengwem, the eldest son, married Angharad, 
daughter and heiress of Ednyfed ab Tudor ab Grufiyd, 
Lord of Tre Castell in M6n, son of Tudor H6n ab 
Goronwy ab Ednyfed Fychan, Lord of Brjuffisinigl, by 

whom he had three sons: (1) leuan Fychan, (2) , 

and (3) lorwerth or Edward, of whom presently. One 
of his daughters, named Isabel, married Gruflfydd ab 
leuan ab Einion, son of Gruflfydd ab Llewelyn of Corsy- 

leuan Fychan of Pengwem and Tre Castell, mar- 
ried Angharad, daughter and heiress of Howel ab 
Tudor of Mostjrn in Tegeingl, son of Ithel Fychan of 
Mostyn and Ewlo Castle, who bore azure , a lion passant 
argent, and did homage for his estates in a.d. 1300. 
Ithel Fychan was the son of Ithel Llwyd ab Ithel Gkim 
of Mostyn, ab Meredydd ab Uchdryd ab Edwyn ab 
Gronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, by whom he had a son, 
Howel of Mostyn Pengwem and Tre Castell, the 
ancestor of the Lord Mostyn of Mostyn, Sir Pyers 
Mostyn of Talacre, Bart.; Mostyn, Lord Vaux of Har- 
rowden ; and the Mostyns of Llewesog and Segroed. 

lorwerth or Edwaid, the third son of leuan ab 
Adda of Pengwem and Tre Castell, had Plsts Newydd, 
in the Lordship of Chirk, for his share of the property. 
He received the name of Yn lawn, or the lust, and 
married Catherine, daughter and sole heir of Llewelyn 
ab Madog ab Ueweljna of Trefor, third son of leuaf ab 
Adda ab Awr of Trefor,^ and relict of David Trefor ab 

1 Llewelyn, the third son of lenaf ab Adda ab Awr, married 
Susannah, daughter and coheiress of Llewelyn ab Madog ab Einion 
ab Rhirid of I&l, son of lorwerth ab Meredydd ab Uchdryd ab 
Edwyn ab Ooronwy, Prince of Tegeingl, by whom he had issne, be- 
sides a daughter, Margaret, wife of Madog Lloyd of Bryncunallt, 
four sons : (1) Madog, who married Catherine, daughter of Hwfa ab 
leuaf ab Hwfa ab Madog yr Athro of Plas Madog in Bodylltyn, by 
whom he was father of Llewelyn, who married Lucy, daughter of 
Sir David Whitmore of Cilcen, ab David ab Ithel Fychan ab 
Cynwrig of Ysgeifiog and Llaneurgain ; (2) leuan or lohn Trefor, 


lorwerth ab Teuaf ab Adda Goch of Trefor, by whom 
he had issue two sons, John ab Edward, and Ednyfed 
ab Edward, and a daughter, Angharad, wife of lenkyn 

lohn Edwards H6n of PlAs Newydd, the eldest son, 
was Receiver of Chirkland from 2 July, 13 Henry 
VIII, to 22 Henry VIII, and died in a.d. 1498. He 
married Gwenllian, daughter of Elis Eyton of Watstay 
in Rhiwfabon, by whom (who died in a.d. 1520) he 
had issue three sons : 1. William Edwards of Plas 
Newydd,^ Constable of Chirk Castle, Keeper of 
Black Park, and one of the body-guard to King Henry 
VIII, who granted him permission to have the vizor of 
the helmet over his coat of arms up, so that the face 
could be seen, and also gave him permission to bear 
the motto " A fynno Duw derfydd. ' He died in a.d. 
1532, having married Catherine, daughter and sole 
heiress of John Hookes of Aberconwy, Esq. (argent, 
achev. inter three owls azure), by whom (who died in 
A.D. 1532) ; he was ancestor of the Edwardses of P14s 
Newydd and Cefn y Wem. 2. John Wynn of Llanddyn 
in Nanheudwy, who, by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of 
Hugh Lewys of Anglesey, had issue two daughters, 
coheiresses : (1) Catherine, who married John Lloyd ab 
Madog of Bryncunallt ; and (2) Margaret, the wife of 
.Thomas Lacon ab John ab Thomas ab Sir Richard 
Lacon of Brogyntyn, knight. 3. David Lloyd of Pl^s 
Is y Clawdd, of whom presently. Besides these three 
sons, John Edwards Hen had three daughters : (l)Cathe- 
rine, who married, first, Tudor Lloyd of Bodidris in 
I&l, and, secondly, Robert Powel of Whittington Park, 
ab Howel ab Gruffydd of Abertanat, ab leuan Fychan 
ab leuan Gethin ab Madog Cyflfyn ; (2) Jane, the wife 

Bishop of St. Asaph, who bnilt Llangollen Bridge, and died 
A.D. 1857; (3) Adda; and (4) David, ancestor of the Lloyds of 
P1&8 lonaf in Trefor. 

* His eldest son, John Edwards of Plas Newydd, was High Sheriff 
for Flintshire in a.d. 1546, and for Denbighshire in a.d. 1547, and 
married Jeioe, daughter of Sir George Calverloy of the Lee in 
Cheshire, knight. 


of Llewelyn ab leuan ab Howel ab leuan Fychan of 
Moeliwrch, fourth son of leuan Gethin ab Madog 
CyflPyn of Lloran ; and (3) Margaret, Arglwyddes y 
Fan tell a Fodrwy (Lady of the Mantle and Ring), who 
married, first, Richard Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen, and, 
secondly, Thomas Salter. 

David Lloyd of Plas Is y Clawdd, in the parish of 
Chirk, the third son of John Edwards Hen of P14s 
Newydd, Esq., married Gwenllian, daughter (by Mar- 
garet his wife, daughter of Harri Goch Salusbury of 
Llewesog, Esq.) of Robert ab Gru%dd ab Rhys of 
Maesmor in Llangwm in Dinmael, by whom he had 
issue two sons, Robert and Roger, and five daughters : 

(1) Angharad, wife of Roger Trefor of Pentre Cynwrig ; 

(2) Maude, wife of John Wynn ab Meredydd ab Howel 
ab Grufiydd Fychan ; (3) Gwenllian, wife of Thomas ab 
Richard of Trewem; (4) Gwenhwyfar ux. Thomas 
Hanmer of Pentrepant,^ near Oswestry ; and (5) Jane, 
ux. Howel ab Adda. 

Robert Lloyd of Pl^ Is y Clawdd, the eldest son of 
David Lloyd, married Catherine, daughter of Edward 
Pryse of Eglwyseg, Esq., ab Rhys ab David ab Gwilym 
ab lorwerth ab leuaf ab Alio ab Rhiwallon Fychan of 
Trefnant in Caer Einion, by whom he had issue two 
sons : ( 1 ) Edward Lloyd of Plas Is y Clawdd, who 
married Grace, daughter of Owain ab John Wynn ab 
leuan ab Rhys of Bryn Cynwrig, by whom he was 
ancestor of the Lloyds of Plas Is y Clawdd; and 
(2) leuan Lloyd. • 

leuan Lloyd, the second son of Robert Llovd of Plis 
Is y Clawdd, was of Glyn Ceiriog. He married Gwen- 

^ Thomas Hanmer of Pentrepant, was the son (by Catherine, his 
wife, daughter of John Hanmer of Lee, ab lenkjn Hanmer) of 
Richard ab David ab Howel Goch ab Meredydd ab Madog Heddwch 
ab Meilir ab Tangwel ab Tudor ab Dolphjn ab Llewelyn Eur 
Dorchog, Lord of lal. His eldest son, David Hanmer of Pentre- 
pant, married Elizabeth, daughter of Roger Kynaston of Mortyn, 
son of Humphrey Kynaston, by whom he had issue three sons : 
Thomas, who died S.P. ; John Hanmer, D.D., Bishop of St. Asaph, 
who died S.P. ; and Richard Hanmer of Pentrepant. 

D D 


hwyfar, daughter of David ab Meredydd, by whom he 
had two sons, John Lloyd and Edward of Glyn. 

Edward of Glyn, the second son of leuan Lloyd, was 
the father of Hugh of Glyn, who had two sons : (1) Ed- 
ward ab Hugh of Glyn ; and (2) John ab Hugh of 
Rhiwfabon. Edward ab Hugh of Glyn had a son, 
Hugh Edwards of Glynn, whose only daughter and 
heiress, Jane, married Richard Wy nn, of Aber Cy nllaith, 
descended from Idnerth Benfras ; both Richard 
Wynn and Jane were living in 1697. 

Johnab Hugh of Rhiwfabon married Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of John ab leuan ab Howel of 
Pen y Nant y Belan, in the parish of Rhiwfabon, by 
whom he had two sons, (1) Thomas Hughes and 
(2) Gruffyd Hughes, who, by his will dated a.d. 1706, 
left to the poor of Rhiwfabon lands adjoining Pentre 
Isa farm, the annual rent of which, in 1828, was £21. 

Thomas Hughes of Pennant y Pelan, Receiver of the 
King's Rents in the greatest part of Maelor and other 
places, A.D. 1697. He married Sarahi, fourth daughter 
and coheiress of Edward ab Rondle of Rhuddallt in the 
parish of Rhiwfabon, son of John ab John ab Madog ab 
leuan ab Madog ab leuaf ab Madog ab Cadwgan DdA 
ab Cadwgan Goch ab Y Gwion ab Hwfa ab Ithel 
Felyn, the eldest son of Llewelyn Aurdorchog, Lord of 
lal, and Prime Minister of GrufFydd ab Llewelyn ab 
Seisyllt, King of Wales. By this lady, Thomas Hughes 
had issue three daughters, coheirs : — 

1. Mary, who married William Piatt of Rhydonen, 
in the parish of Llanynys in DyflTryn Clwyd, son and 
heir of Richard Piatt of Pantglas, near Ruthin, and 
Mary, his wife, daughter and sole heiress of John 
Edwards of Rhydonen. By his wife, Mary, William 
Piatt had issue an only daughter and heiress, Sarah, 
who married at Llanynys on the 20th December, 1723, 
Rhys Lloyd of Clochfaen, in the parish of Llangurig, 
High Sheriff for the county of Montgomery in a.d. 1 743. 
Mrs. Sarah Lloyd died at the age of 85, and wiis buried 
at Llangurig, January lOth, a.d. 1781. Her only son, 


lenkyn Lloyd of Clochfaen, Esq., High Sheriff for 
Montgomeryshire in 1755, married at Erbistog, April 
30th, A.D. 1743, Elizabeth, eldest daughter and heiress 
of Edward Lloyd of PlAs Madog, in the parish of Rhiw- 
fabon, Esq. Elizabeth Lloyd, the heiress of PlAs Madog, 
was born April 10th, and baptised at Rhiwfabon, May 
10th, A.D. 1718, and died at Christionydd, aged 40, 
and was buried at Rhiwfabon, December 12th, A. D. 1758. 
By her said husband, she had one only daughter, Sarah, 
the heiress of Clochfaen, P14s Madog, and Rhydonen, 
who was bom February 19th, and baptised March 2nd, 
A.D. 1746. The account of her marriage and her 
descendants have been ffiven in the former part of this 

2. Phoebe, the second daughter and coheir, married 
David Lloyd of Llangollen, second son of Edward 
Lloyd of Llangollen, who died in the lifetime of his 
father, and was the son and heir of John Lloyd of 
Trefor, who died in a.d. 1686, son of Edward Lloyd ab 
Edward Lloyd ab John ab Madog ab Edward of Trefor, 
second son of Howel ab leuaf ab Adda ab Awr of 

3. Rebecca, the third daughter and coheiress of 
Thomas Hughes, married John GriflSth, eldest son and 
heir of John Griffith of Cae Cyriog, Esq., the author of 
the folio volume oi Heraldry and Genealogy , from which 
this account is taken. John Griffith, junr., of Cae 
Cyriog, in right of his wife, Rebecca, became possessed 
of Pennant y Belan, and took up his residence there. 
He was the ancestor of the present Thomas Taylor 
Griffiths of Wrexham, Cae Cyriog, and Pennant y 
Belan, Esq., F.R.C.S., of whose descent an account will 
be given in a future page. 

Thomas Hughes of Pennant y Belan, by his will 
dated a.d. 1715, left £15 to the poor of the parish of 


RHUDDALLT, in the parish of rhiwfabon. 

Cae Cyriog MS. 

Llewelyn Eurdorchog, Lord of lal and Ystrad Alun, 
in the principality of Powys Fadog, the Prime Minister 
of Grufiydd ab Lleweljm ab Seisyllt, King of Wales, 
was lineally descended from Sanddef Bryd Angel, the 
son of Llywareh H6n, Prince of the Strath Clyde 
Britons in the sixth century.^ He bore azure, a lion 
passant gardant, his tail between his legs and reflected 
over his Dack or; and married Eva, sister of Bleddyn 
ab Cynfyn, Prince of Powys, by whom he had issue six 
sons who were legitimate : (1) Ithel Felyn, of whom 
presently; (2) lorwerth; (3) Idris, who was the 
ancestor of the Owens of Scrwgan and the Hanmers 
of Pentrepant in the Lordship of Oswestry, and the 
Lloyds of Llangollen Fechan, and the Owens of Tref 
Geiriog in Nanheudwy ; (4) Dolphyn;* and (5) Ednowain, 

^ Llewelyn Eurdorchog was the son of Coel ab Gweryd ab Cynd- 
delw Gam ab Elgud ab Gwrisnadd ab Dwy wg Llythyraur ab Tegawg 
ab Dyforfrath ab Madog Madogion ab Sanddef Bryd Angel ab 
Llywareh Hen. Lewys Dwnn, ii, p. 242. 

* Dolphyn or Dolphwyn had a son, Llewdyn, whose only daughter 
and heiress, Eleanor, married Eunydd, Lord of Dyffryn Clwd and 
Trefalun. Earl MS. 1972. 


the ancestor of Ednowain ab Peradwen or Brad wen, 
Lord of Dolgellan, who bore guleSy three snakes 
ennowed in triangle argent And Llwyelyn Fychan, 
who was the ancestor of Trahaiarn ab lorwerth, Lord 
of Garthmul, who bore argent, three lions passant in 
pale guleSy armed and langued azure, the ancestor of 
Madog y Twppa of Plas y Twppa in Bettws Cydewain, 
and of the Lloyds of Berthlloyd in the parish of 
Llanidloes. Llewelyn Eurdorchog had two other sons, 
Ithel Goch and lorwerth Fychan, who were illegitimate. 

Ithel Felyn, the eldest son of Llewelyn Eurdorchog, 
was Lord of ISA and Ystrad AlAn. His possessions 
were the townships of Uys y Gil, AUt y Gymbyd, 
Bodanwydog and Coedrwg in lal ; the townships of 
Llwyn Egryn and Gwemaffyllt, and Y Gil Rhydin, in 
the township of Hendre Biffa in Ystrad Alun ; the 
townships of Gaerfallwch and Hendre Fygillt ; Pentre- 
hyfaid, and Gastell Meirchion, in Tegeingl ; Nantclwyd 
and Garth y Neuadd in DyflFryn Glwyd ; Traian in the 
Lordship of Whittington ; Aman Mab in the Lordship 
of Oswestry ; a great part of Glyndwfrdwy, and some 
lands in Cynllaith and Maelor Gymraeg. He bore 
sable, on a chev. inter three goats heads erased or, 
three trefoils of the field ; and married Lucy, daughter 
and heiress, of Howel ab Brochwel ab Bledrws, who 
bore sable, three roses argent,^ by whom he had issue 
three sons, Hwfa, Llewelyn, and Ystwg. 

Hwfa, the eldest son of Ithel Felyn, Lord of 141 and 
Ystrad Alun, married Elen or Alswn, daughter of 
GruflFydd ab Cynan, king of Gwynedd, by whom he had 
issue six sons : 1. Y Gwion, of whom presently. 2. Gas- 
wallon of Llys y Gil, whose son lorwerth of Llys y Gil, 
was one of the witnesses to a Gharter of Prince Madog 
ab Gruffydd Maelor, confirming a grant of lands to the 
monastery of Valle Grucis in a.d. 1202, and was father 
of Gynwrig of Llys y Gil and Y Fanechtyd in DyflFryn 
Glwyd, who married Janet, daughter of Henry de Laci, 
Earl of Lincoln and Lord of Denbigh, by Joanna his 

1 Harl MS. 1972. 


wife, daughter of William Martin, Baron of Cemeis in 
South Wales.^ By this lady, Cynwrig had issue a son 
named Goronwy of Y Fanechtyd, who had issue one 
daughter Annesta, wife of leuaf ab Hwfa ab Madog yr 
Athro of Pl&s Madog in Bodylltyn, and two sons : 
(1) Madog, ancestor of Tudor ab leuan ab Tudor of 
I&l, and of John Wynn of Y Fanechtyd, Esq., who was 
living in A.D. 1598 ; and (2) Goronwy Gethin ab 
Goronwy, who was ancestor of Richard Davies, Bishop 
of St. David's a.d. 1567; 3. lonas ab Hwfa ab Ithel 
Felyn ; 4. Goronwy ab Hwfa ; 5. Howel Foel ab Hwfa, 
who had Castell Meirchion, and was father of Einion of 
Maes y Groes, father of Madog, father of Dai, father of 
leuan of Maes y Groes, whose son, Gruffydd of Maes y 
Groes, sold Castell Meirchion to Tudor MAI Hen of 
Ruthin, who had married his sister Margaret f and, 
6. leuaf ab Hwfa, who was ancestor of several families 
in Cymmo and Bryn Eglwys and of David Powel, 
D.D., Vicar of Rhiwfabon, the Historian. 

Y Gwion, the eldest son of Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, 
married the daughter (and heiress)' of Meredydd ab 
Cadwgan of Nannau, by whom he had issue Cadwgan 
Goch, who married Dyddgu, daughter of Ithel ab 
Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, Lord of 
Morton in Gresford, by whom he had issue two sons : 
1. Cadwgan DdA, of whom presently ; and (2) Cadwgan 
Frych, who had Y Gaerddin, in the parish of Rhiw- 
fabon, and was generaUy called Y Brych of Gaerddin.* 
His descendant, John Thomas of Gaerddin, who was 
living in A.D. 1680, was the son of Thomas ab John ab 

^ Earl MS, 1972. « Golden Orove MS, » Ibid. 

* Cadwgan Frych of Y Gaerddin had a son Madog of Y Gaerddin, 
"whose line ended in an heiress named Gwerfyl, the daughter of 
Howel ab lenan ab Howel ab Cynwrig of Y Gaerddin, son of the 
before-named Madog ab Cadwgan. This lady married Meredydd 
ab Deicws ab Madog ab Adda Llwyd of Ystrad Alan. Ermine a 
lion rampant azure, by whom she had an only daughter and heiress, 
Angharad, who married John ab lenan Goch ab David Qoch ab Y 
Bady of Bhuddallt, by whom she had a son named Roger, father of 
John llogcrs who was living at Rhuddallt in a.d. 1620. 


Edward ab leuan ab David Goch. This John Thomas 
sold his lands of Gaerddin to Eubule Lloyd of Eglwyseg, 
brother of Ellis Lloyd of Penylan, Esq., who bmlt a 
new hall there. 

Cadwgan Ddu, the eldest son of Cadwgan Goch, 
married Mallt, daughter of Sir GruflFydd Lloyd,^ by 
whom he had issue three sons : (1) lorwerth, ancestor 
of the Bithels of Llwyn Eeryn, the Evanses of Llwyn 
Egiyn. Griffiths of Hendrf Biffa, and several othere in 
Ystrad Alun and 141 ; 2. Madog of Rhuddallt, of whom 
presently ; and (3) Einion, the mther of Einion Fychan, 
the father of Bleddyn, who married Angharad, daughter 
of David ab David ab leuan ab lorwerth ab Goronwy, 
by whom he had two sons : (1) Madog of Coed y Llai 
in Ystrad Alun, whose daughter and heiress, Mali, 
married Llewelyn ab David ab Goronwy of Gwysanau, 
Esq.; and (2) Gruffydd ab Bleddyn, who married 
Gwerfyl, daughter of Howel ab Tudor ab Goronwy ab 
Gruffydd ab Madog ab Rhirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn, 
by whom he had a son, Reinallt ab Gruffydd ab 
Bleddjni of the Tower, in the township of Broncoed in 
Ystrad Alun, a.d. 1465, and a daughter Alice, wife of 
David Lloyd of Iscoed ab Madog Lloyd ab Gruffydd of 
Maelor Saesneg, second son of lorwerth Foel. Madog 
of Rhuddallt, the second son of Cadwgan Ddu, married 
Margaret, daughter of lorwerth ab David Hen ab 
Goronwy Hen of Llai, in the parish of Gresford, son of 
lorwertn ab Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, 
Lord of Mortyn in Gresford parish, by whom he had 
issue a son and heir, leuan ab Madog of Rhuddallt, who 
married Angharad, daughter (by Gwerfyl his wife, 
daughter and sole heir of Roger Fychan ab Sir Roger 
de l*owys, knight. Lord of Whittington) of Philip 
Kynaston of Stoke, near EUesmere, ab Gruffydd 
Kynaston of Stoke and Cae Howel, and of Gaer y 
Dinlle, Esq., by whom he had issue one son, Madog, of 
whom presently, and two daughters : (1) Angharad, 
wife of Deio ab Madog Lloyd of Bodyllty n, ab Gruffydd 

1 Golden Orore MS. 


of Maelor Saesneg, second son of lorwerth Foel, Lord 
of Chirk and Nanheudwy ; and (2) Margaret, wife of 
leuan Bach ab leuan ab Einion Gethin of Christionydd 
ab Einion ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab Cynwrig Efell, Lord 
of Eglwyseg. 

Madog of Rhuddallt, the son of leuan ab Madog, 
married Angharad, daughter of Madog, third son of 
Llewelyn ab Ednyfed Lloyd of Plas Madog, by whom 
he had a son and heir. 

John ab Madog ab leuan of Rhuddallt, married, 
first, the daughter (by Agnes his wife, daughter of 
Tudor ab Howel ab leuan, third son of Ednyfed Gam of 
Pengwem) of Robert Tegin of Fron Deg, ab David Tegin 
ab Tegin ab Madog ab lorwerth Goch ab Madog ab leuaf 
ab Niniaf ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon, by whom he had 
two daughters : (1) Margaret, wife of Grufiydd ab 
leuan ab John of Blaen I&l ; and (2) Catherine, wife of 
Roger ab John ab leuan Goch ab David Goch ab Y 
Badi of Rhuddallt, ab Madog ab lorwerth Goch, fourth 
son of Madog ab Llewelyn, Lord of Eyton. John ab 
Madog ab leuan married, secondly, Margaret, daughter 
of Howel Puleston ab Edward Puleston of P14s Isaf in 
Christionydd, second son of Madog Puleston of Bers, 
who bore argent , on a bend sable, three mullets of the 
field, by whom he had issue three sons: (1) John; 
(2) Gruffydd ; and (3) Madog, who died without issue, 
and three daughters, Catherine, Gwenhwyfar, and 

John ab John ab Madog of Rhuddallt, married 
Catherine, daughter (by Anne, his wife, daughter of 
Edward Puleston of Trefechan in Christionydd, third 
son of Howel ab Edward Puleston of P14s Isaf in Chris- 
tionydd, second son of Madog Puleston of Bers) of 
John ab Howel of Cefn y Bedw in Christionydd 
Cymwrig ab Edward ab Y Bady Llwyd ab lorwerth ab 
leuan ab Einion Gethin of Christionydd in the manor 
of Esclusham, and in the parish of Rhiwfabon, son of 
Einion ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab Cynwrig Efell, Lord 
of Eglwysegl, who bore gules, on a bend ar^en^, a lion 


Eassant sahle. John ab John ab Madog died a.d. 1599, 
aving had issue by his wife Catherine two sons : 
(1) Rondle ab John ; and (2) John ab John. 

Rondle ab John of Rhuddallt married Margaret, 
relict of John Byimer, and second daughter (by Jane 
his wife, daughter of John Edwards of P14s Newydd in 
the parish of Chirk, High Sheriff for Denbighshire in 
A.D. 1547) of John Ellis of Alrhey, third son, but 
eventual heir, of Elis ab Richard of Alrhey, Standard 
Bearer to Owain Glyndwr in a.d. 1404. Ermine a 
lion stata.nt gardant gules, for Ednyfed, Lord of 
Broughton, second son of Cynwrig ab Bhiwallon. 
Rondle ab John died in a.d. 1599, in the same year as 
his father, leaving issue a son and heir, 

Edward ab Rondle of Rhuddallt. He married 
Anne ; daughter (by Catherine his wife, sister of John 
Roger Broughton of Dinynlle Isaf, in the parish of 
Rhiwfabon, and daughter of Roger Broughton of that 
place) of John ab John of Dinynlle Isaf, a native of 
Chirk parish, by whom he had issue four daughters, 

1. Catherine. She purchased her other sisters' por- 
tions of their fathers estate, and married, first, David 
ab Edward of Trefor, by whom she had two children, 
Hannah, who died young, and one son, Richard Davies 
of Rhuddallt and Trefor, living 1697, who married 
Anne, daughter of John Barnes of Warrington in Lan- 
cashire, by whom he had issue Edward Davies and 
John Davies. 

2. Mary, who married Edward Williams of Morton, 
in the parish of Gresford. 

3. Elizabeth, the wife of David Jones of Llansilin, son 
of John ab David of Glyn. 

4. Sarah Edwards, who married Thomas Hughes of 
Pennant y Belan. 

E E 


The manor of Rhiwfabon is one of the seventeen 
Beignorial manors of the Lordship of Maelor Gymraeg, 
and is divided into the three eeignorial tovmships of 
Rhiwfabon, Marchwiail, and Tref y Rfig or Rhwytyn. 
The parish of Rhiwfabon is divided into twelve town- 
ships, viz., Hafod, Bodylltyn, Rhuddallt, Belan, Coed 
Christionydd and Christionydd Cynwrig, both of which 
lie in the seignorial township of Oiristionydd Cynwrig, 
in the manor of Esclushara, Mortyn Uwch y Clawdd, 
alias Mortyn Wallicorum, which Res in the manor 
of Eglwyeeg, Mortyn Is y Clawdd, alias Mortyn Angli- 
corum, which is in the manor of Fabrorum, Dinhinlle 
Uchaf and Dinhinlle Isaf, both of which are in the 
manor of Dinhinlle, and Tre Robert Lloyd. 

The greatest part, if not all, of the townships of 
Hafod, Bodylltyn, Rhuddallt and Bclan, which ibrni the 


seignorial township of Rhiwfabon, appears to have 
belonged to the princes of Powys Fadog, and were 
given by Madog ab GmflFydd Maelor, Prince of Powys 
Fadog, the Founder of the Monastery of Valle Crucis, 
who died in a.d. 1236, to his second son, Meredydd, 
who was styled Meredydd of Rhiwfabon from that cir- 
cumstance. Meredydd took up his residence at Wat- 
stay, now called Wynnstay, and married the Princess 
Catherine, daughter of GruflFjrdd ab Llewelyn ab lor- 
werth. Prince of Wales, who bore quarterly gules and 
or, four lions rampant coimterchanged. By this lady, 
Meredydd had issue one only daughter and heiress, 
named Angharad, who had her father's landed estate, 
part of which was the ancient camp called Caer-Ddin, 
and vulgarly Gardden, and a farm called Cae Cuwppa 
adjoining it, which remained in the Eyton family till 
the late Mr. Eyton Evans of Watstay exchanged them 
with his father in law. Sir Gerard Eyton of Eyton, for 
some other compensation. Angharad married Llewelyn 
ab Gruffydd ab Cadwgan, Lord of Eyton, ErUsham, 
and Boresham, and who thus, in right of his wife, be- 
came possessed of the Watstay Estate, and of whose 
family it vrill be requisite to give a short account. 

Elidur, Lord of Eyton, Ernsham and Borasham, the 
second son of Rhys Sais, Lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy, 
Maelor Saesneg, and Whittington, who died in a.d. 1 070. 
He married Aimesta, daughter of Lies ab Idnerth 
Benfras, Lord of Maesbrwg, in the Lordship of Oswes- 
try, by whom he had issue eight sons: (1) Madog 
Warwyn ; (2) Meilir Eyton, of whom presently ; 
(3) Morgan ; (4) lorwerth ; (5) Cynwrig ; (6) Madog 
Sutton, Lord of Sutton^ and Gwersyllt, who was ances- 
tor of the Buttons and Lewises of Gwersyllt f the estate 
of Gwersyllt Isaf remained in the Sutton family till 

^ The manor of Iscoed in Maelor Cymraeg contains the townships 
of Sutton, Button Difaeth, Button y Brain, Gaecaedatton, Borasham 
Hwfa, Borasham Buffri (Gruffydd), Gwrtyn, Bees ton and Erli sham. 

' The manor of Burton in Maelor Gymraeg, contains the town- 
ships of Trefalun or Alynton, Gwersyllt, and Gresford. 


A.D. 1660, when it was sold by Captain Sutton, an old 
cavalier, who was ruined in the royal cause, to Colonel 
(afterwards Sir Geoffrey) Shakerley of Shakerley in 
Lancashire ; (7) Sanddef, who bore ermine, a lion 
rampant in a bordure azure ; he had lands in Erlisham 
and Marchwiail, and was ancestor of the Lloyds of 
Crewe, Erlisham of Erlisham, John Wynn Kenrick of 
Marchwiail, Lewys of Galchog in Tegeingl, and Hum- 
phries of Cilystryn ; and (8 J Matthew Rhwytyn, who 
had the township of Rhwyton, in the parish of Bangor 
Is y Coed, but in the manor of Rhiwfabon, the township 
of Seswick in the manor of Pickill, and the township 
of Bedwal in the manor of Fabrorum. He was ancestor 
of the Deccafs of Rhwytyn, Tyfod,Parcau, Rhydybenni, 
and Erbistog.^ 

Meilir Eyton, the second son of Elidir ab Rhys Sais, 
was Lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and Borasham, and from 
him Pentre Meilir takes its name. He married, and 
had issue five sons : (1 ) Cadwgan, of whom presently ; 

(2) Ednyfed, the father of lorwerth, who married 
Angharad, daughter of leuaf Fychan ab leuaf ab Niniaf 
ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon, by whom he had an only 
daughter, Tanegwystl, wife of Adda ab Awr of Trefor ; 

(3) Gruffydd, who married Angharad, daughter and 
heiress of Llewelyn ab Meurig ab Caradog ab lestyn 
ab Gwrgant, Prince of Glamorgan, who bore gules^ 
three chevronells argent^ by whom he had issue four 
daughters coheirs : (1) Angharad, wife of lorwerth H6n 
ab Owain ab Bleddyn, Lord of Chirk, etc. ; (2) Gwladys, 
who married, first, Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef 
Hardd, Lord of Mortyn, in the manor of Burton, and, 
secondly, she married Cynwrig, Lord of Christionydd 
Cynwrig,^ the son of Hoedliw ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon ; 
(3) Angharad Fechan, who married Cadwgan y Sae- 
theth of Mochnant, Lord of Henfachau, who bore argent 
a chev. guleSy inter three pheons pointed to the centre 

1 The manor of Abenbury in Maelor Gymraeg, contains the town- 
Bbips of Abenbury, Eyton, Erbistog, and Sonlli. 

* The manor of Esclusham in Maelor Gymraeg contains the town- 
ships of Esclusham, Bersham Brymbo and Christionydd Cynwrig. 


scible ; and (4) Gwenllian. The fourth son of Meilir 
Eyton was Madog ; and (5) lorwerth, who had two 
sons : (1) Ednyfed ab lorwerth, who had two daughters 
coheirs — first, Myfanwy, wife of Madog Ddu ab Gruf- 
fydd ab Cynwrig Efell, Lord of Eglwysegl,^ in Maelor 
Gymraeg, who bore gules, on a bend argent, a lion 
passant sable, and, second^ Margaret, wife of lorwerth 
ab Awr ab leuaf ab Niniaf, ancestor of the Lloyds of 
P14s Madog in Bodylltyn ; and (2) GruflFydd ab lor- 
werth, who had a daughter and heiress, Efa, who mar- 
ried Ithel ab Eunydd, Lord of Trefalun and Gresford 
in the manor of Burton — 1, azure, a lion salient or\ 
2, azure, a fess or, inter three horses' heads erased 
argent, for Rhys ab Marchan, Lord of Dyffryn Clwyd. 

Cadwgah, the eldest son of Meilir Eyton, was Lord 
of Eyton, Erlisham, and Borasham ; he married My- 
fanwy, daughter and coheir of Ednydd ab Llywarch ab 
Br4n, Lord of C wmmwd Menai, who bore argent a chev. 
sable, inter three rooks ppr., with an ermine spot in 
their bills, by whom he had a daughter dementia, wife 
of Ithel ab Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, or 
the Handsome, Lord of Mortyn, vert, sem6 of broom- 
slips a lion rampant or, and a son and heir. 

Gruffydd ^b Cadwgan, Lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and 
Bordfiham ; from him the township of Borasham Ruffri 
takes its name. He married Janet, daughter of Sir 
Fulke Fitz Warren, knight. Lord of Whittington, son 
and heir of Sir Warren de Weaux, a nobleman of Lor- 
raine, quarterly and per fess indented gules and argent, 
in the dexter chief a canton chequey or and azure, by 
whom he had issue one son, Llewelyn, his successor, and 
three daughters : (1) Margaret, who married Gruffydd 
Fychan, *'Y Barwn Gwyn", Lord of Glyndj^rdwy, lal, 
and half of Cynllaith, third son of Gruffydd ab Madog, 
Lord of Castell Dinas Bran, and Prince of Powys Fadog, 
palii of eight argent and gules, a lion rampant salient ; 
(2) Agnes, wife of lorwerth ab Hwfa Llwyd ab Gruffydd 

^ The manor of Eglwysegl contains the townships of Trefechan, 
Broaghton, Stansti Villa, Acton, Morton Uwch y Clawdd, aXiaa 
Morton W alii coram, and Erddig. 


Goch ab David ab Tegwared of Traian in the Lordship 
of Whittington — sable^ a chev. inter three spears' heads 
argent, imbrued gule ; and (3) Elen, wife of Llewelyn 
ab Gruflfydd ab lorwerth of LlansantfFraid and Drewen. 

Llewelyn ab Cadwgan, Lord of Eyton, Erlisham, and 
Borasham, married, first, Angharad, daughter and sole 
heiress of Meredydd of Rhiwfabon, second son of Madog 
ab Gruffydd Maelor, Prince of Powys Fadog ; paJii of 
eight argent and ffules^ a lion salient sable, by whom, 
according to the Coe Cyriog MS., he had four sons : 
(1) Madog, his successor; (2) lorwerth, who had lands 
in Bwras or Borasham and Bhuddallt, and was ancestor 
of William Bwras of Bwras and others ; (3) Gruffydd, 
who had lands in Bodylltyn ; and (4) Howel Grach, who 
had lands in Bodylltyn, and four daughters : (1) Lucy, 
wife of David ab lorwerth. Baron of Hendwr, ab Madog 
ab Gruffydd ab Owain Brogynt3ni, Lord of Edeymion, 
argent a lion rampant sable, debruised by a baton 
sinister gules, by whom she was mother of Madog, Baron 
of Hendwr, who bore argent, on a chev. gules, three 
fleurs-de-lys or; (2) Margaret, wife of Madog ab 
Ednyfed Goch of Bers or Bersham, ab Cynwrig ab 
Gruffydd Fychan, descended from Ednyfed, Lord of 
Broughton, who bore ermine, a lion statant gules, the 
second son of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon ; (3) Angharad, 
wife of Gruffydd ab leuaf ab lorwerth, descended from 
Eunydd ab Gwernwy, Lord of Trefalun, azure, a lion 
saUent or. 

Other authorities, however, state that Llewelyn, 
Lord of Eyton, married a second wife, Gwenllian, 
daughter of Owain ab Trahaiam ab Ithel ab Eunydd, 
Lord of Trefalun and Gresford ; and that Howel Grach 
and lorwerth were her sons ; but as Howel Grach had 
his share of lands in Bodylltyn, which did not belong 
to the Lords of Eyton, but belonged to the estate of 
Angharad, the first wife of Llewelyn, it is not probable 
that if he had been the son of Llewelyn by his second 
wife, that he could have had any of the lands belonging 
to his first wife. Owain ab Trahaiam was one of the 


witnesses to the charter of Prince Madog ab Gruffydd 
Maelor to the Abbey of Valle Crucis in a.d. 1202. 

1. Madog, the eldest son of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, 
had Eyton Watstay, Erlisham or Erlys, alias Eurlys, 
and Borasham or Bwras. He married Angharad, 
daughter of David H6n ab Goronwy H6n ab lorwerth 
ab Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, Lord of 
Morton ; and dying in a.d. 1331, was buried, on the 
Feast of St. Matthias, in the north aisle of Gresford 
Church, leaving issue four sons and five daughters : 
(l)Ieuan, who had Eyton and Watstay, who was ancestor 
of the Eytons of Eyton, Watstay, and Pentre Madog 
in Dudleston ; (2) David Uoyd of Hafod y Bwch had 
lands in Borasham, which were forfeited by his grandson, 
Howel ab leuan ab David Lloyd, to the King of Eng- 
land, for joining Owain Glyndwr. These lands, and the 
old house of Borasham, were purchased from the Lord of 
Bromfield, on the attainder of Howel ab leuan ab 
David Lloyd, by Thomas de Weild or Wylde of Holt, 
son of Jenkyn de Weild, ab Richard de Weild ab 
David de Weild ab Richard de Weild ab John de 
Weild or de Wylde of Holt in Maelor Gymraeg. Argent^ 
a chev. sable, on a chief of the second three martlets of 
the field. Catherine, the eldest daughter and coheir of 
Thomas de Weild, married William Brereton, second 
son of Sir Randle Brereton of Malpas, in Cheshire, 
knight, who thus, jure uxoris, became possessed of 
Borasham. (3) Howel ab Madog ab Llewelyn. (4) Ioi> 
werth Goch, who had lands in RhuddaUt. He married 
Lucy, daughter of Goronwy ab Tudor ab Goronwy ab 
Ednyfed Sychan, Lord of Tref-Castell in M6n, by 
whom he had a son named Madog, who was the 
ancestor of John Rogers of Rhuddallt, who was in pos- 
session of his lands there in a.d. 1620 ;^ and of Roger 
Gruflfydd of Rhuddallt, who had also possession of hia 
lands there in 1620 ; but, in 1697, his lands passed into 
the possession of Cynwrig Eyton of Eyton, Esq. 

The daughters of Madog ab Llewelyn, Lord of Eyton 

^ Norden's Survey of Bromfield afid Idl, 


and Watstay, were : (I) Erddylad or Erminallt, the 
wife of Tudor ab Ithel Fychan, Lord of Mostyn and 
Ewlo Castle, who bore azuy^e, a lion passant argent, by 
whom she had a son and heir named Howel, Lord of 
Mostyn and Ewlo Castle, whose only daughter and 
heiress Angharad, married leuan Fychan ab leuan ab 
Adda ab lorwerth DdA of Pengwern in Nanheudwy, 
the ancestor of the Mostyns of Mostyn, Talacre, and 
Llewesog ; (2) Gwenhwyfar, wife of Gruffydd ab lor- 
werth ab Einion of Soulli, ancestor of the Sontleys of 
Sonlli — ermt?ie, a lion rampant sable ; (3) Angharad, 
wife of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd ab Meredydd ; (4) Lucy, 
wife of Llewelyn ab Madog Foel of March wiail — 
ennine, a lion rampant in a bordure azure ; and (5) Mar- 
garet, the wife of lorwerth Fychan ab lorwerth ab 
Awr, by whom she had a son, Ednyfed Lloyd, the 
father of Llewelyn, the father of David, who was living 
A.D. 1467 (7 Edw. ivy and who married Margaret, 
daughter and heiress of Dio ab Hwfa ab Madog yr 
Athro of Plas Madog in Bodylltyn, by whom he had a 
son named John, the ancestor of the Lloyds of PlAs 

2. Gruffydd of BodyUtyn, the second son of Llewelyn 
ab Gruffydd, Lord of Eyton, was the father of Ednyfed 
of Bodylltyn, whose only daughter and heiress, Lucy, 
was the second wife of Madog Lloyd of Iscoed, the 
eldest son of Gruffydd of Maelor Saesneg, the second 
son of lorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk, by whom she had 
a son, Deio of Bodylltyn, whose line ended in an heiress, 
Gwenllian, who married Roger Eyton, a younger son 
of John ab Elis Eyton of Watstay, Esq., ancestor of the 
Ey tons of Bodylltyn. 

3. lorwerth, the third son of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, 
had lands in Borasham and Rhuddallt. He married 
Margaret, daughter of lorwerth ab David ab Goronwy 
ab lorwerth ab Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, 

^ Proceedings before the Commissioners appointed by the Lords 
of Bromfield and Yale, at the great court of those lordships held at 
Holt Castle 7 Edward IV, a.d. 1467. 


Lord of Mortyn, by whom he had a son, lolyn of 
BwvBB or Borasham, the father of Einion, the father of 
John, the father of William Borasham, the father of 
William Bwras or Borasham of Borasham, who had an 
only daughter and heiress, Angharad, who married 
Lewys Sutton of Sutton, Esq., ab Robert Sutton. 

4. Howel Grach of BodyUtyn, the fourth and 
youngest son of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, Lord of Eyton, 
married Margaret, eldest daughter and coheiress of 
David, Lord of Pentyrch, Colli Caswallon, Penarch, and 
Ehiwarch in Caer Einion, the fifth son of Gruffydd ab 
Gwenwynwyn, Prince of Upper Powys, who died in 
A.D. 1289, and was buried in the church of the Fran- 
ciscan Monastery, or Grey Friars, in Shrewsbury. Her 
mother was Elen, daughter and heiress of Howel, third 
son of Madog ab Gruffydd Maelor, Prince of Powys 
Fadog.^ Quarterly first and fourth or, a lion ramp. 
gules, for Gruffydd ab Gwenwynwyn ; second and third 
or, a lion's gamb erased gules, for Gwenwynwyn.* By 
this lady, Howel Grach had issue an only daughter and 
heiress, Angharad, who married Madog yr Athro, who, 
according to the Ilaid. MS. 4181, and Mr. Joseph 
Morris of Shrewsbury, was the son of Hwfa ab lorwerth 
of Hafod y Wem. Sable, three lions passant in pale 
argent ; but according to the Cae Cyriog and the Harl. 
MSS. 2299, a^ also the Add. MS. 9864-5, he was the 
son of Hwfa ab lorwerth ab Gruffydd ab leuaf ab 
Niniaf ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. Gules, two lions 
passant argent, for lorwerth ab Gruffydd. By his wife 
Angharad, Madog yr Athro became possessed of the 
lands in BodylltjTi which formed uie Plas Madog 
estate, where he built the house now called P14a 
Madog. Lewys Dwnn, however, in hia account of the 
Lloyds of Plas Madog, calls this place Pl&s Madog 
Warwyn,' from Madog Warwyn, the eldest son of 
Elidir ab Rhys Sais, Lord of Eyton ; so Madog yr 
Athro may have only rebuilt it. By his wife Angharad, 

» Golden Grove MSS. « Harl MSS. 1978, p. 4. 

» Cae Cyriog MS. 



Madog yr Athro had issue a son, Hwfa of P14s Madog, 
who married Agnes, daughter of Madog Goch of Lloran 
Uchaf in Cynllaith, the son of leuaf ab Cuhelyn ab 
Rhyn ab Einion Efell, Lord of Cynllaith, who bore 
party per fess sable and argent, a lion rampant counter- 
charged, by whom he had issue two sons : (1) Hwfa ; 
and (2) Dio or David, who must have had Plas Madog, 
and not David ab Hwfa ab leuaf ab Hwfa ab Madog 
yr Athro, as the following pedigree will clearly prove. 

Hwfa ab=F lorwerth? Llewelyn ab Graffydd,^ 
lo rwerth | ab Awr | Lord of Eyton ^| 

I I iBt wife. I I 2nd wife. | | 

Madog yr 7 Agnee 7 lorwerth 7 Margaret. Madog, Howel Grach^ 






Hw faT Howel. lena f. Ednyfe d Lloyd T Angharad, ux. Madog yr Athro. 

leoafTAgneB, d. of Davids Llewelyn 
Grufiydd ab | 

Cynwrig ab 

Angharad, d. of Adda ab Howel 
ab leuaf ab Adda ab Awr of 

leuaf ab 1 I j j T 

Caswallon Margaret 7 David, Gruffydd. Madog 

ab Hwfa ab 
Ithel Felyn. 


Hwfa^Gwenllian, | 1 



killed in 

A.D. 1490. 

daughter of John of PlAs Madog. Angharad, nx. Madog ab lenan 

leuan ab Madog of Ehuddallt, ab 

Llwyd ab Cadwgan DdA ab Oadwgan Qooh, ab Y Gwion 

leuan ab ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn. 


Gruffydd, descended from Cynwrig ab BhiwaUon.' 

Madog Lloyd. David, who is stated to be the father of Margaret, the 

wife of David ab Llewelyn ab Ednyfed Lloyd in ahnost 
all the MSS., but all likewise give David as a son of Hwfa 
ab Madog yr Athro. 

1 John Salosbury of Erbistog. 


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Piers, son of Edward Lloyd, was baptised Jan. 5, a.d. 1601. 
Edward Lloyd of Plas Madog, Esq., was buried Jan. 1, 1637. 
Anne, wife of Edward Lloyd of Plas Madog, was buried 

August 22, 1636. 
Elizabeth, wife of Edward Lloyd of PlUs Madog (daughter 

and heiress of Owain Lloyd), was buried Oct. 28, 1676. 
Mrs. Anne Lloyd, wife of WiUiam Lloyd of Pl^ Benion, was 

buried March 21, a.d. 1700. 
Samuel, son of Edward Lloyd of Pl&s Madog, Esq. (and 

Elizabeth, his wife), was baptised June 1, 1633. 
Mrs. Sarah Lloyd, wife of Samuel Lloyd of Pl&s Madog, was 

buried June 7, a.d. 1699. 
Samuel Lloyd of Pl^ Madog, Esq., was buried May 2, 

A.D. 1701, aged 63. 
Edward, son of Samuel Lloyd, gentleman, was baptised Dec. 

A.D. 1686. 
John, son of Samuel Lloyd of Pl&s Madog, Esq., was buried 

Dec. 28, 1694. 
William, son of Ditto, was buried Dec. 1, 1698. 
Charles, son of Ditto, was buried Dec. 16, 1698. 
Samuel Lloyd of Pl&s Madog was buried Sept. 2, 1 723. 
Mrs. Anne Lloyd, wife of Edward Lloyd of Pl&s Madog, Esq., 

was buried Sept. 26, 1 745. 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Lloyd of Pl&s Madog, Esq., 

was baptised May 10, a.d. 1718. 
Elizabeth Lloyd de Ghristionydd Cynwrig (wife of lenkyn 

Lloyd of Clochfaen) was buried Dec. 12, a.d. 1758, aged 40. 
Edward Lloyd of Pills Madog, Esq., was. buried Aug. 11, 

A.D. 1760, aged 74. 
Madog infans de Plils Madog (son of lenkyn Lloyd and Eliza- 
beth his wife) was buried Jan. 22, a.d. 1774. 
Sarah, daughter of lenkyn Lloyd and Elizabeth, his wife, was 

baptised March 2, a.d. 1746. 
lenkyn Lloyd of P14s Madog, Esq., was buried February 5, 

A.D. 1766, aged 42. 

Edward Lloyd of PMs Madog, Esq., by his will dated 
A.D. 1757, left to the poor of the parish of Rhiwabon £150, 
to be distributed in coals, schooliug for three boys and two 
girls, from the Township of Ghristionydd and Coed Ghristionydd, 
secured by a rent charge on lands in Wcstyn Rhyn in the 
Parish of St. Martin's, co. Salop. These lands wore purchased 
from the Lloyd family by Mr. Kenyon of Penylan. 


Anne Lloyd of Pl&a Madog, by will^ date unknown^ charged 
a small farm called Caer Llwyn, in the parish of Gwytherin, 
with the yearly payment of £1. This money is to be distribated 
on St. Thomas's Day. The proprietor of Oaer Llwyn is now 
Mr. Fitzhugh of Plfts Power, near Wrexham. Report of the 
Charity Commissioners. 

Colonel Charles Thomas Edward Hinde became Major- 
General in Feb. 1870, and died on the 15th May in the same 

Mr. I. Y. Wm. Lloyd of Clochfaen was created a Knight of 
the Order of St. Gregory the Grreat, in September 1870, by 
His Holiness Pope Pius IX. 

By the Rev. W. V. Lloyd, M.A., P.R.G.S. 

Grand Jury, 

4 James I, 1606. 

Evanns David de Clochfaen, gen. 

lenkinus Mores ab R^s de Llanywored,^ gen. 

Hoellus ap Stephen de Llangerick, gen. 

lenkinus Mores ap leun Lloyd de Glynhaveren, gen. 

David ab Rhys ab lenkyn de Glynbrochan, gen. 

9 James I, 1611. 
lenkinus David de Llangerick, gen.' 

20 James I, 1622. 
Evanus David de Llangirrick, gen.^ 

1 Charles I, 1625. 

Evanus David de Llangerig, gen. (on the list, but not on the 

Grand Jury.) 
Morgan Evans de Llangerig, gen. (on the list, but not on 

the Grand Jury.) 

^ lenkyn ab Maurice ab Rhys ab Maurice ab Llewelyn of Llany- 
wared, second son of lenan ab Gruffydd ab Howel Lloyd of Cloch- 
faen. He married Elen, daughter of David Lloyd ab lenkyn ab 
Maurice of Clochfaen. 

' lenkyn, second son of David Lloyd ab lenkyn ab Maurice ab 
lenkyn Goch of Clochfaen and brother of Evan ab David of Cloch- 
faen. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Owain Blayney of Ystym- 
gwyn, ab Howel ab Owain ab Howel ab leuan Blayney of Gr^gynog. 

' Evan David of Clochfaen. 


10 Charles I, 1634. 
MorganuB Evans de Glinbrochan^ gen. 
Evanus ab lenkin ab Rees de Llanywared^ gen*^ 

11 Charles I, 1635. 
EdVas JBvans de Clochvaine issa, gen.' 

14 Charles I, April 29, 1638. 
EdVns Evans de Clochvaine issa, gen. 

2 Charles II (2nd of Commonwealth, 1650). 
David Lewis ab lenn Lloyd, gen., Maior de Llanidloes, 
fiicens Lloyd de Llanywored,* gen., on Grand Jury List for 

Llanidloes Hundred, but not selected for Grand Jury. 
David lenkin Mores de Glynhafren, gen., on same. 

Tinder presentments. 

12 Charles II, 7th Oct., 1661. 
The presentments of Arthur lerman, one of the Chief Con- 
stables of the hundred of Llanidloes, the seventh day of 
October, 1661. I doe p'sent Evan Lloyd of Llangirrick* in the 
sd. countie, gen., for absenteing himself from his p'ishe Church 
of Llangerrick afores'd ev'y Sunday from the 21 day of July in 
the yeare aforsM. I doe p^sent Edd. Lloyd, gen., of the same 
for the like.^' xx. The m'ke of Arthur + lerman. 

13 Charles II, 26 July, 1662. 

David lenkyn Morris de Llangericke, gen.,** on Llanidloes 
Hundred of Grand Jury List, but not selected. 

14 Charles U, 16 Oct., 1663. 

lenkinus Lloyd de Llaniwared, gen.,^ and Edwardus Lloyd 

^ Evan ab lenkyn ab Rhys ab Maurice ab Llewelyn ab lenan ab 
Grnfiydd ab Howel Llwyd. He married Margaret, daughter of 
Thomas ab John ab Howel. 

^ Edward Evans of Clochfaen Isaf, was the son of Evan of Cloch- 
faen Isaf, second son of lenkyn ab Maurice ab lenkyn Goch of 

* Rhys Lloyd of Clochfaen, in the Township of Llanywared. He 
mamed, A D. 1626, Margaret, daughter of lenkyn Lloyd of Berth- 

* Evan Lloyd of Bwlch y Gareg, third son of Rhys Lloyd of 

^ David ab lenkyn ab Maurice ab Rhys ab Maurice ab Llewelyn 
ab leuan ab Graffydd ab Howel Lloyd. 

' lenkyn Lloyd of Llanywared was the second son of Rhys Lloyd 
of Clochfaen, and Margaret his wife. He succeeded to the Cloch- 
faen Estate in consequence of his eldest brother, Edward Lloyd, 
having no issue. 



de Glyngynwyd/ gen., on Grand Jury list of Llanidloes 
Hundred. . Edward Lloyd was not, however, for the following 
sufficient reasons (as a recusant) selected. 

Presentments before the Orand Jury, 

'^ Item, the said Jurors upon their oaths present that Evan 
Lloyd of Bwlch y Garreg, in the pMsh of Llyngerick in the said 
county, gent.,* and Mary his wife, for not frequenting their 
p'ish Church of the said p'ish or elsewhere ; contrary to the 

" Item, Edd. Lloyd, gen., of the same parish, and Margaret 
his wife for the like. 

15 Charles II, 16 April, 1664. 
Apud Dom. mansional Bicei Beamond de Trefegloes in com 
Mont., gen., Coram Maurice Lloyd, gen., uno Coronator, etc., 
bailed David lenkyn Mores, gen., et Evan Lloyd de Glyn- 
havran in die Com. gener de morte comis Ricei ab Richard de 
Glynhavren. At the same time, " Mores Bowen daGlynhavran, 
gen.," bailed " Evanus Lloyd nup* de Glynhavran Uwchcoed in 
com pred, gen.'' 

15 Charles II, 7 Oct., 1664. 

"Edrus Evans de Llangirick, gen.,'' on the Grand Jury list 
of Llanidloes Hundred, for the Assizes held at Llanfyllin, but 
not selected.' 

^ Edward Lloyd of Glyngynwydd must have been the eldest son 
of Rhys Lloyd of Clochfaen, as we have no knowledge of any other 
person bearing that name in Llangurig parish at this time. 

* Evan Lloyd of Bwlch y Garreg must also have been one of the 
sons of Rhys Lloyd of Clochfaen, as Bwlch y Garreg XJchaf is men- 
tioned as one of the farms belonging to the Clochfaen Estate, in the 
marriage settlements of Rhys Lloyd and Margaret, daughter of 
lenkyn Lloyd of Berthlloyd in a.d. 1626. 

' Edward Evans of Clochfaen Issa. 



The descendants of JOHN BEEEETON of Esclusham, Esq. 

Earl. MS. 1971-1972. 

let wife. 
Elizabeth, only daughter of John 7 O win Brereton 7 Catherine, daughter of 


Salufibnry of Lleweni, Esq., 
Chamberlain of Denbighshire, 
and M.P. for Denbigh in 1554, 
and Catherine, hia wife, 
daughter and heiress of Tudor 
ab Sobert Fychan of Berain, 
Esq. Qvlet, a lion rampant 
argent, duoilly crowned or, 
inter three crescents of the 

of Boraeham^ Harri Goch Salusbury 

Esq., High of Llewesog in Llan- 

Sheriff for Den- rhaiadr Duffiyn Clwyd, 

bighshire 158i« Esq., and relict of John 

and 1588. Lloyd of Bodidris in 

I&l, Esq., High Sheriff 

for Denbigl^hire in 


I 2nd son. 
John Brere- 7 Margaret, 

ton of Esclu- 
sham, Esq., 
ob. Jan. 24, 
A.D. 1(122. 
Buried at 

of Hugh 
Wynn of 


in Meria- 

dog. and 

reuct of 


Veri three 
eagles dis- 
played in 

fess or. 

I Ist son. , 

Edward 7 Anne, daughter Catherine t William 
Brereton of John Lloyd Brereton. 

of Bora- 
held an 
fod in 
A.D. 1597. 
for Den- 


A.D. 1598, 

in which 

year he 


of Bodidris, in 

I&l, High 

Sheriff for 


in 1551. 

Lloyd of 


in Bo« 

Edward Lloyd of Owain Lloyd. 

PUs Madog Esq. 

Buried at Uhiw- 

fabon, Jan. 1, 

A.D. 1687. 

I 1st coheir. 
Elizabeth 7 Thomas 
Brereton, Bulkeley 

ob. of Coe- 

Feb. 26, dan in 
A.D. 1656. Angle- 
sey, Esq. 

I 2 coheir. | 3 

John Ffach-=F Jane =f Owain Lloyd, Dorothy. 

second son of 


Lloyd of PlAs 

Madog and 




nallt of 


CO. Flint, 

Argent a 
chev. inter three 
s heads couped argent. 

S. P. 


his wife. 


Thomas Lloyd, a 

Merchant, died 

at Hamburg. 

S. P. 


Edward Lloyd of =f Elizabeth Lloyd, only daughter and 
Plds Madog, ob. heiress. Buried at Shiwfabon, 
A.D. 1692. August 28th, a.d. 1676. 

Besides the Lloyds of Plas Madog there were several 
other families of the House of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon 
who had estates in the parish of Rhiwfabon, the chief 
of whom were the Hugheses of Llanerchrugog, the 
Grifl&ths of Cae Cyiiog, and the Badys of P14s yn y 
Delf, of whom a short account will now be given. 

LLANERCHRUGOG, in the parish of ehiwfabon. 

Cae Cyriog MS. 

CirNWBia ab Rhiwallon, who was slain in battle in 
A.D. 1073, married Judith, daughter of Ifor Hen, Lord 
of Rh63, by whom he had issue nine sons : (1) Niniaf, 
of whom presently ; (2) Ednyfed, ancestor of the 
Broughtons of Broughton and Marchwiail, and the 
Eilises and Powels of Alrhey ; (3) Gruffydd ; (4) Bled- 
dyn, ancestor of Hugh Jones of Bershani,' John Roberts 
of Ty Cerig, in the parish of Rhiwfabon,* Edward John 
Tudor of Bersham, now Mr. Power's house in Beraham ;' 
(5) Hoedlin of Chrlstionydd Cynwrig, ancestor of 
Gruffydd ab David of Christionydd Cynwrig, whose 
daughter and heiress, Margaret, married, first, John 

• Hagh Jones was the eon of John Jones, who was living in 
A.D. 1620, ab John ab Edward ab David sb leuan ab lenkyn ab 
Llewelyn ab Ithol Goch nb Llewelyn ab Madog ab Einion ab Madog 
ab Bleddyn ab Cynwrig' ab Rhiwallon. 

^ John Boberts of Ty Cerjg, a.d. 1G82, ab Robert ab Jenaa ab 
Thomas, of the parish of llhiwfaboa, ab leaan (or John) ab lenkyn 
ab Llewelyn ab Ithel Goch, etc. 

> Edward Tndor of Ty Bulots and of BettwB y Mhers, in Bers or 
Bersham, waa the son of John ab Tudor ab leuan (or John) ab lenkyn 
ab Llewelyn ab Ithel Goch; ho was liring in ICOO, and married 
Mary, daughter of John Gwilym. Ty Belots is now called Pl&s 
Power, from the Power family ; it now belongs to Mr. Fitshngh. 


Thomas of Caernarfon, and, secondly, . William Price, 
gent. ; (6) Bledrws ; (7)Einion, ancestor of David Bird 
of Eastwick, in the parish of Ellesmere ; (8) Llewelyn ; 
and (9) David, ancestor of Howel Lloyd of Llangurig ; 
and a daughter, Gwenllian, the wife of Rhirid Flaidd, 
Lord of Penllyn. 

Niniaf or Niniau, the eldest son of Cynwrig ab 
Rhiwallon, married, and had issue a son, 

leuaf ab Niniaf, who had Llwyn On, Sonlli, 
Eyton Uchaf Frondeg. Enidig, Esclys or Esclusham. 
Hafod y Bwch, Hafod y Wern, Llwyn y Cnotiau and 
Abenbury, and part of Rhiwalo. He married Eva, 
daughter of Einion ab Howel ab leuaf, Lord of Arwystli. 
Argent y a lion rampant sahle^ crowned or, by whom he 
had issue nine sons : ( 1 ) lorwerth, of whom presently ; 
(2) Gruffydd, ancestor of Madog yr A thro, and the 
Bershams of Bersham ; (3) Einion, who had Sonlli and 
Eyton Uchaf, ancestor of the Sontleys of Sonlli and the 
Eytons of Eyton Uchaf; (4) leuaf Fychan; (5) Awr, 
ancestor of the Jeflfries of Acton, Lloyds of P14s Madog, 
and Robert ab William of Trefynant ; (6) Llywarch ; 
(7) Howel, ancestor of lenkyn ab leuan ab David 
Lloyd ; (8) Ednowain ; and (9) Madog, ancestor of 
Richard Tegin, Sergeant at Arms,^ Owain Badi of Delf, 
near Llanerchrugog, and Jones of Frondeg.* 

^ Bichard Tegin, Sergeant-at-Arms, was the son of Robert Tegin 
of Frondeg, son of David ab Tegin ab Madog ab lorwerth Goch, ab 
Madog Ooch ab leaaf ab Niniaf ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. 

' Edward Jones of Frondeg was the eldest son (by GwenHian, 
his wife, daughter of David ab Llewelyn ab Ednyfed Llwyd of Pl&s 
Madog) of John ab leuaf ab lolyn of Frondeg ab David ab Dcicws 
ab leuaf ab lolyn Foel ab Madog Goch ab Madog ab leuaf ab 
Niniaf, etc., by whom he had a son, Edward Jones of Frondeg, who 
married Janet, second daughter of Roger Deccaf ab David Deccaf 
of Rhwytyn, in the parish of Bangor Is y Good, descended from 
Elidir, Lord of Eyton, by whom he had an only daughter and 
heiress, Janet, who married John Edwards of Statisti, Esq., descended 
from Edwyn ab Goronwy. Of this family were also John Roberts 
of Esclusham, a.d. 1600, and his brother, Richard Roberts of Din- 
hinlle Uchaf in Chrisfcionydd, who were the sons of Robert ab 
Richard ab David ab Richard ab lolyn ab leuan Foel ab Madog 
Goch ab Madog ab leuaf ab Niniaf. Uarl. MSS. 1972, 2299. 


lorwerth ab leuaf, the eldest son, had Llwyn On, 
and much land in Wrexham, Gresford, March wiail, 
Holt, Erbistog, and Bangor Is y Coed. He married 
Margaret, daughter of Cynwrig Fychan ab Cynwrig ab 
Hoedliw of Christionydd Cynwrig, ermine a lion 
rampant sable, by whom he had issue three sons : 

(1) (xruflEydd of Llwyn On, had much lands in March- 
wiail, Bangor and Erbistog; he married Mar^iret, 
daughter of Rhys Fychan ab lorwerth ab Rhys Grug, 
son of the Lord Rhys, Prince of South Wales, by whom 
he had a son and heir, lorwerth of Llwyn On, the 
ancestor of the Jones Parrys of Madryn and Llwn On ; 

(2) lorwerth Fychan, of whom presently ; and (3) Hwfa 
ab lorwerth of Hafod y Wem,^ and a daughter, 
Gwenllian, wife of Owain Wan, Lord of Caerlleon, 

lorwerth Fychan, the second son of lorwerth ab 
leuaf of Llwyn On, had lands in Erddig, Esclusham, 
Hafod y Bwch and Cadwgan. He married, and had 
issue, a son and heir, 

GruflFydd, who had his father's lands. He married 
Lucy, daughter of leuaf ab Llewelyn ab Cynwrig Efell, 
Lord, of Eglwysegl — gules, on a bend argent, a lion 
passant sahle — ^by whom he had issue four sons : 
Madog Ddu ; (2) David Goch, of whom presently ; 
Howe! of Croes Foel, who married Dwgws, daughter 
of Madog Lloyd of Iscoed, eldest son of Gruffydd ab 
lorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk, by whom he had a son, 
Gruffydd of Croes Foel, who was the ancestor of the 
Joneses of Croes Foel and the Joneses of Pl&s Cadwgan ; 
and (4) Llewelyn, who was the ancestor of the Erddigs 
of Erddig, and the Traffords of Treffordd in Esclusham. 

David Goch, the second son of Gruffydd ab lorwerth 
Fychan, had Hafod y Bwch ; he was the father of 
Madog, alias Y Badi of Hafod y Bwch, who had two 
sons: (1) David; and (2) lorwerth, who married 

^ nw& ab lorwerth of Hafod y Wem, bore $ahle, three lions 
passant in pale argent. His family is now represented through heirs 
female, by Philip Davies Cooke of Hafod y Wern and Owston, 


Annesta, daughter of leuaf ab Hwfa ab Madog yr 
Athro of Plas Madog. 

David, the eldest son of Madog ab David Goch, had 
Hafod y Bwch ; he married, and had issue two sons : 

(1) Gruffydd of Hafod y Bwch; and (2) Dio of 

1. Gruffydd of Hafod y Bwch, married Margaret, 
daughter and coheir of leuan Fychan ab leuan ab 
Howel y Gader of Cader Benllyn, son of GruflFjrdd ab 
Madog ab Bhirid Flaidd, Lord of Penllyn — vert^ a chev. 
inter three wolfs heads erased argent, langued gules 
— by whom he had issue a son and heir, Robert of 
Hafod y Bwch, who married Margaret, daughter and 
heiress (by Janet his wife, daughter of Richard Young 
ab Maurice ab Jenkyn Young of Biyniorcyn in Yr Hdb) 
of Howel ab leuan, third son of Robert ab Gruffydd ab 
Howel ab Gruffydd ab Howel of Croes Foel, by whom 
he had a son, John Wynn Roberts of Hafod y Bwch, 
Sergeant at Arms, ancestor of the Robertses of Hafod 
y BwcL 

2. Dio of Llanerchrugog, the second son of David ab 
Madog ab David Goch, married Angharad, daughter of 
Meredydd ab Llewelyn DdA ab Gruflfydd ab lorwerth 
Foel ab lorwerth Fychan, second son of lorwerth ab 
leuaf of Llwyn On, by whom he had issue a son, 

Deicws ab Dio of Llanerchrugog, who married Lucy, 
daughter of Tegin ab Madog at) lorwerth Goch* of 
Frondeg ab Ednyfed Foel ab leuaf Fychan ab leuaf ab 
Niniaf, by whom he had issue three sons : (1) leuan ; 

(2) Madog ; and (3) David of Cae Cyriog, in the parish 
of Rhiwabon. 

leuan of Llanerchrugog, the eldest son, married 
Gwenhwyfar, daughter of leuan ab Llewelyn ab Gruf- 
fydd, second son (by Lucy his wife, daughter and co- 
heiress of leuan* ab Philip ab Meredydd ab Gruffydd 

1 The Earl M88. 1972 and 2299 state that lorwerth Ooch was 
the son of Madog ab lenaf ab Niniaf. 

' lenan ab Philip married Myfanwj, daughter and coheiress of 
David Fjchan of Manafon ab David ab lorwerth ab Einion ab Cyn- 
feljn. Her mother was Margaret, d. of David ab Elissau ab lor- 
werth ab Owain Brogyntyn. 


ab Madog Danwr of Llangurig) of Ednyfed ab Gruflfydd 
ab lorwerth ab Einion Goch ab Einion, Lord of Sonlli 
and Eyton Uchaf, son of leuaf ab Niniaf ab Cjmwrig 
ab Rhiwallon, by whom he had issue a son and heir, 

John ab leuan of Llanerchrugog, who married 
Catherine, daughter of Howel ab Gruffydd ab leuan 
Ddu of Bersham, ab Howel ab Hwfa ab lorwerth ab 
Grufiydd of Bersham, second son of leuaf ab Niniaf ab 
Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon — gules^ two lions passant in pale 
or^ for lorwerth ab Gruffydd of Bersham — ^by whom he 
had issue a son and heir, Hugh, and four daughters : 

(1) Elizabeth, wife of William Lloyd of Plds Uwch y 
Clawdd,^ in the parish of Bhiwfabon, descended from 
Rhys Gr6g, Lord of Llandovery, who bore argent^ a 
lion rampant sahle, armed langued and crowned gules ; 

(2) Angharad, wife of Randle ab John ab David ab 
Llewelyn of Plas Madog ; (3) Mat*sli, wife of John ab 
John ab Robert ab Gruffydd ab Howel of Croes Foel, 
by whom she had a son, Hugh Jones of Croes Foel, 
father of Richard Jones of Croes Foel, in the parish of 
Wrexham ; and (4) Alice, wife of Edward ab Howel of 
Trefechan in Christionydd, second son of Edward ab 
Madog Puleston of Christionydd ; argent, on a bend 
sable, three mullets of the field for Madog Puleston. 

Hugh of Llanerchrugog, the son and heir of John ab 
leuan, married Catherine, daughter of John Eyton of 
Watstay, Esq., ab John ab Elis Eyton, by whom he 

^ William Lloyd of P148 Uwch j Clawdd was the twin brother of 
John Lloyd of Pl&s y Badda in Mortyn Is y Clawdd, and son of 
David Lloyd of Pl&s Uwch y Clawdd and Plas y Badda, ab Deicws 
ab Madog ab Ithel ab Ednyfed ab Gh*affydd ab David ab Rhys 
Fychan ab Rhys Gmg, Lord of Ystrad Tywi, who bore argent, a 
lion rampant sable, armed langued and crowned gtdes. John Lloyd 
of Plas y Badda was father of John Wynn Lloyd, the father of 
Robert Lloyd, who was living in a.d. 1600, and sold Fika y Badda 
to Sir Thomas Middleton H^n of Chirk Castle, who built a new house 
there, now called Plas Newydd or New Hall. William Lloyd of 
PlSis Uwch y Clawdd, was father of John Lloyd, the father of 
Thomas Lloyd, whose four daughters, eventual heirs of their brother 
John Lloyd, sold Pl&s Uwch y Clawdd to Sir Thomas Middleton 
H6n of Chirk Castle. 


had issue (1) John, of whom presently ; (2) Roger ab 
Hugh, who married Myfanwy, daughter of John, second 
son of Edward ab Meredydd of Christionydd and of 
Frondeg, in the parish of Wrexham, son of Gruffydd ab 
Adda ab Howel of Trefor, by whom he had issue, 
David, Charles, Alice, Elen, and Catherine ; (3) Owain^ 
ab Hugh, who married Elizabeth, daughter of John 
Bersham of Bersham ab William ab Howel ab Gruffydd 
ab leuan Ddu of Bersham — gules, two lions passant in 
pale argent ; and (4) Richard ab Hugh, who married, 
first, Elizabeth, daughter of John ab Edward, by whom 
he had issue John and Gwen ; he married, secondly, 
Alice, daughter of Rondle ab David, by whom he had 
issue three sons, Edward, Thomas, and George, who 
were all living in a.d. 1607, and six daughters, of 
whom Margaret, the eldest, married Lancelot Lloyd of 
Gorsedd Goch, Hugh ab John ab leuan of Llanerch- 
rugog, had likewise two daughters, Catherine, wife of 

Edward Erddig ab John Erddig of Erddig, and , 

wife of Hugh Wynn of Bryn Owen, son of John ab 
William of Bryn Owen, third son of David Eyton of 
Eyton Uchaf, ab Llewelyn ab Ednyfed ab Gruffydd, 
Lord of Sonlli and Eyton Uchaf or Trefwy. 

John ab Hugh of Llanerchrugog, the eldest son, 
married Gwenhwyfar or Gwenllian, daughter of John 
Erddig of Erddig, ab David Goch ab Howel ab leuan 
ab Llewelyn ab Gruffydd ab lorwerth Fychan ab lor- 
werth ab leuaf ab Niniaf, by whom he had issue one 
son, Richard Hughes, and four daughters : (1) Cathe- 
rine, wife of Randle Davies ; (2) Elen, wife of Walter 
Panton, Vicar of *Tirveccan in Ireland ; (3) Mary, who 
married, first, John ab Edward, and, secondly, Gruflfydd 
ab Edward ; and (4) Jane, wife of Richard Lloyd, third 
son of William Lloyd of P14s Madog. 

Richard Hughes of Llanerchrugog, the eldest son, 

' Owain had a daughter and heiress, Marslli, who married John 
Sonlli ab John Sonlli of Frondeg, fourth son of Robert Wynn 
Sonlli of Sonlli ab Morgan Sonlli of Sonlli, Esq., by whom she had 
one son, Robert Sonlli. 

H H 


married Jane, daughter (by Jane, his third wife, 
daughter of Meredydd ab Goronwy ab Gruffydd of 
Dyftryn Aled) of David ab Matthew Wynn ab David of 
Trefor, ancestor of the Trefors of Trefor Hall, by whom 
he had two daughters, Elizabeth, and Margaret, who 
married Lancelot Hughes of Gorsedd 'Goch in Maelor, 
and a son and heir, 

Edward Hughes of Llanerchrugog, who married his 
cousin Jane, daughter of Richard Hughes of Cadwgan 
Fechan, by whom he had issue two sons, Roger 
Hughes, who died s. p,, and Richard Hughes, who 
went to Virginia, and, on his return, married Maig, 
daughter of Lancelot Lloyd of Gorsedd Goch,^ and 
relict of John Rathbone of Chester, by whom he had 
no issue, and one daughter, Pamel Hughes, the heiress 
of her brothers Roger and Richard Hughes. She mar- 
ried John Payne of Morton in Flintshire, Attomey-at- 
Law, and, dying in a.d. 1696, left an only son and 
heir, John Payne of Llanerchrugog, who married a lady 
in London, but whether they had any issue is imknown. 

The Llanerchrugog estate now belongs to a family of 
the name of Jones, but by what title is unknown. 


John of Cae Cyriog, son and heir of David of Cae 
Cyriog, who was living in a.d. 1560, son of leuan of 
Cae Cyriog, who was living in a.d. 1500, son of Lle- 
welyn of Cae Cyriog, who was living in A.D. 1480, the 
son of David of Cae Cyriog, the third son of Deicws ab 

* Lancelot Lloyd of Gorsedd Goch in Maelor, living in a.d. 1604, 
was the son (by Margaret his wife, daughter of Lancelot Bostock 
ab Robert Bostock of Churton in Cheshire) of Thomas Lloyd of 
Gorsedd Goch, ab Lancelot Lloyd ab William Lloyd ab Graffydd ab 
lolyn Lloyd ab David ab lenaf Lloyd ab Howel Fychan ab Howel 
Wyddel ab lorwerth ab Einion ab Ithel ab Eanydd ab Gwernwy, 
Lord of Trefalan and Gresford. Azure^ a lion salient or. 


Dio of Llanerchrugog, married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
and coheiress of Robert ab John ab Robert of Synder, 
by whom he had issue three sons, the youngest of 
whom was Gruffydd, of whom presently. John ab 
David married, secondly, Jane, daughter of GeoflBrey 
Bromfield^ of Bryn y Wiwer, in the parish of Rhiwfa- 
bon, Esq., and relict of John Lloyd ab Randle ab John 
of P14s Madog, by whom he had issue two sons, 
William, who died in London s. p., and Gruffydd, and 
a daughter. Ermine, who married Edward Fowler of 
Bryn-y-fallen. John ab David of Cae Cyriog died, and 
was buried at Rhiwfabon, Feb. 20, 1619, and was suc- 
ceeded by his third and only surviving son, 

Gruffydd of Cae Cyriog. He married, first, Jane, 
Brochtyn (Broughton), daughter of John Brochtyn ab 
David Brochtyn of Rhiwfabon, ab John Brochtyn, alias 
John ab John ab Tudor. This Jane was sister of 
Edward Broughton or Brochtyn, whose son William 
sold his ancient patrimony, and died without issue in 
Ireland. By this lady, Gruffydd had issue three sons : 
John GriflBth, of whom presently ; Roger and Edward ; 
and two daughters, Mamaret and Mary, at whose birth 
the mother died. Gruffydd married, secondly, Gwen, 
daughter of David ab David of Llan y Cafn, in the 
parish of Overton Madog, by whom he had David 
Gruffydd and Catherine ; and, thirdly, he married the 
widow of Gruflfydd Goch of Cefn. 

John Griffith of Cae Cyriog, son and heir of Gruffydd 
ab John ab David, married, first, Elizabeth, daughter 
(by Joice, his vrife, daughter of John Eyton of Bodyll- 
tyn, ab Edward ab Roger Eyton of Bodylltyn) of 
William Eyton, second son of Cynwrig Eyton of Eyton, 

^ Geoffrey Bromfield, who was descended from Idnerth Benfras, 
Lord of Maesbrwg, was one of the valets of the King's Bedchamber, 
and was appointed Ranger for life of the Little Park near the Camp, 
in the Lordship of Chirk, 30 Heniy VIII (a.d. 1539), Patent Rolls, 
part 7, m. 2 (30). He married ifargaret, daughter of Thomas ab 
lenan ab lenkjn of Rhiwfabon ab Llewelyn ab Ithel Goch ab Lle- 
welyn Sais ab Madog ab Einion ab Madog ab Bleddyn, foarth son 
of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. 


Esq., and Elizabeth, his wife, daughter of Sir Richard 
Brooke of Morton in Cheshire, knight. John GriflSth 
married, secondly, Alice, daughter of Thomas ab David 
of Rhiwfabon; she died a.d. 1675; and, thirdly, he 
married Jane, relict of Robert Wynn, jun., of Trefechan 
in Christionydd, and daughter of Owain Lloyd of Pl^ 
y Drain, ^ in the Township of Mortyn Uwch y Clawdd, 
in the parish of Rhiwfabon, son of David Lloyd of 
Pentre Clawdd, the son of John ab Robert ab David ab 
John, descended from Ithel Felyn, Lord of 141. This 
David Lloyd sold Pentre Clawdd to Cynwrig Edisbury 
of Stryt yr Hwch. The above John GriflSth died 
May 26, a.d. 1688, leaving issue by his first wife Eliza- 
beth, three sons, John, Roger, and Peter. 

John Grifl&th of Cae Cyriog, the eldest son and heir of 
John ab GruflFydd ab John, was the author of a folio 
volume of Heraldry and Genealogy, from which this 
account is taken. He had a large and excellent library, 
which contained, among other valuable works, the 
Black Book of Basingwerk Abbey, by Guttyn Owain, 
which is still in the possession of his great great grand- 
son, the present Thomas Taylor Grifl&th, Esq., of Wrex- 
ham and Pennant y Belan. He married Catherine, 
daughter (by Margaret, his wife, daughter of . . . Venables 
of Ysgeifiog) of Hugh Piers^ of Penbedw, son of Piers 

^ Owain Lloyd of PlSis y Drain, now called Llwyn Owain, married 
Barbara, daaghter of Henry Williams ab William Williams ab 
William ab William of Cwchwillan, co. Caernarfon, Esq. This Henry 
Williams sold Cwchwillan to the Earl of Pembroke. He married 
Jane, daughter and heiress of Thomas Salnsbnry, third son of Sir 
John Salnsbnry of Llyweni, and his mother was Barbara, daughter 
of George Lumley, and sister and heir of John, Lord Lumley, and 
relict of Humphrey Lloyd. Earl, M8S. 1969, 4181. Wynnstay 
MS. Owain Lloyd was buried at Rhiwfabon, July 19, a.d. 1671. 
His mother was Catherine, daughter of Howel ab Edward ab Badi 
Lloyd ab lor worth ab leuaf ab Einion Gethin of Christionydd ab 
Einion ab leuan ab Gruffydd ab Cynwrig Efell, Lord of Eglwyseg. 

* The mother of Hugh Piers of Penbedw was Catherine, sister of 
William Dolben, Esq., High Sheriff for Denbighshire in a.d. 1632, 
and daughter of Robert Wyhn Dolben of Denbigh, Esq., and Jane, 
his wife, daughter of Owain ab Reigpiallt of Llynllugwy, Esq. For 
an account of the family of Hugh Piers, v, Lewys Dwnn^ vol* ii, art. 
Diserth in Tegeingl. 


ab Hugh ab Piers ab William of Diserth in Flintshire, 
Esq., by whom he had issue one son, John Griffith, and 
one daughter, Margaret. He died Oct. 31, A.D.' 1698, 
aged 44, and was succeeded by his only son, 

John Griffith of Cae Cyriog, who was bom in 
February 1678, and married, Jan. 13, a.d. 1701, 
Rebecca, daughter and coheiress of Thomas Hughes of 
Pennant y Belan, Esq., by which marriage he became 
possessed of Pennant y Belan, which he made his 
residence. By Rebecca his wife, who died in a.d. 1724, 
he had issue two sons, John and Thomas, and, dying in 
September 1 763, was succeeded by his eldest son, 

John Griffith of Pennant y Belan and Cae Cyriog. 
He was born in a.d. 1 702, and subsequently went to 
Jesus College, Oxford, and became Vicar of Nannerch. 
He married Miss Jones of Park Side, and, dying with- 
out issue, was succeeded by his brother, 

Thomas Griffiths of Pennant y Belan and Cae Cyriog, 
who was born March 25, a.d. 1711. He married Mary, 
relict of Mr. Williams of EUesmere, and, dying in April, 
A.D. 1808, aged 97, was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Thomas Griffith of Wrexham, Pennant y Belan, and 
Cae Cyriog, baptised August 28, 1753, married Mary, 
daughter and coheiress of William Tandy of South 
Littleton House, near Evesham, Esq., the eldest son of 
John Tandy, Esq., and Elizabeth his wife, eldest 
daughter and coheiress of Francis Taylor of South Lit- 
tleton, son and heir of the Rev. William Taylor, or, as 
it is written in the Register, Taylour, who married 
Judith Chaslett, daughter of John Chaslett of Crop- 
thome, CO. Worcester, D.D., Prebendary of Worcester 
Cathedral in 1607. Thomas Griffith died in Septem- 
ber, A.D. 1847, aged 93, and was succeeded by his 
second son, who survived him, the present 

Thomaa Taylor Griffith, Esq., F.RC.S., of Wrexham, 
Pennant y Belan, Cae Cyriog, and South Littleton. 
He married Mary, eldest daugnter of Captain Robert- 
son of Keavel in Fifeshire, descended from Robertson 
of Stuean, by whom he had issue : (1 ) Thomas Llywelyn 


Griffith, Rector of Deal, born Feb. 1828, married 
Mary Moncrief, daughter of Captain Whitmore, R.E., 
eldest son of General Sir George Whitmore, RE., by 
whom he has issue Thomas Llywelyn G. Griffiths ; 
(2) James Drummond Griffith, bom July 22, 1829, of 
BaJiol College, Oxford, Barrister-at-Law ; and one 
daughter, Elizabeth, born July 24th, 1832, who died 
September, a.d. 1839. 


Harl MSS. 1972, 2292. CoAi Cyriog MS. 

John ab David ab leuan ab Bady ab leaan Foel ab Mado^f Goch ab? 
Madog, eighth son of lenaf ab Ninaf ab Cynwrig ab Bhiwallon. j 

Bobert Bady 7 Margaret, daughter of Roger Deccaf ab David Deccaf of 

of Stansti. Bhwytyn in Bangor Ih y Cc^, Esq. Ermine a lion rampant 


Boger Bady of Stansti =F Jane, daughter of Edward Brereton of Borasham, 
and Plis yn y Delf in I Esq., High Sheriff for Denbighshire in a.p. 1598. 
B hiwfabon, 16i)0. | Argent, two bars table, 

Owain Bady of Bhiwfabon, a.d. 1680. 7 Jane, daughter of Edward Lloyd of 

He sold PlAs yn y Delf to Sir 
Thomas Middletyn Hen of Chirk 
Castle, knight. 

PlAs Madog, Esq., and Anne, his 
wife, daughter of John Eyton of 
Leeswood, Esq. 

Bobert Bady of 7 , daughter of John Edwards of Pl&s Newydd in Chirk, 

Esq., and Catherine, his wife, daughter of Bondle Brough- 
ton of Broughton, Esq. 

Chirk, 1697. 

Timothy Bady. Edward Bady. John Bady. 




Cae Cyriog MS. Earl. MS. 2299. 

GBTirFTDD, second son of Adda^ 
ab Hovrel ab leuat* ab Adda 
ab Awr of Trefor. 

Angharad Fechan, daughter of Llewelyn 
ab Owain ab Gniffydd ab Owain ab Bled- 
dyn ab Owain Brogyntyn, Lord of Dinmael 
and Edeymion. 

I 3rd son. 
Bobert of Pentre^ Jane, daughter 

Cuhelyn. He, to- 

g ether with his 
rother Edward, 
went and settled 
in Llanfair Dyff- 
lyn Clwyd. 

of David ab 

Meredydd ab 



descended from 

Edwyn ab 


Prince of 


Meredydd, ancestor of 

the Joneses of Fron- 

deg in Christionydd. 

' loLV 

ancestor of 

Y Badi of 


Edward, ancestor of the Lloyds of Trefor, 
the Joneses of Garthgynan in Llanfair 
DyflEryn Clwyd, which last family bore, 
gules, a cross of Calvary mounted on 
three steps or, and the Matthews of 
Goedladd in Bhiwfabon parish. 

Gr nffydd of Pentre Cuhelyn = f 

lenan Lloyd of=F Simon 7 
Pe ntre Cnhelyn. j Lloyd. | 

Hugh Lloyd of? leuan 
Pe ntre Cnhelyn. | Lloyd. 

Lowry, heiress of Pentre 
Cnhelyn, married John 
Matthews, who in her right 
became possessed of Pentre 
Cuhelyn, and was living in 
A.D. 1067, by whom she had 
a son, John Matthews of 
Pentre Cuhelyn. 

Catherine, daughter of William 
ab Grnffydd ab lenkyn ab f 
Bhys ab Tudor. rpjj, 





David Lloyd of Llanbedr, 7 
buried July 7, a.p. 1620. j 

Thomas Lloyd of T Berth in Llanbedr, ^ 
b uried Feb. 2, 1648. 

John Lloyd of Berth ^p 

Edward Lloyd of Berth, 7 
Uving in ▲.D. 1682.^ 

^ He was ancestor of the late Judge Lloyd of Berth, who bought the 
Bhagad Estate in Edeymion, the father of the late Edward Lloyd of Bhagad, 
Esq., of whose family an account has been given in a previous chapter. 
Howel William Lloyd, Esq., the youngest son of Edward Lloyd of Bhagpeul, 
Esq., is the accomplished translator of the Welsh Poems illustrative of the 
History of Llangurig, which had been most kindly sent him by Nicholas 
Bennett of Glanyrafon, near Llanidloes, Esq. 




Harl MSS. 4181. 

2nd wife. 
lOBWiBTH Fychan ab lorwerth^A^nes, daug^hter of Hwfa ab lorwerth ab 

ab Awr ab leuaf ab Niniaf. 
lorwerth Fychan was living 
8rd of Edward III. Cae Cyriog 
M8. Wynnstay M 88. 

leuaf =F Lucy, danghter of Howel ab 
Ednyfed ab lorwerth ab 
Einion Goch of Kyton Uchaf 
and Sonlli. Ermine a lion 
rampant scU>le. 

Gruffydd ab leuaf ab Niniaf. GuUm, two 
lions passant in pale argent, for lorwerth 
ab Gruffydd. 


Howell N'esta, danghter of Madog 
Dda ab leuan Goch ab 
lorwerth ab Einion. 

Gwenllian, ux. Llewelyn ab Adda 
ab Howel of Trefor. 

Howel 7 AngharadfUz. Einion Lucy, uz. 






ab leuaf Goch ab leuan ab 
Llewelyn ab leuaf ab Gruffydd 
Llewelyn ab Cynwrig of Blaen 
Efell,Lordof£glwy. Ul. 

segl. GuUt, on a 
bend argent, a lion 
paasant eahle. 





uz. Deicws 



ab lor- 



werth of 

ab leuaf 











Llewelyn of Coed y Llai? 




leuaf of T , daughter of John ab leuan of Pengwem in Ffestiniog, son 

Coed y of Einion ab Gruffydd ab Llewelyn ab Cynwrig ab Osbern Fits- 
Llai. gerald of CorsygedoL Ermine, a saltire gules, a crescent or for 
difference. leuan ab Einion was one of the Jurors on an Inquisi- 
tion held at Bala, Oct. 6, 1427. His eldest son, David, was the 
gallant defender of Harlech Castle. 


Isabel, heiress 7 David ab Edward ab Edward of Esdusham, ab David 

of Coedy Llai. 

ab Madog ab Llewelyn ab Gruffydd ab lorwerth Fychan 
ab lorwerth ab leuaf ab Niniaf ab Cynwrig ab Bhiwallon. 
This David was brother of Robert ab Edward of Tref- 
fordd in Esdusham, ancestor of the Traffords of Treffordd or 


Arms of Edward Lloyd of P14s Madog, Esq., 1667, 
according to John Salusbury of Erbistog, Esq., and the 
Cae Cyriog MS. 

1 • Ermine, a lion rampant, sable, armed and langaed, gules. 

2. VeH, semy of broomslips, a lion rampant, or. 

3. Or, a lion rampant, azure. 

4. Vert, three eagles displayed in fess, or. 

5. Party ber bend sinister, ermine, and, ermine, a lion 

rampant, or} 

6. Azure, a lion rampant party per fess, or, and, argent, in a 

border of the third charged with eight annulets, sable. 

7. Argent, a chev., gules, inter three boards heads couped, 


8. Ermine, a lion rampant, azure. 

9. Or, a lion rampant, gules. 

Crest. — A demi lion rampant, sable, in a dacal coronet, or. 

Arms of Owain Brereton of Borasham, Esq., as they 
appeared in the Hall at P14s Madog, a.d. 1689. 

1. Argent, two bars, sabh, for Brereton. 

2. Argent, a chev. inter three crescents, gules. Ipstans of 


3. Or, two ravens ppr., Corbet of Wattlesborough. 

4. Argent, a chev., sable, on a chief of the second three 

martlets of the field. De Weild of Borasham. 

5. Ermine, a lion rampant in a bordure, azure, for David 

Lloyd of Crewe.' 

6. Argent, a chev. inter three boar's heads couped, sable.^ 


1 This coat is for Madog yr Athro. 

' This coat is for Eva, daagbter and coheiress of Blettrws ab 
Ednowain Bendrew, v, page 24, for the pedigree of Madog yr 
Athro, and also page 265. 

' David Lloyd of Crewe was the son of David Lloyd ab Thomas 
ab Rhys ab Uwfa QrHig ab Hwfa ab Sanddef ab Elidir ab Rhys 
Sais. Lncy, the daughter and heiress of David Lloyd of Crewe, 
married Jenkyn de Weild. 

* This coat is for Margaret Wen, wife of John Brereton of 
Borasham, and daughter and heiress (by Jane, his wife, daughter 
and heiress of William Olegg of Gay ton, in Cheshire, Esq.) of 
Richard ab leuan of Llaneurgain ab David ab Ithel Fychan of 
Llaneurgain ab Cynwrig ab Rotpert ab lorwerth ab Rhirid ab lor- 
werth ab Madog ab Ednowain Bendew of Llys Coed y Mynydd, in 
the parish of Bodfari, in Tegeingl, and Chief of one of the Noble 
Tribes of Gwynedd. 

I I 


7. Vert, three eagles displayed in fess, or} 

8. Vert, a stag tripp. regard., argent, attired, or, for Cynwrig 

Fychan of Wepra.* 

9. Party per pale, or and gules, two lions rampant addorsed 

counterchanged, between them a hymmock or phi, 
'argent, for Ithel Anwyl of Northope.* 

10. Argent, a cross flory engrailed, sable, inter four Cornish 

choughs ppr. 

11. Sable, two lions connterpassant, argent, collared, gules, 

Glegg of Gayton. 

12. Ermine, a lion rampant in a bordnre, azure, Madog Foel 

of Marchwiail,^ in the Lordship of Rhiwfabon.^ 

* For Angharad, wife of Ithel Fychan of Llanenrgain or Northope, 
and daughter and heiress of Robert ab David of Holt, Esq., son of 
Howel ab David ab Gmffydd of Ystymcedig. 

* For Angharad, wife of David ab Ithel Fychan of Northope Hall, 
and daughter and sole heiress of Cynwrig Fychan of Wepra, ab 
Cynwrig ab Madog ab lorwerth ab David ab Cadwgan Llwyd of 
Wepra, ab Gwgan ab Cynan ab Ithel Llwyd ab Cadwgan ab 
Lly warch Fychan ab Llywarch Goch ab Llywarch Holbwrch, Lord 
of Rhos and Rhufoniog, who bore vert, a stag trippant, argent, attired 
and nngaled or. 

* For Gwladys, wife of Cynwrig Fychan of Wepra, and daughter 
and beiress of Ithel ab Cynwrig of Monachlog Rhedyn in Llanenr- 
gain, ab Bleddyn ab Ithel Anwyl of Ewlo Castle, and one of the 
Captains of Tegeingl, son of Bleddyn, a yonnger son of Ithel Llwyd 
ab Ithel Gam, Lord of Mostyn, son of Meredydd ab Uchdryd ab 
Edwyn, Prince of Tegeingl. 

^ For Margaret, wife of William Glegg, Esq., and daughter and 
heiress of William ab Madog ab Llewelyn ab Madog Foel of March- 
wiail, son of lorwerth ab Bwfa Fychan ab Hwfa Grug ab Hwfa ab 
Sanddef ab Elidir, Lord of Eyton. 

^ The Lordship of Rhiwfabon is divided into three manors, viz., 
Rhiwfaboii, Tref y Rug, and Marchwiail. The parish church of 
Rhiwfabon, which was at first a chapel of ease to the mother church 
of Llangollen, and dedicated to St. CoUen, and the festival kept on 
May 2 1 , is in the manor of Rhiwfabon. '* Kappel Kolhen a gal- 
want gae lie mae Kroes ymhwy Rhiwabon : Ei gwyl raabsant a gad- 
want dhydh gwyl Golhen dair wythnos o bar". — K. Lhuyd. History 
of the Diocese of St, Asaph, by the Rev. D. R. Thomas, M.A. The 
church is now dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary ; and the fes- 
tival is kept on August 15, the feast of her Assumption. The 
change of the dedication may probably have been made in a.d. 1238, 
when Hugh, Bishop of St. Asaph, made *' Concessio totius Ecclesie 

de Llangollen domui de Yalle Crucis, — reservata institutione 

« *• fi 
VI cam. 


Folkestone, Nov. 4>, 1873. 
Mt deab HaxiBj 

I have written the Appendix to your History of 
Llangurig, as it gives some facts that were obtained after the 
histoiy was published^ and also that I might be able to correct 
some erroneous statements that I sent jou, relative to the 
Glochfaen pedigree. The first was relative to the pedigree of 
Mallt^ the wife of lenkyn Lloyd of Clochfaenj) and daughter of 
Morgan ab David of Llanbrynmair. The pedigree that I sent 
you of this lady, and which you have published, was taken from 
the pedigree of Jones of Esgair Evan, in Sir Bernard Burke^s 
County Families, I now give another pedigree of Morgan 
David, taken from the Harl MSS. 1969 and 2299, which you 
will find at page 4, and which differs very much from the one 
previously sent. The second mistake I made was relative to 
the arms that I have assigned to the family of Pritchard of 
Ceniarth. I was led into this mistake by finding in Lewys 
Dwnn, vol. i, the pedigree of a family descended from Meredydd 
ab Cynan, who bore quarterly, gules, and, argent, four lions 
passant counterchanged, headed Ceniarth, whereas it ought to 
have been Henia/rth, and I did not discover the mistake till too 
late to correct it. A third wrong statement I made was, that 
the arms of Thomas Hughes of Pennant y Belan in the parish 
of Rhiwfabon were, or, a mffon segreant, gules, which are the 
arms of Bobin ab Gruffydd Ooch, Lord of Bh6s and Rhufoniog. 
My reason for making that statement was that Mr. Hughes 
signed all the Deeds and Documents that I have seen of his, 
and sealed them with a seal bearing or, a griffin segreant, gules, 
which led me to suppose that he was of the family of the 
Hugheses of Cefn y Oarlleg, who descended from Grruffydd 
Goch ; and it was not until Mr. Thomas Taylor Griffith of Pen- 
nant y Belan most kindly lent me his valuable Book of Pedigrees 
that I discovered who he really was and to what house he 
belonged. I have to make you a thousand apologies for 
causing you to publish these mistakes, but you will now per- 
ceive how it was that I gave you wrong information. The late 
Mr. Jones, Curate of Barmouth, who was a son of Mr. Jones 
of Esgair Evan, shewed me the Esgair Evan pedigree in manu- 
script, previous to its being sent to Sir Bernard Burke ; and, 
to the best of my recollection, he told me that it had been 
drawn up by the late Rev. Walter Davies of Mechain, and 
probably from some MSS. in his possession, together with 
what information the family could give him. Hoping that the 
Appendix may contain no erroneous statements, 

I remain, my dear Hamer, yours very sincerely, 

J. Y. Wm, Lloyd, K.S.G. 
To Edward Hamer, Esq. 

LLOYD OF THE BRYN, in the pabish of hanmee.' 

loBWiBTH Foil, Lord:f Oirladya,' dun. and coheiresB of lorworth kb Qrof- 
of Cbirli, Nanheadwy, j fydd ab HciliD of Fron Goch in MoeliBBnt, »b 
and Moelor Saenieg, Meurig&b leuuiab Adda nb Cynwrig abPBseea, 
called by Reynolds Lord of Cenidfa and Deuddwr. 1. Sable, t£rae 
"Barode Holcbdyu." I horaeB* heads eraaod, argent. 2. Argent, n chev- 
ron labU, inter threo Cornish choughs, each with 
a ipot of ntnint in their bills, ppr. 


OniSyddof Haelor^Owerfjl, dan, and coheireaa of Madofr ap Meredydd ab 

Saeeneg. I Llewelyn Pychan ab Llewelyn ab Owain Fychan ab 

Owain, Jjjrd of Mecliain Is y Coed, aecond son of 

Mado^ ab Meredydd, Prince of Powjh Fadw. At. 

j gent, a lion rampant «ail<, in a border indented !rut«j. 

j Gwerfyl was heiress of Aber Tanad and Treflodwel. 

I Her elegy was compoaadby Outlo'rGlyn. 

Madog Lloyd of 7 Catherine, dau. of Owain Barton of Cheshire, first wife, 
la y Coed.' | 

la J Coed. I 


Oocb ab T Owion ab Hwfa ab Itbel Felyn, Lord of lal 
and Yatrad Alun. 8dbU, an a chev, inter three goats 
heads erased or, tbtee trefoils of the field. 

■ The parish of Hanmer contains six townshifiB, Hanmer, Bettisfield, 
BroninKton, Ty Broit^hton, Willington, and Halchdyn. 

' QwTadys was buned in Hanmer church, where her tomb yet remaina 
with this inscription :—Ric jacbt wladtb tzob ixbwebth totl. okiti, 
p. BA.," round the verge of the coffin lid. Within the inscription is a very 
fine floriated cross, almost identical with that described by Camden, i, 1^ 
as being at St. Buriens in Cornwall {Eev, M. H. Lee, vicar of Hanmer). 

* la y Coed is a manor partly in Maelot Gymraeg and partly in Uaelor 
Saesneg in the paiish of Halpaa. 



lenkyn Lloyd of 7 , dan. of Maurice Ton^^e of Bryn loroyn in the 

Isy Coed. 

David Lloyd of: 
Is y Coed. 

parish of Llaneetyn in Tr Hob, ab lenkyn Ton^^e ab 
Morgan Tonge ab lorwerth ab Morgan of Maielor 
Saesneg, third son of lorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk. 

Gwen, dan. and heiress of John Lloyd ab Tomlin Lloyd of 
Oswestry, second son of Madog Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen, 
lineally descended from Mearig Lloyd, who became pos- 
sessed of Llwyn y Maen and Llanfordaf by his marriage 
with Agnes, daa. and coheiress of leuaf Fychan of Llwyn 
y Maen and Llanfordaf, Constable of ^ockyn Castle, 
son of leuaf ab Cuhelyn ab Bhun ab Einion Efell, Lord of 
Cynllaith. Argent, an eagle displayed with two necks, 
table, for Meurig lAwyd. 


John Lloyd of =f Alice, dan. of Bandle Lloyd ab Gruffydd Lloyd of Tal y 

the Bryn in 

Wem, ab Madog Lloyd of Willington, ab David Lloyd of 
Is y Coed, ab Madog Lloyd ab Gruffydd ab lorwerth FoeL 


Bobert Lloyd of the^Elen, dan. of David Lloyd of Plas yn lal, seventh son 

Bryn, one of the 
guard to Queen 
Elizabeth, oh. a d. 
1589. Buried at 
Hanmer, March 
11th, l&b9. 

of Elissau, second son of Oruffydd ab Einion ab 
Gruffydd ab Llewelyn ab Cynwrig ab Osbem 'Wyd- 
del of Cors y Gedol. Ermine, a salier gvles, a cres- 
cent or for difference. The motber of Elen was 
Gwenhwyfar, dau. of Bichard Lloyd ab Bobert 
Lloyd of Llwyn y Maen. 

Bobert Lloyd of =f Margaret, dau. and heiress Dorothy, lur. Thomas Lloyd 
the Bryn. | oC Bobert Sefton of Mol- of Plas Dwch y Clawdd in 

lington, CO. Chester. the parish of Bhiwfabon. 


Luke Lloyd of 7 Catherine, dan. of Thomas Whitley of Aston, in the parish 

the Bryn, 
bapt. Oct. 
22, A.D. 16!>8; 
oh. Mar. SI, 
▲.D. 1695, 
aged 86. 

of Hawarden in Merffordd, argent, on a chief gules, three 
garbs or, and Dorothy, his wile, dau. of Thomas Biavens- 
croft of Bretton in the same parish, ab George Bavens- 
crott, son and heir (by Catherine his wife, tmrd dau. of 
Bichard Grosvenor of Eaton, co. C^hester). of Thomas 
Bavenscroft ab George Bavenscroft ab Balph Bavenscrotl 
ab Karri Uavenscrott, and .... his wife, dau. and sole 
heir of Balph Holland of Bretton and Bose his wife, dau. 
and heiress of John Skeffington of Bretton. 


Luke Lloyd T Esther, dau. of James Betton of Shrewsbury, D.D.. which lady 

of the 

(having eventually survived her two brothers and all her 
sisters, with her nephew, James Betton and his sister, the 
children of her eldest brother, James) became the sole heir 
of this branch of the Betton family. Argent, two pales 
saJbU, each charged with three crosslets, fitchee or. 

1st coheir. 
Catherine Lloyd, heiress of 
the Bryn, married Thos. 
Kenyon of Peel Hall. co. 
Lancaster, Esq., ances- 
tor of the Lords Kenyon. 

2nd coheir. 
Sarah Lloyd, married to Samuel Lloyd -of 
Plas Madoff, Ksq., ancestor of the Che- 
valier Lloyd of Clochfaen and Plis Mad- 
og, Knight of the Order of St. Gregory 
the Great. Mrs. Lloyd died at Plis 
Madog, and was buriod at Bhiwfabon, 
June 7, A-D. 1699. 


Philip Henry thus alludes to the death of Luke 
Lloyd the elder : — 

" Lnke Lloyd, Esq., of the Bryn, in Hanmer parish, my 
aged and worthy friend, finished his course with joy, March 
81, 1695, being Lord^s Day. He was in the 87th year of his 
age, aod had been married almost 69 years to his pious wife 
(a daughter of Mr. Whitley of Aston), of the same age, who 
still survives him. He was the glory of the little congrega- 
tion, the top branch in all respects of our small vine, and my 
friend indeed. When he made his will, under the subscription 
of his name he wrote. Job zxx, 25, 26, 27. 

'^ Luke Lloyd had been in his youth a staunch Cromwellite, 
and had served with some distinction in the Revolutionary war.^ 
His sword is kept at Oredington. The carved oak pulpit in 
Hanmer church is noticed by the Duke of Beaufort in 1 684, 
bearing these inscriptions in gold letters, ' X^^ est Agnus Dei 
qui toUit peccata mundi.' ' Be swifte to heare.' ^ Take heed 
how ye heare,' and the name ' iesus,' with the date of its being 
given, 1627. The story told about it is that Luke Lloyd 
forbad the clergyman of that day praying for the king, and 
when he persisted, threatened him with his stick. As com- 
pensation for this brawling in church he offered, and gave the 

" A.D. 1666, Aug. 15. Mr. Luke Lloyd, jnn., indited at the 
assizes at Flint for disturbing Mr. H(ylton), vicar of Hanmer, 
in the time of the administration of ye Lord's Supper. Wit- 
nesse sworn deposed that Mr. H(ylton) refusing to give him^ 
the sacrament in his pew, as he had been used to do, after the 
blessing was pronounced, and the people dismissed and gone, 
he came up to him to know the reason, but that Mr. H. and 
some few of his friends were then at the table, eating and 
drinking what was left of the consecrated elements ; which 
(being appointed reverently to be done by the rubrick) the 
judge declared to be part of the sacrament, though the clerk 
deposed that Mr. H. was talking with R. E. when Mr. Lloyd 
came up to him. The jurjr brought him in not guilty, but 
were sent out again by the judge, and the second time brought 
him in guilty, and he was fined.'' ^ 

In Sir John Hanmer's Memorials of Hanmer Parish, 
p. 67, there is a letter from Sir Thomas Hanmer to Sir 
Job (Judge) Charleton on the subject, March 12, 1665. 

* Life of Lord Kenyon, by G. K. 

* Rev. H. M. Lee, Vicar of Hanmer. ' Philip Henry's MSS. 


The following is the inscription on the tomb of 
Luke Lloyd : — 

" Here lyeth the body of Lake Lloyd of the Bryn, gent., 
and Katherine his wife^ who lired in the marriage state toge- 
ther 68 years. He died the thirty-first day of March^ 1695, 
being 86. She died January 12, 1701, aged 91." 

This branch of the Lloyd family were settled in Is y 
Coed before they came to the Bryn, and Philip Henry 
bought from them Eastwick's tenement, now belonging 
to Jos. H. Lee, Esq.* 

The following inscription is likewise in Hanmer 
Church : — 

" Here lies in peace Mary, the wife of Roger Kenyon of 
Cefn, daughter and heiress of Edward Lloyd of Pen y Ian, 
Esq., by Mary, daughter and coheiress of Edward Lloyd of 
Plas Madoc, Esq. She was great niece of Ellis Lloyd of Pen 
y Ian, Esq., and to William Lloyd, Lord Bishop of Norwich, 
one of those prelates who, having sworn fidelity to King 
James II, refused taking the oath to his successor, choosing 
rather to be deprived of his bishopric than let go his integrity. 

''Filial piety, connubial affection, parental tcDderness, a 
steady attachment to her friends and benevolence to all, were 
eminently united in her character. She died in childbed, 
leaving her disconsolate husband, three sons, and two daughters, 
Feb. 4, A.D. 1781, aged 30.'' 

^ Bev. Matthew Henry Lee. 

Y BERTH. See page 285. 

David Lloyd, of Berth, was son of Thomas, son of 
Tudor, second son of Robert of Pentre Cuhelyn in 
Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd, whither he and hia brother 
Edward had migrated (temp. Henry VII.) from Pentre 
Cuhelyn in Llangollen, in the lordBnip of Chirk,' where 
their ancestor, Cuhelyn, third son of Tudor-ab-Rhys 
Sais, fourth in descent from Tudor Trevor, through hia 
second son, Lluddoccaf, had inherited lands from his 
father.' The last-named Pentre Cuhelyn is said to 
have been recently a farm, the ruins of which are still 
extant, on the Pengwem estate in the pariah of 
Llangollen.* Tudor, tne grandfather of David, had an 
elder brother, Gruffydd of Pentre Cuhelyn, who mar- 
ried Catherine, daughter of William ab GruflFydd ab 
Rhys ab Tudor, hy whom he had two sons, leuan of 
Pentre Cuhelyn, in Llanfair Dyfiryn Clwyd, and Simon, 
and a daughter named Angharad or Gwenllian, who 
married Lewis, son of Sir Evan Lloyd, Kt. of Bodidris 

^ Cae Cyriog M8. 

> Barl. MS., 2299 ; Add. MS., 98645. 

• " BjegoneB", in Otwestry Advertiser, August 1873. 


in IkU Simon had a son named leuan, of whom no 
further mention is made. leuan of Pentre Cuhelyn 
married Margaret, daughter of Rowland ab John ab 
Ithel,^ by whom he had a son, Hugh Lloyd of Pentre 
Cuhelyn in Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd, who left an only 
daughter, Lowry, the heiress of that place.* On whom 
this lady bestowed her band and fortune the pedigree 
does not say, but ends abruptly with the name of her 
son, John Matthews, living 1667. This Pentre Cuhelyn 
is now a farm on the Berth estate, but it does not 
appear when or how it became so. 

Among the family deeds is one " made between 
David Lloyd ap Thomas, of the Parish of Llanbedr in 
the county of Denbigh, gentleman, and Edward ap 
Harry of Garthkynan, in the said county, gentleman, 
of the one part, and Edward ap John ab David of 
Lloyneth (Llwynedd) and Riscoke (Rhyscog) in the 
said county of Denbigh, gentleman, and Edward ap 
John Lloyd of Llanruad in the said county, gentleman, 
of the other part covenanting for a recovery to be suf- 
fered " before John Thelwall, Esquier, Steward of the 
said Lordshippe or Manor of Lloyneth and Ryscocke or 
his Deputie," for the conveyance of a messuage or tene- 
ment, then inhabited by Edward ap John to David 
Lloyd ap Thomas and Edward ap Harri for the use of 
the said Edward ap John. The deed bears the date of 
20th December, 1609, 6th James L 

According to Harleian MS. No. 2299, David Lloyd 
was marriecL to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Lloyd of 
Llangwyfan, Denbighshire. But in the pedigree of the 
Lloyds of Llangwyfan, in Add. MSS., 9864, fol. 4, she 
was the fourth daughter of Edward Lloyd of Llangwy- 
fan and his wife Mary, daughter of leuan Wyn ab 
Cadwalader of Voelas. In Llangwyfan Churchyard 
is a i-aised monument of this family in freestone, bear- 

^ Robert Vaughan's (of Hengwrt) Book of Pedigrees, in Peniarth 

' Gruffydd Hiraethog's do in do. 

^ Cae Cyriog MS., in possession of Dr. Griffiths. 

K R 


ing the following inscriptions: — 1. "Anno Domini, 
1615. Ego Thomas Lloyd in domo dormivi XXVII 
Decemb : ao : supra sculpt : cujus corpus supter (sic) 
hunc lapidem a. h. sepultum ao ejus setatis [illegible/'] 

2. '* Hie etiam reponuntur reliqua Edward Lloyd 
de Llangwyfan Gener : qui extremum confecit diem 
Martii quinto Anno Domini 1660. iEtatis suae 43 (or 

3. " Here lyeth the Body of Edward Lloyd, son and 
heir apparant of Thomas Lloyd, of Llangwyfan, gent, 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of John Madockes, 
gent., by Jane his wife, heiresse of Vron Iw, who dyed 
without issue at Ty Gwyn in Llanhychon ous {sic for 
house) and rens {sic) Anno Domini, 1630, iEtatis suaa 

After the erection of the new church at Llanbedr, 
some inscribed tombstones of the Berth family in the 
old church were discovered by the removal of the stone 
steps in front of the Communion Table. On the oldest 
of these (of freestone) is this inscription : — " Here 
lieth the Bodi of David Lloyd, Gent. Buried the 
seaventh {sic) Day of July, Anno Dom. 1620." 

David Lloyd was succeeded by his son, Thomas Lloyd, 
of Berth, of whose marriage nothing is recorded in the 
pedigrees. He had a daughter named Anne, who, 
some years previous to 1639, became the wife of 
Thomas Edwards, Esq., of Brynpolin, in the parish of 
St. Asaph, descended from Rhodri Mawr, and from 
Hedd Molwynog, chief of one of the fifteen noble tribes 
of North Wales. Her husband died on the 17th 
December, 1663, at Llandaff, and is buried in the 
Cathedral there. Her son, Richard Edwards, became 
possessed of the estate of Old Court, in the county of 
Wicklow, in right of his wife, Elizabeth Kynaston, 
daughter and heiress of Colonel John Kynaston, who 
had served against the king in an expedition for the 
reduction of North Wales to the obedience of the 
Parliament, and captured Rhyddlau Castle, of which 
he became Governor. On the 7th June, 1647, he 


landed in Ireland from Chester, with his Welsh Regi- 
ment of Foot, "after four days' plying at sea," accom- 
panying the Commissioners from the Parliament, who 
had come to treat with the Marquis of Ormond, the 
Lord Lieutenant, for the surrender of Dublin. After 
his death in 1649, a grant of land, of which Old Court 
formed a portion, was made to his widow by Oliver 
Cromwell.^ In the Churchyard of Llanbedr is a tomb 
with the following inscription : — ** Underneath lie the 
remains of John Brabazon, second son of John Edward 
Edwardes, of Old Court, county Wicklow, Kingdom of 
Ireland, Esq., of a family originating from this Vale. 
He died 23rd September, 1793, aged eleven years.'' 
Thomas Lloyd was buried at Llanbedr in February, 
1648, as appears from a second inscription on his 
father's tombstone, cut so as to face the first : ** — Here 
lieth the body of Thomas Lloyd, Gent. Buried the 
second day of February, Anne Dom., 1648. He left 
also a son." 

John Lloyd of Berth, of whose marriage also no 
record has been found. From extracts made from the 
parish registers, it appears that he died about three 
years before his father, on the 17th April, 1645. He 
had a family of five daughters, viz., Elizabeth, born 
1628, died 1656, married to John Conway, by whom 
she had a daughter, Lucy, bom 1655; Anna, born 
1633 ; Katherine, bom 1634, died 1641. Maria, bom 
1639 ; Jane, bom and died 1642, and a second Jane, 
bom 1644; and five sons, viz., Thomas, born and died 
1642; Edward, bom 1631 ; Trevor, bom 1635, died 
1641 ; Simon, bom 1637, died 1653 ; John, born 1640. 
He was succeeded by his eldest surviving 9on, 

Edward Lloyd, of Berth, who would seem from the 
mention made of the name in his son's marriage settle- 
ment, to have married a lady named Margaret , 

living a widow in 1680. His family consisted of four 
daughters, Maria, bom 1654, • died 1664, buried 
January 25th, at Llannefydd ; Elizabeth and Magdalene 

* Burke's Landed Gentry, ed. 1863. 


(twins), born and died 1658 ; Martha, born 1661 ; and 
three sons, viz., John, born 1655; Trevor, born 1657; 
David, born 1659. The date of his death does not 
appear from the register, but he must have been living 
in 1660. His eldest son, John Lloyd, of Berth, 

married (in 1680) Elizabeth, daughter of and Alice 

Mostyn, of Hendrefegillt, county Flint, as appeara 
from a deed in which a capital messuage called " Y 
Berth " is settled upon her. She died in 1689. 2ndly, 

Elizabeth , died in 1700. He had six daughters, 

three of whom, Alice, born 1685, died 1694 ; Elizabeth, 
bom and died 1700 ; and Lettice, born 1687, died in 
infancy; Jane, her twin sister, born 1687; Catherine, 
born 1684; and Sidney, born 1689; and two sons, 
Robert, the younger, born 1686, and the elder, bap- 
tized January 1681, his successor, viz., Edward Lloyd, 
of Berth, married to Anne, eldest daughter of Maurice 
Lewis, Esq., of Trysglwyn (or Treslwyn) in Anglesey, as 
inscribed in her tombstone, in the old Church of 
Llanbedr : — " Here lyes interred Anne Lloyd, of Berth, 
widow and relict of Edward Lloyd, Esq., who dyed on 
the 17th January, 1746, aged 58. She was," &c., as 
above. Below the inscription is a coat of arms, appa- 
rently ermine^ a lion rampant arg. crest, a unicorn s 
head within a coronet, over a helmet. Their family 
consisted of two daughters, Susanna (if not of a pre- 
vious generation, her baptism not being registered) died 
7th November, 1706 ; and Elizabeth, born 1709, living 
in 1741, and five sons. Edward, the eldest son, died 
a few months after his father, and was buried in the 
same grave with him in the aisle. Their tombstone is 
inscribed : — " Here lyes {sic) interred the bodyes of 
of Edward Lloyd, the father, and Edward Lloyd, the 
sone. Both of Berth, who dyed the one on the 2nd day 
of January, 1721, aged 44, and the other on the 7th day 
of October, 1722, aged 14." David, the third son, born 
1711, is described in a deed, dated 20th September, 

^ This place is mentioned in the Record of Carnarvon, temp, 
Edward I. 


1770, as of Llany Myneich, county Montgomery, clerk, 
and one of the Trustees named in his brother Hugh 
Lloyd's will; Trevor, born and died 1713; Maurice, 
bom 1714 ; Robert, bom 1716. He was succeeded by 
his eldest surviving son 

HoGH Lloyd, of Berth and of Fumivars Inn, mar- 
ried to Ursula, second daughter of Howel Lloyd, Esq., 
of Wigfair, county Flint, by his wife Phoebe, second 
daughter of Hedd Lloyd, Esq., of Havod Unos, by 
whom he had six sons : — 1, John, bom 1743, died 1744, 
buried in Chester Cathedral ; 2, Edward, bom 1 744, 
died 1 744 ; 3, John, of whom presently ; 4, Thomas, 
bom 1746, living in 1766, went to sea ; 5, Howel, bom 
1747, went to sea in 1761, living in 1768 ; 6, Hedd, 
bom 1749, settled in Chester; and two daughters, 1, 
Ursula, bom 1751, died 1751 ; 2, Phoebe, bom 1754, 
married in 1790 to the Hon. John Campbell, Lord 
Stonefield, in Argyleshire, one of H.M. s Justices of 
the Court of Session in Scotland. Hugh Lloyd was 
buried in the old Church of Llanbedr, where, on a stone 
in the aisle is inscribed : — " Here also lyes the body of 
Hugh Lloyd, gent., who became the eldest son of the 
above Edward and Anne Lloyd, and dyed in September, 
1756, leaving John Lloyd, his eldest son, and other 
children." On the tombstone of Anne Lloyd is 
also inscribed: — "Here lie the remains of Yrsula 
Lloyd, of Berth, Esq. She died the 28th September, 
1795, aged 75." That she was a handsome old lady 
appears from a picture of her at Rhagatt, bearing a 
strong family likeness to some of her descendants. 
Was succeeded by his eldest surviving son 

John Lloyd, of Berth, of Gray's Inn and the Middle 
Temple, a King s Counsel, and Chief Justice of the 
Caermarthenshire Circuit, of whom a short account is 
given in Williams' ' Eminent Welshmen.' He married 
Margeret, youngest daughter of Josiah Morrall, Esq., 
of Plas lolyn, county Salop, by Margaret, his wife, 
daughter of John Lloyd, Esq., of Pontriffith. In her 
marriage settlement she is described as Margaret 


Morrall, of Pengwem, Spinster, niece of Edward Lloyd 
of Pengwem, who would seem tx) have been also her 
guardian, as her fortune of £3,500 was paid by him. 
Judge Lloyd was educated at Ruthin School, and was 
distinguished as well by the strength of his memory as 
by the soundness of his judgment. His extensive prac- 
tice enabled him to add considerably to the family pro- 
perty by the purchase of the I&l,* Rhagatt and 
Llanynys estates. He was also an excellent sportsman, 
and a tree is still shown in which a hare was once seen 
to take refuge from the pursuit of his harriers. When 
another was observed to be sinking after a long chase, 
he is said to have exclaimed — " Nothing can save her 
now but a Cardiganshire jury !" The issue of his mar- 
riage was two daughters, Margaret, died at Cheltenham, 
immarried, A.D. 1841, and is buried there at the Parish 
Church. She was possessed of great mental capacity, 
and a sparkling humour which never failed her, despite 
a distressing asthma, from which she suffered during 
the greater part of her life. She also delighted in fly- 
fishing, and was an excellent horsewoman, often tra- 
versing the Berwyn Hills from Bodvach in Mont- 
gomeryshire, where in her early days she resided, to 
visit her brother's family at Rhagatt ; 2, Francis, mar- 
ried to Richard Watkin Price, Esq., of Rhiwlas, co. 
Merioneth ; and two sons, John, the yoimger, a captain 
in the Royal Navy, was lost at sea 1814. Judge Lloyd 
died on the 9th September, 1806, and was succeeded 
by his elder son, 

Edward Lloyd, of Berth, county Denbigh, and 
Rhagatt, county Merioneth, bom 1778, was educated 
at Westminster School, and at Brazenose College, 
Oxford. He was called to the Bar, and was for fifty 
years Chairman of Quarter Sessions for the latter 
county. His portrait, by Eddis, R.A., purchased by 

' Among the farms purchased in lal was Hafod yr Abad, in the 
township of Maes yr Ychain, in the parish of LlandysUio. This 
place is situate at the foot of the western slope of Rhiwfelyn, on the 
brook called Nant Morwyuion. The whole township of Maes yr 
Ychain belonged to the monastery of Valle Crucis. 


public subscription, in recognition of his services, is in 
the County Hall of Dolgelly. Mr. Lloyd was possessed 
of considerable literary acquirements, and was distin- 
guished by his wit and humour in society. He was 
also an excellent sportsman, and possessed, of a breed 
of greyhounds highly prized by coursers for their ex- 
cellence and fleetness. He married Francis, daughter 
(by Frances, daughter of Sir Richard Perryn, Knight, 
Baron of the Exchequer) of John Edward Madocks, of 
Vron Iw, Esq., descended from Sir Robert Pounderling, 
Knight, Constable of Dyserth Castle, county Flint, 
temp. Edward II, whose monument is in Tremeirchion 
Church, and from Edward I, King of England, through 
Emma (or Ermin) daughter of Thomas Puleston, of 
Picill, Esq. (Pickhill) married to David Madocks, Esq., 
of Vron I w, living in 1676, son of John Madocks, of 
Bodffari, Esq., married to Jane Williams, heiress of 
Vron Iw, descended from March weithian, chief of one of 
the fifteen noble tribes of North Wales. Seventeen 
children were the issue of this marriage, of whom 
eleven were daughters, viz. : — Francis Margaret, bom 
Oct. 20, 1810, died 1857, married to Sir Rober Wil- 
liames Vaughan, of Nannau, county Merioneth, Bart., 
who died without issue in 1858 ; 2, Margaret Charlotte, 
bom 1813, died 1815 ; 3, Charlotte Ursula, bom May 
30, 1815, died Dec. 18, 1815; 4. Mary Charlotte, 
bom January 23, 1819, unmarried; 5, Charlotte, bom 
February 20, 1820, married to Richard John Price, of 
Rhiwlas, county Merioneth, Esq., who died 1842 ; 6, 
Harriet, born 1821, died 1825 ; 7, Jane Margaret, bom 
August 30, 1822, married to the Ven. Henry P. 
Ffoulkes, Archdeacon of Montgomery ; 8, Eliza Black- 
burn, bom January 6th, 1824, married to Meredith 
Vibart, Esq., late Captain, E. I. C. S., and Adjutant of 
Edinburgh Volunteer Artillery ; 9, Harriet, bom July 
25, 1826; 10, Ursula, bom Oct. 18, 1827, died February 
2, 1828 ; 11, Julia Anne, bom 1831, died 1841 ; and six 
sons — 1, John, bom Sept. 25, 1811, of whom presently ; 
2, Edward (married to M., daughter of John Madocks, 


of Glan y Wem and Vron Iw, Esq., M.P. for the Denbigh 
Boroughs) bom Oct. 26, 1812, died 1864, leaving a 
daughter, Sophia, and a son, Edward, of whom pre- 
sently ; 3, Howel Wilham, bom Aug. 27th, 1816, mar- 
ried to Eliza Anne, daughter of George Wilson, of 
Nutley and Brighton, county Sussex, Esq., by his wife, 
Elizabeth Smallpiece, decended froin Kobert Smallpiece, 
of Hockering, in Norfolk, to whom arms were granted 
by patent of Queen Elizabeth, in 1574 {sable, a chevron 
engrailed argent between three rosettes of the 2nd, 
crest, an eagle with wings erect ppr. (Add MSS. 1 4297 — 
179 B.); 4, Charles Wynn, bom Nov. 30, 1817, died 
April 17, 1818; 5, Owen, bom June 6th, 1825, died 
Aug. 20, 1825 ; 6, Charles Owen, bom December 23, 
1828, fell in action before Moultan, in the East Indies, 
Sept. 12th, 1848. Mr. Lloyd, died Oct. 14th, 1859, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

John Lloyd, of Berth and Rhagatt, educated at 
Westminster, and Christ Church, was an excellent 
amateur painter, and also possessed considerable skill in 
photography. He wrote, also, some humorous poetical 
pieces. He married Gertrude Jane Mary, daughter of 
Philip Godsal, Esq., of Iscoed, co. Flint, and grand- 
daughter of the first Lord Wyndham. He died with- 
out issue. May 22nd, 1865, and is to be succeeded (after 
his widow) by his nephew, on his attaining his majority. 

Edward Lloyd, a minor, educated at Eton, &c. 

On a piece of family plate is a coat of arms, the his- 
tory of which is unknown, in which the arms of Tudor 
Trevor are impaled argent a cross flory gules between 
four Cornish choughs ppr. On dexter chief a canton 

On a seal belonging to the family are the arms of 
Tudor Trevor impaling gules a lion rampant reguardent 
argent. Crest, a unicorn's head within a coronet argent. 
The history of this seal is also unknown. 

On another family seal are engraved the arms of Tudor 
Trevor only, with a crest, a imicom s head erased. Its 
history is likewise unknown. 



















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Och fy awen, oer fy achwyn, 

Beth a geni, beth o g^yn ? 

Och ! weithian Caelan ceula, 

Digrif wyf, dwfr ag i& : 

Gwn y bydd glenydd k gwlaw, 

A diliw rhwng ei dwy law ; 

Gwag y w'r plwyf, mwy am y mawl^ 

Unig iawn, anigonawl ; 

Adwy a ddaeth, wedi dydd^ 

Adwy lydan, hyd wledydd, 

Adwy am wr oedd dymems, 

Ym mhob llan^ ag ymhob llys. 

Daw a ddel^ a da ddylai 

Ebwch hir^ a'i fab uwch ai^ 

Gyd& ei Iwydd, i gadw ei le^ 

O fawl antar, fel ynte. 

Torri cyf* wna o'r cyfion, 

Twrw oer torri gau ffon, 

Twrw mawr gwynt,' torri 'n un gant^ 

Torn pen teuau'r Pennant ; 

Torri angel ymgeledd^ 

Torri nod glain, torri enaid gwledd. 

Poen dorri pan darawyd^ 

Mawr egin Ilon^ Morgan Lloyd. 

Ni thorir aneth^ arail^ 

^ The following pedigree illustrates the elegy : — 

Bichard Morgan of Caelan =¥= Sarah, d. of John Jones of 
in Llanbrynmair. j Cawg in Llanbiynmair. 

Morgan Lloyd, second son of Jenkyn^Bridget, heiress of Caelan. 
Lloyd of Cloohfaen, ^j 

Rev. Littleton Lloyd, oh, s. p. Sarahs Edward Pritchard of Ceniarth. 

Rowland Pritchard of Caelan. 

For earlier portion see p. 54. 

* For " cyff ", metri graiid. 

^ So I read for " mam gwedd" in the MS., but the line is cor- , 

mpt, haying a syllable in excess. 
* Anethy for "annedd", metri graiid. 


Is derm ei oes dro mo'i ail ; 
Hydd arafy call rhoi ced, 
Llew gwrol, llaw agored ; 
Lluniwr hedd^ yn Uenwi rhad, 
Llawen cywrain, Uawn cariad^ 
Ei fonedd hafaidd hyfryd, 
Os da barch, er ys dyddiau byd ; 
Trefor had, trwy fawrhydi, 
larll Henfordd, briffordd ei bri ; 
O hil Fadog friw, enwog fraith, 
Danwr hael, yn dwyn rh.eolaith, 
HSn ben haeddol boneddig, 
A'i brig ar Gurig i gyd. 
Yna^r hen dad dyladwy, 
Bodd plaid, a bioedd y plwyf ; 
Imp o rinwedd yw'r anian 
Enwog Llwyd,^ or Berth-lwyd Ian. 
Hen anrhydedd yn rhedeg 
O fonedd wlad Wynedd deg. 
Llin Hywel at rhyfel tref, 
Gwych a mwythus, goch a Mathef. 
Mwyna' rhyw, yn mynnu' r'hol. 
Da, diddig, a dedwyddol. 
Ochi iV lys boenua beunydd, 
Fod heno ro ar ei rudd, 
Ai roddi yn wr iraidd oed 
Y'nghul arch, y'nghanol oed ; 
Pa alar, hap, o heli, 

g\Vyn fawr a ganafi, 

1 gysuro ei gii seren, 
Rywiog, wych, ei gwraig wen ? 
Daw un a'i dwyn i anerch 

IV guaf fab, ag i'w ferch, 
AV ifangc, un wyr o fun, 
. . . eidadyma .^ 

Mae*r cerain', mawr eu cariad, 

Yn rhoi lief, yn^r hoU wlad ; 

Noeth ywV plwyf ei weniaith plaid, 

Pan dynai Duw ei enaid. 

Da fyddai mewn defosiwn, 

Pa ddygai Dduw heddyw hwn ? 

Dwyn gweiniaid, trueiniaid, tro. 


Engioed in MS. ^ Probably, ymofyn. 



Yn gafod gydag efo. 

Trwm weled Uymed pob llys 

Amdano^ wyneb daionas. 

Hael a fa yn ei dy da^ 

Ag o'i fir, ag o*i fara ; 

Trugarog, arlwyog lys, 

A chu erioed, a chariadus. 

Duw a godo, lie ei grodwyd, 

Etto yn Uwyr Littleton Llwyd, 

A Sarah, hyd yn des hir acfa, 

Hir oes bery Bees Lloyd bach. 

O ran cyweirio, ^r un cariad, 

I^r ail 16, ar 61 y tad, 

Amynedd am ei enaid, 

Ym mhob plwyf, ag ym mhob plaid, 

Ei geraint, a braint ei brig, 

O Gorwen i Langurig ; 

A hir oes heb loes, heb ludd, 

A Uu wyn a Uawenydd, 

A gras Duw yn eirias don, 

IV plant hwy, ac iV hwyrion. 

Mil seithgant, dwesant,* a dwy, 

Brudd oedd a barodd adwy : 

Rhoi pen mwyn mown pwn meini, 

Oni fo lais nefol la : 

" Cod, fwyn wr, cwyd i fyny ! 


Dapydd Manuel, 1702. 

» For " dywedant'\ 



By David Manuel, 1702. 

Alas, my Muse ! woeful is my wail. 

What sorrowful song shalt thou sing ? 

Curdled, alas, is Ceulan's water 

With ice, and yet I am merry ! 

Assuredly her banks will be hereafter 

In flood between their two sides. 

Empty is the parish, henceforth, of praise, 

AH desolate, and not to be comforted ; 

From that day forth a gap is made, 

A wide gap, o'er all the land ; 

A gap made by a man of perfect temper. 

In every village, and in every mansion. 

May God bring, — ^well would it requite 

Our long groaning — ^his son to mount into 

And keep his place, with his prosperity, 

With a reputation like his for boldness. 

Sadly is it felt that the staff of the just 

Should be broken in twain like a bent stick ; 

There is a stir as of a strong wind 

For in one are cut off a hundred ; 

Gut off is the head of the house of Pennant, 

Cut off is its Guardian Angel, 

Cut off is its primest jewel, cut off is the soul of 

the banquet. 
Painful was the blow, when struck down 
Was Morgan Lloyd, the strong yet gentle sapling ! 
The support of the dwelling, who succeeds him. 
Shall not be cut off ere his course be run ; 
A gentle Hart is he, who well knows how to 

give gifts, 
A Lion brave and open-handed, 
An ensuer of peace, one who freely fills. 


Merry, ingenious, full of affection. 

In nobleness cheerful, like summer. 

Worthy of respect, if any such ever has been. 

A scion of the majestic line of Trevor, 

Earl of Hereford, chiefest in honour ; 

Of the race of Madog Danwr of varied fame. 

Liberal, and bearing rule, 

As the ancient head of a noble stock. 

With his descendants, over all Curig's Land. 

Then the ancient meritorious sire. 

By service done to his cause, acquired the parish. 

By nature ever a virtuous graft upon these 

Are the Lloyds of fair Berth Lwyd. 

Their ancient honour flows 

From the stock of the land of fair Gwynedd,' 

Of the line of Howel, a warlike bouse, 

Fair and delicate, red as Mathew, 

A most courteous race, willing to be questioned. 

Good, without anger, and cheerful. 

The mansion will mourn with daily pain. 

That the gravel this night is on his cheek. 

That he, a man of vigorous age. 

In the prime of life, is laid in the narrow chest ; 

What lament — ^haply with salt tears — 

What loud plaint shall I sing. 

To console the gentle star. 

His fair wife, kmdly and noble ? 

One shall come, and bring her to salute 

Her dearest son, and his daughter, 

And her young and only grandson, 

. . . his father. 

The relatives, deep is their affection. 

Are uttering a cry in all the land ; 

The parish was bereft of his winning speech. 

When his soul was taken by God. 

Passing devout was he, 

^ The Lloyds of Berth Lwyd were descended in the male line 
through Trahaiam, Lord of Garthmael, from Llewelyn Enrdorchog, 
Lord of lal and Ystrad Alan, which were anciently in Powys 
Fad6g ; bnt in the reign of Henry VIII they were added to the 
counties of Denbigh and Flint, which were in Gwynedd. This 
family descended by heirs female from Madog Danwr, and assnmed 
his arms. 


Why did God take him to-day ? 

Many a time woald he take in a shower 

The weak and the wretched with him.^ 

'Tis heavy to behold how moumfal is every 

For him, with his kindly countenance. 
Liberal has he been, in his good house. 
Of his beer as well as his bread ; 
A charitable, well -provided mansion, 
And one ever liberal and compassionate. 
May God still, on the spot where he was interred. 
Highly honour Littleton Lloyd, 
And Sarah, proportionately to their long descent. 
And long be the life of the little Rees Lloyd, 
And may he cultivate the same affection • 
To the second generation, after his father. 
For his soul let there be patience 
In every parish, and in every society 
Of his relatives, and those he exalted. 
From Corwen even to Llangurig. 
And long be their life, without hurt or hindrance. 
And a host be it blest with gladness ; 
And may the grace of God, in waves of fire. 
Descend on his children and grandchildren. 
One thousand seven hundred and two, they say. 
Was the sorrowful year that made the gap. 
When 'neath a pile of stones was placed his 

gentle head, to remain 
Till the voice of the heavenly host shall come : — 
'^ Arise, thou gentle man, and mount aloft!" 

^ I.e., Would give them a lift in his carriage. 



At a period of great antiquity, not later than, and 
possibly anterior to, the seventh century, a person of 
foreign appearance, and habited in the garb of a pilgrim, 
disembarked from a ship that had brought him to a spot 
near to that on which stands the modern town of Aber- 
ystwyth. He tarried not at the point of landing, in 
the vale of the Ystw3rth river, — then, doubtless, a tan- 
gled wild of marsh and thicket to the water s edge, — 
but straightway bent his steps up the steep and path- 
less ascent towards the heights of Plinlimmon. Reach- 
ing at length the summit, and weary with his walk, he 
sat on a rock, and scanning the surrounding prospect, 
he espied on the bank of the Wye a spot which he 
deemed eligible for his future resting-place. There, the 
work doubtless of his own hands, uprose first a humble 
hermitage and chapel, and afterwards a church, which, 
though not of spacious dimensions, became celebrated 
for the beauty of its architecture and the elegant carv- 
ing and desigfn of its massive oaken roof The rock 
wf ereon the pil^m sat beaxa to thia day the name of 
"Eisteddfa Gung", or Curig's Seat. The church on 
Plinlimmon, adjacent to the highest point of the mac- 
adamised mail-road from Aberystwyth to Hereford, still 
bears testimony to its founder by its name of " Llan- 
gurig," the Church of St. Curig. Moreover, a crozier 
or pastoral staff, stated by Giraldus to have belonged 
to him, and to have been endowed with a supernatural 
healing power, was for centuries preserved with a loving 
veneration for his memory in the church of St. Har- 
mon's on the Radnorshire border : a proof that he be- 
came a bishop (perhaps of Llanbadam Fawr, hard by 
the scene of his landing), or else the abbot of a religious 
community, which in that case must have been founded 
by himself. 

Such is the legend of Curig Lwyd, which has led to 

M M 



the hypothesis adopted by Professor Rees, that he was 
not only the original founder of the church of Llan- 
gurig, but also its patron saint, — an hypothesis to which 
a certain additional colour would be given by the tradi- 
tional appellation of " Curig Lwyd'', or " the Blessed", 
by which he was popularly known. A wider investi- 
gation, however, of the subject will lead unavoidably to 
the inference that the Professor, critically accurate and 
cautious as he usually is in his surmises, was somewhat 
premature in thus determining the question ; and this 
is the more surprising inasmuch as he has himself fur- 
nished us with a list of churches in Wales, the dedica- 
tory titles of which alone might have led him to doubt 
the soundness of such a conclusion. In his Essay on the 
Welsh Saints^ he tells us that the churches of Llanilid 
a Churig, Glamorganshire, and Capel Curig, Caernar- 
vonshire, are dedicated to Juliet and Curig together ; 
and that Juliet is also the saint of Llanilid Chapel, 
under Defynog, Brecknockshire. There are also two 
other churches, those, namely, of Perth Ciurig, Glamor- 
ganshire, and Eglwys Fair a Chxurig, Carmarthenshire, 
of which the Professor states that it is uncertain to 
whom they are dedicated. The festival of Juliet and 
Cyrique, he adds, is June 1 6th. If these churches were 
dedicated to the martyr St. Cyricus or Quiricus, whether 
jointly or otherwise with his mother Juliet, the proba- 
bility would lie, primd facie, in favour of the hypothesis 
that Llangurig was so too. Nor is there anything, in 
fact, to oppose to it, save the existence of the legend, 
and the analogy of other churches in Wales believed 
to have derived their names from those who respect- 
ively founded them, and who, from that act alone, were 
afterwards, in the popular estimation, honoured with 
the title of Saints. In such a case, moreover, it would 
appear not a little remarkable that one bearing the 
name of the infant martyr should have landed on our 
island, and have devoted the remainder of his life in it 
to the special service of religion in so wild and remote 

1 Page 307, and note, p. 82. 


a region therein, unless, indeed, a positive connection 
existed between the peculiar devotion introduced by 
him and the saint whose name he bore, and under whose 
patronage he may have held himself to be in virtue of 
that name : an early instance, perhaps, of a practice 
which gradually became general in the Church. That 
this was really the case will appear highly probable from 
a comparison of the history of the saint and of his mar- 
tyrdom with such notices as have come down to us of 
the cultus actually rendered to him in Wales during 
subsequent centuries ; and if we add to this the narra- 
tive of the migration, so to speak, of that cultus from 
the eastern to the western churches, the probability will 
be changed into certainty. 

It is stated by Ruinart^ and by the Bollandists that 
various " acts'' of these saints had been published in 
ancient times, one of which, included in the list of apoc- 
ryphal works of Pope Gelasius, is printed by the New 
Bollandists* in Greek and Latin. Another account, be- 
lieved by them to be genuine, is also to be found there, 
together with a statement as to its origin, from which it 
appears that Pope Zosimus (a.d. 417), who had seen an 
edition of their acts which appeared to him to be spurious, 
wrote to a bishop of Iconium named Theodorus, request- 
ing to be furnished with such genuine particulars of the 
martyrdom of SS. Cyricus and Julitta as could then be 
obtained on the spot where it took place, during the 
tenth persecution of the Christians under Diocletian, 
somewnat more than a centiuy before. In the course 
of his inquiries, Theodorus was referred to an old man 
who claimed kinship with these saints, and wrote a 
letter to the Pope addressed " Domino Fratri et Co- 
episcopo Zosimo' , containing a narrative written in a 
very sober and matter-of-fact style, and free from the 
numerous extravagances which disfigure the spurious 
acts. The narrative of the martyrs' suflferings given by 
the Rev. Alban Butler {Lives of the Saints , June 16 th) 
is abridged from the bishop's letter, which is printed in 

^ Ed. Ratisbon, 18(59. ^ e^i. p^ris, 18G7. 


full by Ruinart and the BoUandists, and is in substance 
as follows : — *' In the year A.D. 305, Julitta, a lady of 
rank and property, left her native city of Iconium in 
Asia Minor, with her . son Cyricus and two maids, to 
escape the persecution then raging in that city under 
Diocletian the Roman emperor. She went first to Se- 
leucia, but on finding that Alexander, the governor of 
that city, was a persecutor, she felt it unsafe to remain 
there, and proceeded to Tarsus. Here, however, Alex- 
ander happened to be at the very time of her arrival ; 
she had no sooner reached the place, therefore, than 
she was apprehended and brought before him, together 
with her infant. Her maids forsook her and fled, while 
she, to all the governor s queries, made no answer than 
this : — * I am a Christian.' The governor ordered her 
to be cruelly scourged with thongs, but, struck with 
the noble appearance of her child, he resolved to save 
him, and took him on his knee, endeavouring to soothe 
him with kisses. The child, however, stretching out 
his arms towards his mother, cried out after her in the 
same words, 'I am a Christian,' and, in struggling to be 
free that he might run to her, scratched the governor's 
face. The latter, enraged, threw him to the ground 
from the tribunal, and dashed out his brains against the 
edge of the steps, so that the whole place was bespat- 
tered with his blood. His mother, far from lamenting 
his death, made thanksgiving to God, as for a happy 
martyrdom. Then they proceeded to lacerate her sides 
with hooks, and on her feet they poured scalding pitch. 
When called upon to sacrifice to the gods, she persisted 
in answering, * I do not sacrifice to devils, or to deaf and 
dumb statues, but I worship Christ, the only-begotten 
son of God, by whom the Father hath made all things.' 
Thereupon, the governor ordered that her head should 
be struck off, and that the body of her child should be 
thrown into the place where the bodies of malefactors 
were cast. The remains of both mother and son were 
afterwards buried secretly, by the two maids, in a field 
near the city. Subsequently, when peace had been 


restored to the Church under Constantine the Great, 
the spot was made known by one of them. Their tombs 
were visited by a great concourse of the faithful, who 
vied with each other, as it is related, in striving to 
secure, each one for himself, a portion of their sacred 
relics " for a protection and safeguard". 

From this time forward the devotion to these holy 
martyrs spread widely over the East. A panegyric is 
still extant in their honour, written by Metaphrastes, 
or more probably by Nicetas the rhetorician, as is sup- 
posed, in the ninth century, the facts in which were 
fumitfhed by Bishop Theodore s letter. Offices in their 
honour were sanctioned by St. Germanus and Anato- 
lius. Patriarchs of Constantinople, a.d. 449-58, while 
others are known to have existed at Byzantium and 
Mauroleum. A complete office, with canon, by Jose- 
phus the hymnographer, a.d. 883, contains some verses 
commencing thus : 

St. Joseph speaks of their tomb as being bedewed with 
the grace of the Holy Spirit, and of cures being wrought 
there ; but is silent as to its locality. The reason for this, 
as we shall shortly see, was in all probability the circum- 
stance that the bodies themselves had, at a much earlier 
period, been conveyed away, and treasured up as pre- 
cious relics in certain churches of the West. The story 
of their removal is thus given in an ancient MS. disco- 
vered at Rome,^ as related by Henschenius the Bolland- 
ist, in his commentary for tne 1st May, on the Life of 
St. AmatOTy a Bishop of Auxerre, who lived from a.d. 
344 to 418, and was consecrated a.d. 388. This Life is 
said to have been written a.d. 580. 

"After the. lapse of many years from their gaining 
the crown of martyrdom, St. Amator, Bishop of Antis- 
siodorum, accompanied by the most illustrious Savinus, 

1 The MS. commences thus : *' Incipinnt miracala SS. Qairici et 
Jalittse, qaae Teterius Sophisfca, eomm servns, edidit, de corponbas 
eomm i S. Amatore AntiochieB repertis." 


travelling through the territory of Antioch, by the grace 
of Christ found their most holy bodies, and on his return 
brought them, with great devotion, to Gaul. On reach- 
ing the city of Autnce (Chartres) he so far yielded to 
the entreaties of Savinus as to bestow on him one of 
the boy's arms, which appears to have been deposited 
in the church at Nevers. The other remains he caused 
to be entombed a second time in the very house 'where 
the Bishop, powerful by the glory of his merits, is yet 
venerated by the faithful'. Whether the city of Antioch 
visited by St. Amator was that in Pisidia or in Syria, 
or more probably another of that name, near Tarsus, 
the scene of the martyrdom, is not stated. From the 
Nevemais the arm of St. Cyricus was removed by Abbot 
Hucbald to his monastery of Elno * in Hannonid\" ^ 
In the Galilean Martyrology, by Saussaye, it is stated 
that considerable portions of the relics were distributed 
among different churches in Gaul, "whereby a great 
devotion was stirred up everywhere towards the mar- 
tyrs themselves, so that many churches, monasteries, 
and other ' trophies' (as they were then called), were 
erected in their honour. Among them Toulouse, Aries, 
Camot, and Auvergne, are specially named. The devo- 
tion also extended itself to Spain, where, at Burgos, an 
office with nine lections is known to have been recited 
in their honour. In France, Cyricus became known 
indifferently by the names of St. Cyr and St. Cyrique ; 
and the name of ' Cir Ferthyr , once attached to the site 
of a ruined chapel in Lleyn, Carnarvonshire, may pos- 
sibly be a translation of the former."* 

From the foregoing account it will not be difficult to 
explain how, in early times, a Gaul inspired with the 
prevalent devotion to these martyrs may have been 
called by the name of one of them ; may have landed 
on the coast of Wales, bringing with him, mayhap, a 
small but treasured portion of the relics in his own 

^ Perhaps St. Amand's in Flanders, of which Hainanlt is a pro- 

2 Rees' Welsh Sawif^, p. 332 ; Arch, Camh., 4th Ser., v, p. 87, 


country esteemed so precious ; may have built in honour 
of this, his patron saint, a humble chapel, enlarged sub- 
sequently into a church, with its monastic establishment 
adjacent ; and taken precautions for the preservation, 
after his death, of the memory of the acts and sufferings 
of one whom he himself held in such tender venera- 
tion, by translating some narrative of them in his own 
possession into the language of the people to whom he 
had been the means of introducing the knowledge and 
cultus, as saints, of himself and his martyred mother. 

That such was actually the fact is not obscurely inti- 
mated in several scattered notices which are to be found 
in the manuscript works of Welsh bards and elsewhere. 
In a fragmentary poem on St. Curig in the Lljjfr Cen- 
iarihMS.j a Book of his Life is referred to as extant in 
the author s time. Other fragments of poems in the 
same MS., by Sion Ceri and by Huw Arwystli, relate also 
certain circumstances of the martyrdom, in all probabi- 
lity derived from this traditionary biography. And lastly, 
some curious "emynai^'*, or hymns, in the Welsh language, 
are found in the volume of Lives of Cambro-British 
Saints, published by the Welsh MSS. Society, compris- 
ing a "Lectio" evidently intended for the instruction of 
the people on the annual festival, together with some 
collects, which leave no doubt as to the identity of the 
saints whose actions are referred to with those whose 
acts were recorded by Bishop Theodore for the informa- 
tion of Pope Zosimus. 

With these fragmentary notices is connected another 
question of no little interest relative to the genuine- 
ness and authenticity of the acts of these martyrs tradi- 
tional in the Principality. Was the narrative contained 
in them substantially identical with that furnished by 
the Bishop of Iconium to the Pope ? Or did it rather 
savour of inspiration drawn from the spurious writings 
referred to in the Bishops letter as "containing over- 
boastful and inconsistent sayings, and trivialities foreign 
to our Christian hope", and which are ascribed by him 
to the " machinations of Manichees and other heretics 


who make a mock of, and endeavour to create a con- 
tempt for, the great mystery of godliness"? It would 
be natural to supnose tLt from the time of the pubU- 
cation of the autlientic Acts, the spurious ones would 
have speedily ceased to obtain currency, and have fallen 
into oblivion. So far, however, from this being the 
case, we find them incurring the condemnation of Pope 
Gelasius (a.d. 492-6), " having been brought, together 
with their relics, from the East". We are left to infer, 
therefore, that Bishop Theodore's account, when for- 
warded to Rome, was either not at all, or but partially, 
circulated in Asia : hence St. Amator, when carrying 
away with him the bodies of the martyred mother and 
son, must have taken with him also the apocryphal 
account of their death. And this inference is confiirned 
by the fact that these apocryphal Acts were edited by 
Hucbald, who, as we have seen, was presented with the 
arm of St. Cyricus at Nevers, and who died in the year 
930. And again, a.d. 1180, they were edited by Philip, 
an abbot of the Premonstratensian Abbey of Bona Spes, 
for John, the abbot of the church of St. Amandus at 
Elno. John, it would appear, furnished Philip, in the 
first instance, with a copy of the apocryphal Acts, toge- 
ther with Hucbald s work, for we find him stating in a 
letter to John that he had made in them considerable 
corrections, and had omitted much that appeared to 
him profane, irrelevant, or absurd. 

If these were the Acts brought by St. Amator into 
Gaul, it would follow almost of course that they alone 
would have been known to Curig Lwyd, and by him 
disseminated in Wales. The Welsh fragmentary notices 
will be found amply confirmatory of this view ; and as 
they and the foregoing account are reciprocally illustra- 
tive of one another, we propose now to allow them to 
speak for themselves. The first of these notices is that 
in the Emynau Curig (Hymns of St. Curig), as the de- 
votions printed in the Lives of the CambrO'-British 
Saints already mentioned are strangely called. The 
third of these is as follows : " The holy martyr Curig 


was discreet from his childhood. He suflFered martyr- 
dom, and was very wise, and a teacher of heavenly 
things, and opposed the cruel commandment of Alexan- 
der the king, and rejected a lordly Ufe, from a pure 
heart and the wisdom of a perfect man. He desired 
not the vain things of this world, but that he might 
obtain the joys of Paradise ; and suffered for the triune 
God and one Lord severe persecution from men, and 
for love to Christ the King he endured the torments of 
fire on his body and on his arms ; and through faith in 
the Trinity he persevered in faith and in prayer to 
God, so tU the faithful might escape the pains of 
Hell, and obtain the joys of the heavenly kingdom, by 
the words of the Catholic faith, and become no less per- 
fect in Christ than that martyr. Therefore we piously 
call on the undefiled Curig, our helper in Heaven, that 
by his prayers we may obtain and deserve the very 
glorious reward which he is said to enjoy with the hosts 
of angels for ever and ever. Amen.*'^ 

This EmyUy or lesson, furnishes a remarkable coinci- 
dence with the apocryphal life published in the Acta 
Sanctorum of the Bollandists. It represents the mar- 
tyr as speaking: and acting as an adult, whereas the 
liter dlrib«Vo«. though an intot, aB speaking 
with the words of a full-grown man, and as reproving 
Alexander for his idolatry and cruelty, and even chal- 
lenffinff him to inflict on him strange and unheard of 
tortur^ of his own devising, through which he passes 
in succession unhurt, by the power of God. With these 
the allusions, obscurely thrown out in the following 
fragments of Welsh poems, mainly agree. The first is 
attached m the MS. to a portion of Huw Cae Llwyd's 
poem on the Four Brothers, of Uangurig, who was bom, 
and probably passed his life, in the neighbourhood of 
that place, but need not, therefore, be his.^ 

1 Lives of the Gamhro-British Saitds^ pp. 276 and 610. 

^ The language of Hnw Cae Llwyd proves that he was a South 
Wallian writer ; but Llangnrig is on the borders. The poems in 
the text, at least in the state in which they are here presented, can- 
not, we think, be the prodaction of that accurate prosodian and 
mellifluous poet. — Ed. Arch, Camb, 



Llnrig fendififedig wjd, 
Ceidwad [in*] a'r Ffrainc ydwjd, 
Mae i'th wlad, fel j wnaeth [wedd] 
Dj achan, a lljfr dy facl)e[dd] 
Mae*n rhan, o bed war ban byd, 
Dy wyrthiau, rhaid yw wrthyd ! 
Da fyd fii ar d^ feudwy, 
A4 leian gynt ar Ian Gwy. 

Mael gad, pan geisiodd Maelgwn 
Lnnio hud i leian hwn, 
Ei feirch, a'i gewyll efo, 
A arwe[i] niodd wr yno ; 
Trigo'r Haw wrth y cawell, 
Yngl^n, ni wnai Angel well ; 
A*i w^r aetb ar ei ol 
A lynant bawb olynol ; 
Hwjmthwy oedd[ynt] amat ti 
Yn dy gaddigl di 'n gweddi ; 
Drwy dy nerth, Gnrig Fertbyr, 

Y rboddai yn rbydd ei w^ ; 
A*i gwyrthian, 'n ael gortbir, 
A wnaeth Duw o fewn i*th dir ; 

Del wan o gwyr, rhwng dwylaw Gwen, 
A Innioedd leian lanwen ; 

Y rhith, ae nid anrheithwyd, 
Dinbych [Llan] Elidan Lwyd : 
A'i delw, nid o hndoliaeth, 
Rhoi lief ar Dduw Nef a wnaeth ; 
A'i gradd, fel y gweryddon, 
Gyd& Sant a gedwais hon. 
Maelgwn aeth, mal y gwn i, 

Ei delwaith i addoli ; 
Hwn a roddais, yn bresent, 
Glasdir at glos, da ei rent, 
Hysbys y w bod Uys a llan, 
A theml i chwithau y man. 
Ni bn rwydd rhag Arglwyddi 
Daro dyn wrth dy wyr di ; 
Chwithau a fu'n dadleu 'n deg, 
Ar UstuB gynt ar osteg : 
Ar fraich deg oedd faich dy fam 
Silits a roes hwyl . am 
HoU feddiand Alexander 
A fu megis gattiau gir. 
Fob cwestiwn gan hwn o hyd 
Wrth ddadl di a gwrthodyd. 



Plwyf hardd sydd, brif fibrdd a bryn, 

Lie rhed Gwj 'r hyd.dwfr a glyn ; 

Plwy' heddy w aplaf hoy wddyn, 

Pa le ceir gwell, plwyf Curig Wyn ? 

Garig, fab gwar, Uafar, Ueo, 

Yw'n tad, a*D porthiant, a'n pen. 

Cam hwn, creda' i, cai radoedd mawlgerdd, 

Y trwbl a ddug, teirblwydd oedd, 

Bilain dordyn aeth i'w dwrdio, 

Alexander oedd falch dro. 

Silit ddinam, ei fam fo, 

Wen a welad yn wylo ; 

Ofer gwelad ! Na id Gurig 

Wr garw o'i ferth 'rolddig ; 

Dewai 'n fy w, dyna alaeth, 

Dewai 'n gnawd gwyn, ag nid gwaeth ; 

Ni thyfodd, fe garodd gwr, 

Ar ei dir erioed oerwr. 

Nerthwr 'n yw *r gwr a garwyd, 

Gwych iawn, ac a chwyr addolwyd ; 

Yma a tbraw a wellhawyd 

I garwr glan Onrig Lwyd. 

Daw Lwyd cynhenwyd gwenwynig — i'w traia 

Tros fy anwylyd foneddig. 

Ghwerw i doe chwarae dig 

Dichwerwedd Daw a Chnrig. 

Tra dewr o natnr ydwyd, 
Trig ar y gair, trugarog wyd ; 
Treni'r dewr walch trymai ; 
Taer, dewr wyt, Daw, ar dy rai. 


Pwy a aned er poeni, 

Pwy'n deirblwydd no'n Harglwydd ni ? 

Carig bob awr y carwn, 

Oorea help oedd gam hwn. 

Poen oedd i'w wedd pan oedd iaa, 

Pen Merthyr poen a wethiaa. 

Pob gweinied pawb a geiniw 

Bonedd Ffrainc beanydd a'i firiw. 

Perlen a glain parch naw gwlad, 

Plwy' Cnrig, pa le fwy cariad ? 

I rwydd Saint a roddais i 
Anrheg amom rhag oemi. 



Ni bu wan yn byw ennyd 

Nid ofbai 'i groen boen o'r byd. 

Alexander oedd herwr 

Ar Dduw, ftc oedd oerddig wr. 

Id dew o'r faingc oedd ar fai 

Amhorth oer a'i merthyrai. 

Efo k Uid, a'i fam Ian, 

I'r pair aetb, wr purlan ; 

Ni ddarwena 'i ddwr annoer 

At hwynthwy mwy naV nant oer. 

Teirblwydd a fu 'n arglwydd 'n hyn 

Tri mis lai, Duw, a'i rwymyn*; 

Yn fab iacb yn fyw y bu, 

Ac & maen i*w gymynu. 

Yn llndw ei dd^th a'n lludtodd, 

Ac yna fab gwyn i'n Toedd. 

Ag oerddrwg y g^wr drwg draw 

E fa asiaeth i'w feisiaw ; 

Troes Duw hwynthwy tros dyn teg 

Trwy'r astell draw ar osteg ; 

Torrai Iddew trwy wddwg 

Ni'm dorwn draw am dyn drwg. 

04 esgidian nadau a wnaed, 

Yno fal anifeiliaid. 

Crist yw'n rhan, croeso Duw'n rhodd, 

Curig a'i fam a'i carodd. 

Saith angel rhag bodd oedd, 

Sel at y saith Silits oedd. 

Mab a fu'n gwledychu'n gwlad, 

A merch ir, mawr o'i chariad, 

digariad gorynt 

O Ian Gwy, a'i leian gynt. 
Ac arall, mab Rhyswallawn, 
Feddwl oer, a fu ddwl iawn ; 
Meddylio, cyn dyddio'n deg, 
Am oludau, em loywdeg ; 
A Churig [Wyn] ni charai, 
Dwyllo neb un dull a wnai ; 
Ei addoli ef ar ddau lin, 
Ar war bryn a wna'r breniu ; 
Cwympo yma, camp ammharcfa, 
Colli o'i wyr a chylla ei farch ; 
A Churig, fab gwych hoywrym, 
A ddiddigiodd wrth rodd rym : 
A diddan nid oedd anodd, 
A glowson' roi glas yn rhodd. 


Tyredig swmp a roid seth 
Mai eardrefn, ami ardreth ; 
Tri thir, mal traeth enraid, 
Tri yn nn cylch, tri yn un caid. 
Caer fy arglwydd, Ue'i ceir fawrglod, 
Cwmpas dy glai, er dy glod ; 
Llangnrig, pob lle'n gywraint, 
Llawer hyd braff, He rhad brain t ; 
Troell wen hardd, tri liiw'n hon, 
Tir Curig at tair coron, 
P*le well un plwy ni ellir, 
Plwy Gang nid tebyg tir. 


A coat of mail art then 

To us, and to the French, too, a guardian. 

Thy country possesses, as it made it, the form 

Of thy descent and the Book of thy Life. 

The portion of the four quarters of the world 

Are thy miracles. Great is our need of thee ! 

Happy has been the Hermitage,^ 

With its nun, of yore on the bank of the Wye. 

When Maelgwn, mailed for battle, sought 
To practise a deception on the nun of this spot, 
His coursers and his baggage 
Were brought there by the man. 
To a hamper his hand cleaved ; 
It was held tight ; no angel could make it more so. 
Also his men who followed him 
Were held fast, — all, one afber the other. 
When these made earnest prayer 
To thee in thy chapel. 
By thy power, O martyr Cyricus, 
He set his men free. 

And God wrought, on the brow of the upland, 
His wonders within thy territory. 
The nun, pure and holy. 

Fashioned figures of wax between her fair hands : 
The likeness, and it was not disfigured. 
Of blessed Elidan of the church of Denbigh ;' 

^ Curig Lwyd's Hermitage probably is meant, on the spot where 
the church was aflerwards built. The nun would seem, from the 
context, to have occupied it afber his death. 

^ Llanelidan, five miles from Ruthin. 



And her image, by means of no deception, 

Uttered a voice to the God of Heaven ; 

And, like the youths, she maintained 

Her position with the saint. 

Maelgwn went, as well I know, 

To the figure thus made to worship, 

And for an offering he gave 

Pasture land of great price to the sacred enclosare. 

Well known to fame are now 

Your glebe house, churchyard, and temple. 

Thy men are not free to strike a man 

In presence (or for fear) of their lords. 

Well hast thou pleaded also 

Of yore, before a judge, in open court, 

When a burden on the fair arm of thy mother 

Julitta, who gave thee example ; 

In whose eyes the possessions of Alexander 

Were all but as worthless things. 

By thee was each question of his 

Refuted in disputation. 

The resemblance to the apocryphal Acts in these last 
lines is imquestionable. The preceding ones seem as 
clearly to contain the substance of a tradition referring 
the foundation of the church of Uangurig to Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, whose repeated injuries to religion, and sub- 
sequent reparation of them, as told by the contemporary 
Gildas, seem to have procured for him the privilege of 
being made the typicsd representative of such legends : 
at least he is found similarly figuring in the Life of St. 
Bi^nach and others. The adoption of the legend by 
the Welsh bard is valuable so far as it proves that the 
foundation of the church of Llangurig was referred, in 
or about the fifteenth century, to a period dating so 
far back as the sixth ; and that it could not, therefore, 
have been built for the first time by the monks of Strata 
Florida, to whom it seems afterwards to have apper- 
tained as a vicarage. The next is a fragment of a poem 
by Sion Ceri, a bard certainly of the fifteenth century. 

Beautiful is the parish, on highway and hill, 

Where flows along the vale the stream of Wye, 

The parish to-day of one energetic and powerful, 

Than the parish of Blessed Ourig, where will yoa find a better? 

Curig, a youth gentle, eloquent, and learned, 


Is onr father, our head and our sapport, 

Mj belief is that to love him brings down g^raoes ; the trouble 

He endured, when three years old, ought to be praised in 

The tyrant Alexander, proud of temperament, 
And of a high stomach, proceeded to menace him. 
His guileless mother, the blessed Julitta, 
Was seen to weep. 

A fine spectacle ! It had no power to restrain 
The murderous wrath of the cruel wretch towards Curig. 
While he lived he held his peace, — therein lies the sorrow. 
In his holy flesh he was silent^ and unconcerned. 
The man of cold heart who loves him not 
Ne'er hath prospered in his territory. 
It is our beloved saint who strengthens us ; 
Highly exalted is he who is honoured with tapers of wax.^ 
Everywhere have favours been received 
By pure lovers of the holy Curig : 
On behalf of my beloved and exalted one 
Was God aroused to wrath by violence stirred by venom. 
Bitterness comes of bandying strife 
With the loving-kindness of Gbd and of Curig. 
By nature thou art exceeding firm, 
Dwell on the word — thou art merciful ; 
Fuiy will weigh down the steadfastness of the biuve : 
Thou, O God, art merciful to thine own. 

Defects in the metre, as well as the sense, prove the 
corruptness of several of these lines. The identity of 
its legend, however, with the apocryphal Acts is evinced 
by the epithet of " eloquent" ascribed to the martyr, 
when only three years old, whose deeds are magnified 
apparently at the expense of the mother, whose Chris- 
tian heroism seems to be tacitly ignored. The remaining 
fragments are from the pen of Huw Arwystli, who is 
emphatically the poet of Llangurig, as shown by his 
recently published poems on the principal families of 
that place.^ In these, notwithstanding the vexatious 
mutilation of the text, some striking coincidences of 

^ This seems irreconcilable with the previous statement as to his 

^ It is still a common custom on the Continent to bum a wax 
taper as an offering before the statue of any saint whose prayers are 
desired to obtain some special favour from Heaven. 

^ In Montgomeryshire CoUeetions, vol. iv, p. 64. 


the Welsh legend with the apocryphal Acts are plainly 

Who is it was bom to saffer pain, 

Who but our patron, when three years old ? 

Not a moment passes but we love Cnrig, 

There is no better help than to love him. 

Tortared was his frame in his infancy, 

To the person of a martyr pain was befitting. 

Illustrious is his merit, noble was his birth. 

Gentle his demeanour ; let all daily serve him. 

Where does love exist, if not in the parish of Curig, 

The pearl and the gem revered by nine lands ? 

To the beneficent saint have I given 

Gifts to secure us against cruelty. 

The beginning of the next is wanting. 

Ne*er in the world for long hath lived a weak one. 
Who dreaded not pain of body. 

Alexander was a despoiler of Gt>d, 
When angered, a cruel man was he. 
In guilt a very Jew — from the seat of judgment 
With monstrous cruelty he martyred him. 
He, with his pure mother, indignantly 
Entered the cauldron — the pure and bright one. 
The water heated for him bubbled not 
More than would a cold stream. 
Three months short of three years old 
Was our patron when thus they bound him. 
When a child, and in perfect health, 
By a stone was he dashed to pieces. 
His passage through ashes hath angered us. 
To us, therefore, he is a blessed saint. 
Through that wicked and cruel man, 
A framework of boards was to be ventured upon ; 
These were turned by God to the advantage of the saint, 
For, thro' the boards, in sight of all, 
The Jew^ fell, and broke his neck. 
For that wicked man I feel no pity. 
On the spot, from his shoes, issued 
Yells, like those of brute beasts. 

Christ is our portion, may God receive graciously our gift, 
Curig and his mother loved Him, 
Seven angels were filled with delight, 
Julitta was a spectacle for the seven. 

A youth there was — one who ruled the land, 
And a young maiden, greatly beloved, 

* Jew is used here as a terra of opprobrium. 


[hiatttt'} were without a£Eeoiion 

For the Wye's bank, and its nan of old time, 

And another, the son of Bhyswallon,^ 

Was cold of heart) and doll of understanding, 

Before the day dawned his thoughts would run 

Upon riches, and brilliant gems ; 

And he loved not holy Curig ; 

He would cozen any one in any way. 

On both his knees is the king 

Worshipping him on the slope of the hill ; 

Here a shameful mischance befals him. 

He loses his attendants, his steed breaks away. 

And Curig, a saint as generous as powerful, 

Was appeased by virtue of an offering, 

And was readily induced to console him. 

We have heard that the gift of a close was given him. 

An eminence, steep and towering, was bestowed, 

Like a pile of gold, an ample tribute ; 

Three lands like a golden strand. 

Three in one ring, iJbree in one were obtained. 

The enclosure, my patron, wherein thou art greatly honoured, 

Of Llangurig, each spot exactly measured. 

Encircles thy soil, for thine honour. 

Many a good length is there, where there is free privilege, 

A bright and beautiful circle,' wherein are three colours. 

In the land of Curig, with a prospect of three crownsj 

Better parish can there not anywhere be 

Than the parish of Curig, no other land is like it 

There are three or four passages in these two frag- 
ments in striking conformity with the spurious Acts. 
Such are the incident of the caldron or cdcabvs, that of 
the shoes out of which issued horrible yells, the seven 
angels who descend from heaven, and the age of the 
chud, exactly two years and nine months. There is 
some variation in the details* In the Acts the caldron 
is Med with burning pitch ; in the poem, with boiling 
water. In the former, the shoes, on the Governor's 
demanding a sign, become alive ; nay, more, eat and 
drink ; and finally are transformed into a bull, out of 
whose neck springs a he-goat, instead of being left, as 

^ This may be a false reading for Gaswallawn, the fiftther of Mael- 
gwn G-wynedd, who is the subject of the legend as told in the poem 
attached to that of Huw Cae Llwyd. 

^ Or " wheel". Can this mean a corona or chandelier P 


in the nursery tale, after the dissolution of the Governor s 
body by fire ; and the seven angels appear for the pur- 
pose of restoring to life a thousand persons, who embrace 
Christianity after being beheadecT by tlie Governor's 
order. On the other hand, the martyr's death, by being 
dashed against a stone, would seem to have been derived 
from the gfenuine Acts; unless, indeed, the passagfe, 
which is (Srtainlv obscure, is rather to be refirr^to 
an incident in the spurious work, in which a space is 
scooped out of a large stone, capacious enough for the 
two martyrs to sit £, the sides of which are Afterwards 
filled with molten lead. The whole, in fact, bears marks 
of an attempt to reduce the narrative of the spurious 
Acts within credible dimensions by the elimination of 
its absurdities ; a theory borne out by the statement in 
the EmynaUy that Cyricus was an adult who from his 
childhood had been distinguished for his piety and 
ability ; and also by the statement that the Li/e pub- 
lished by Hucbald, and obtained, doubtless, by him 
from Nevers, underwent a similar process of cakiiation, 
first by himself, and a second time, subsequently, by 
his editor. Abbot Philip. 

The most remarkable feet connected with the history 
of these Acts is, perhaps, this, that the genuine narra- 
tive furnished by Bishop Theodore to JPope Zosimus 
within a century after the event, never succeeded in 
superseding them in popular estimation. It affords a 
stLge confirmation Jf 'the saying, which ha« almost 
passed into a proverb, "Give a falsehood a start of 
twenty-four hours, and the truth will never overtake 
it." Father Combefis, a Dominican, by whom Bishop 
Theodore s letter in the original Greet was exhumed 
from among the MSS. in the King's Library at Paris in 
1660, expressed a hope that the public reading of the 
apocryphal Acts proscribed by Pope -Gelasius, already 
suppressed at Nevers, might be put down by authority 
also at Ville Juif (a corruption of Villa Julittse), a town 
six miles south of Paris, where they were read annually 
from a pulpit to a great concourse of people. And 


Father Poree, a Premonstratensian, writing in 1644, 
states that the use of these, which had thus usurped 
the place of the genuine Acts, was in his time widely 
disseminated throughout France. So difficult is it to 
eradicate a popular usage, especiallj when calculated 
to gratify the love of the marvellous, so deeply rooted 
in our nature. It is instructive, moreover, to learn from 
Bishop Theodore's letter, that these, and similar extra- 
vagances in legendary saints' lives, do not necessarily 
owe their origin to motives of gain or self-interest on 
the part of those who may be made the xmconscious 
means of handiBg them down to posterity, as has 
often been erroneously supposed. In this instance, we 
have seen that they were actually due to the malice of 
enemies of the Christian faith, on which it was sought 
to cast discredit by the substitution of false for true 
narratives of the deeds of those whose lives and death, if 
recorded simply and without such exaggeration, would 
have fiimished the strongest testimony to the truth of 
their behef 

In conclusion, an anecdote may not be out of place 
which may possibly serve to illustrate the simple faith of 
the villagers of Llangurig in the power of their patron 
saint to obtain them favours from heaven. A traveller 
by the Shrewsbury and Aberystwyth mail, not many 
years back, while beguiling the tedium of the journey 
by careless gossip with the coachman, was informed by 
him, as an extraordinary fact, that the finest crops of 
wheat in the county of Montgomery were said to be 
grown in the parish of Llangurig, despite the appa- 
rently unsuitable nature of the land and climate for 
that object. Can this have been a remnant of the old 
belief long after the memory of the saint, and the popu- 
lar devotion to him, had faded from the popular mind ? 
The apocryphal Acts of Cyricus close with a prayer by 
him for those who should honour him hereafter, that 
they might obtain their petitions according to their 
necessities, one of which was that they might be blessed 
in their wine, oil, com, and all their substance. Whe- 


ther attributable or not to this passage in his legend, 
the published Welsh poems^ in his honour teem with 
expressions of such a belief in the power of his prayers, 
and of belief also in the reception of tangible tokens 
without number of his protection and favour. 

H. W. Lloyd. 

^ In Montgomeryshire CoUeetioiMf' vol. v, p. 49, and vol. vi, p. 224. 



Mae o Einion ymwanwr^ 
Mynnn'r gamp mae'n oreu gwr, 
Sfae hwy arfau'r mab hirfawr, 
Mae Hun gwych fal Lleon 6awr. 

Y mae grym y gwr yma, 
O dywaid^ hwn ei dad da. 

Mae gwayw Sion mwy a'i g&d ef, 
Mynn ei waithdrafn mewn wyth dref. 
Mae cledd da yn gyrru^n gwaith^ 
Mentr teilwng mewn tair talaith. 
Ep So dewrion lie bon' byth, 
Na chwilio gwych wehelyth. 
Ni S^ Sion, hoflFyw ei swydd, 
Er gwarau gwr a gorwydd ; 
Gwas dewrwych, a gais daraw, 
A'i gweryl aeth gar ei law. 
Gwr yw Sion a srorai saith, 
Gwr kam, gam, diweniaith, 
Ni roi gefh er ei gyfarcb, 
Sein ar ^r mai Sion y w 'r arth. 
Owr yw Sion gorau y sydd, 
Argofion & 'r gwayw efydd ; 
Llew gl&n o Elystan Llwyth^ 
Ue'i daliodd M k'i dylwyth. 
Lliw gwyn o Frochdyn a i frig, 
Lie mae arwydd llew Meurig. 
Sarff y w g&s, Syr Ffft^g o wr, 
Os am ynys ymwanwr ; 
Dyged o Garbed y gair. 
Draw Parwn, byth drwy fawrair. 

Y Mochdref mae ef am waed 
At ais a gwrdd t'wysogwaed.* 
Trig ar f wng trwy Geri fawr 

1 From Add, MSS. U,901, No. 12, in the British Musenm. 

^ Mochdref, a parish adjoining Llandinam, and near Newtown. 


Traws flin-walch teiroes flaenawr. 

Nid enyll neb o'i dynion 

Am droi swydd i'm daro, Sion : 

Ni fyn Sion nnion anair^ 

E fyn &'r flF^nn ofni'r Ffair ; 

£ fyn gael fo iawn i gyd ; 

A fynodd, a fu enyd. 

Ef yw'r b^ i fawr a bach ; 

Heb ochel ni bu weliach. 

Dewr yw Sion^ a dyrys y w, 

Drwy gedyrn fel draig ydyw. 

Oen diddig oni ddigier, 

Obry'n niysg hravm a m6r. 

Ei wraig a rydd rywiawg ran * 

O'r gorau aur ac arian. 

Ei bwyd rhoes heb w&d yn rhydd 

Odidawg, a'i diodydd. 

Gwen^ gu, l&n, gan galenigy 

Gwen bdr-ddoeth, gwn, heb awr ddig. 

Lloer Siancyn gwreiddin graddol, 

Llirddynt had, llwyddiant i'w hoi. 

[Gwraig] Sion g^yrael Llangnrig 

Lloer i bro, lliw aur i brig, 

I g^d hefyd g&d, Dofvdd, 

Gwen a Sion dau c&n oes hydd, 

A'i gwr 61 o'i gwerylon, 

Ag y sydd goran, Sion. 

Ni bu Rys wynebwr well 

Yn eich hoedl oedd na Ghadell, 

Na Morys yn ei mawredd. 

Nag Einion wych, gwn, un wedd, 

Nag Elystan aig Iwys dad, 

Na deunaw gynt yn y gdid. 

Y Nudd yw Sion oedd Tw serch, 

Addaw^ rhoddion ail Rhydderch, 

North Einion wrth ei ynys, 

A fu ^m mhob braich Sion mab Rhys. 

North Dduw i Sion, wyrthiau'r Saint, 

I'w d4l hynod 61 henaint. 

Sion Ceri a*i Cant, 

» Adaw in MS. 




By John, thb Baed op Kerry. 

A tilter comes of Einion's rsuce, 

None better loves the game, 

A youth stout and tall — ^his arms are taller still. 

Noble is his form, like that of Lleon Gawr.* 

The strength of our hero 

Is said to equal that of his doughty father. 

Greater still hath the spear of John been proved. 

In eight towns is the effect of its thrust desired. 

•In battle he drives his black sword 

With a worthy daring in the three principalities.' 

From where they stand to the last, though brave men fly. 

His noble tribe will never yield their ground. 

Fly will not John, his duty is dear to him. 

In the play of horse and horseman.^ 

A youth stout and mettlesome, who will strive to strike. 

When his quarrel has come to his hand. 

John is a hero who can beat seven, 

A hero void of offence, rough, no flatterer. 

Who, though he be courted, will not cringe, — 

The bear is the sign that the man is John. 

A hero is John, possessed of the best 

Reminiscences, with the brazen spear. 

A pure-bred lion of Elystan's tribe,* 

Where with his people he avenged himself on a host. 

Of the white hue of Broughton and its branch,* 

^ Maurice ab Madog ab Einion ab Howel of Mochdref, Esq., son 
of Tudor ab Einion Fychan, Lord of Cefn y Llys, descended from 
Elystan Glodrudd, Prince of Fferlis. He married Tangwystl, 
daughter and coheiress of Gmffydd ab Jenkyn, Lord of Broughton, 
who bore, sable, a chev. inter three owls, argent. 'By this lady, 
Maurice had issue six sons : (1) leuan Lloyd ; (2) Rhys ; (3) David ; 
(4) Llewelyn ; (f5) Maurice Fychan, whose daughter and coheiress 
Catherine, married Jenkyn Goch of Clochfaen ; and (6) leuan 

' A king of Britain, according to the Bruts, who built Chester, 
called to this day Caer Lleon Gawr, the fortress of Lleon the Giant. 
Williams's Eminent Welshmen, p. 276. 

* Of Gkrynedd, Powys, and Dyfed. * The tournament. 

^ Elystau Glodrydd. * Perhaps an allusion to the family coat 


Where is the symbol of the lion of Meurig. 

He is a hateful serpent^ a Sir Falke of a man^^ 

If called to combat for the Island.' 

Derived from Corbet was the epithet,* — 

The Baron yonder, for a perpetual fame. 

To Mochdref does he owe his blood — 

The blood impulsive in the breast of princes. 

For three generations there dwells a chieftain 

To trouble the perverse and vain throughout the extent 

of Kerry. 
Not one of its men shall be free 
To strike me, John, for exercising my calling.* 
The upright John will not allow abuse : 
He will have the Fair awed by the staves (of the officers). 
He will have justice dealt to every one. 
And what he wills at once has come to pass. 
He is a terror to great and small ; 
Beware him those who would keep a whole skin ! 
John is both stout and formidable. 
He is a dragon amidst the strong ; 
A gentle lamb, if he be not angered ; 
Then he descends upon them with his brawn and marrow. 
A goodly share will his wife bestow 
Of the best of gold and silver. 
Her provision she distributes without stint. 
Which is excellent, as also her liquor. 
She is fair, kindly, and pure, lavish in gifts. 
Fair, and very wise, to my knowledge, and never angry. 
Bright as the moon is she, sprung from thoToot of Jenkyn, 
May her seed shoot forth, and m^ her posterity prosper. 
The arched eyebrow of John's wife is to Llangurig 
As the moon to the land, radiant as gold o'er the hill. 
On John and his lady bestow then, O God, 
To live together the hundred years of the Hart, 

* Sir Falke Fitzwarren. * I.e., of Great Britain. 

^ Madog ab Einion ab Howel of Mochdref, married Anne, 
daughter of Piers Corbet, Lord of Lee or Leigh, Juxta Cans, 
descended from Roger Corbet, Lord of Leigh, who bore, or, two 
ravens ppr., in a border engrailed, guiea^ second son of Robert Fitz 
Corbet, Baron of Cans ; Harl. MS. L396 ; Lewys Dwrm, vol. i, p. 814. 
Einion married Nest, daughter and heiress of Adda ab Meurig ab 
Adda ab Madog ab Maelgwyn, Lord of Kerry and Maelienydd. 

* I.e., of a Clerwr, or Minstrel. They were sometimes sabjected 
to legal measures in consequence of their erratic habits of life. 


And may her hasband John come forth 

From his quarrels however is best ; 

Rhys was no better opponent^ 

In your lifetime, nor was Cadell^ 

Nor Maurice in his might. 

Nor the noble Einion, I ween, in any way ; 

Nor Elystan, the father of the pure race, 

Nor twice nine of any of those of yore. 

A very Nudd is John to those he loves. 

He promises gifts like a Bhydderch.^ 

To his country Einion's strength 

Is John the son of Rhys in both his arms. 

May John gain strength from God, and miracles wrought 

by the Saints, 
To uphold him until he be old and full of renown. 

Rbydderch Hael, or the Generous. 

F P 





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during life, for claim 
flj-jenf. The celebra 
from Llewelyn CrAg 
' The ancient pi 
dome Castle, and Al 
Corbet was tbe late 
wills of Sir Theodore 




Earl. MS. 2,291. 

Madog, the eldest son of Idnerth ab Cadwgan ab 
Elystan Glodrudd, had the Lordships of Maelienydd, 
Ceri, and Elfael. In 1136 he took part with Owain 
and Cadwaladr, the sons of Gruffydd ab Cynan, King 
of North Wales, in their victorious attack upon the 
Normans in Cardiganshire, in which the latter were 
defeated with great slaughter, and their encroachments 
for the time successfully checked.^ Madog married 
Rheinallt, daughter of Gruffydd ab Cynan, but, accord- 
ing to some authors, he married Jane, daughter of 
Drumbenog ab Maenyrch, Lord of Cantref Selyf. He 
died in 1141, leaving issue — 1, Cadwallon, of whom 
presently ; 2, Einion Clyd, Lord of Elvael ; he lived at 
Aber Edw, in the Comot of Llech Ddyfnog, in Elvael, 
where are still the remains of an ancient castle, near 
the confluence of the Edw with the Wye, and bore 
gules, a lion salient argent in a border of the second, 
charged with ogresses or pellets. He gave the lands 
now called Tir y Mynach, in the parish of Clyro, in 
Cantref y Clawdd, to the Abbey of Cwm Hir. Toge- 
ther with his brother Cadwallon, he joined his forces, 
with Owain Gwynedd and the other Welsh princes, 
against Henry II, at the battle of Crogen in 1165.^ 
About the year 1177-8 Einion Clyd was treacherously 
slain by the Normans, who lay in ambush to kill him. 
His death was avenged by the Lord Rhys ab Gruffydd, 

1 Mo7}L Coll., vol. i, pp. 236, 237. ^ Brut y Tjwysogion. 


Prince of South Wales, who ravaged their lands in 
Maelienydd, and built the Castle of Rhaiadr Gwy. 
This castle was dismantled and totally demolished 
during the civil wars, and not a vestige now remains 
except the foss. Einion left issue, Walter Fychan, 
Lord of Elfael and Dunreven, who was living in 1215. 
Gervase and Meredydd, who were addressed by Prince 
Llewellyn ab lorwerth, amongst other chieftains residing 
in the neighbourhood of Ceri, in a letter deprecating 
injury or violence to the Priory of Rattlinghope, which 
must have passed between the years 1199 and 1211.^ 

The other sons of Madog ab Idnerth were Meurig, 
Rhys,Howel, Meredydd, Cadwgan, David, andGruffydd 
Foel, the ancestor of the Pryses of Mynachdy, in the 

?arish of Bleddfa, in the comot of Is Mynydd, in Elfael. 
'his family of Pryse bore azure, on a bend inter six 
lions rampant or, armed and langued gules, three cross 
crosslets of the third. Madog had also three daughters, 
Maud, ux. Llys ab Idnerth Benfras, Lord of Maesbrwg ; 
Elen, ux. Adda ab Gruffydd ab Madog ; and Dyddgu, 
who married first, Robert, Lord of Cedewain, and 
secondly, CoUwyn ab Tangno, Lord of Efionydd and 

Cadwallon, the eldest son of Madog, succeeded his 
father as Lord of Maelienydd, which contains the co- 
mots of Ceri, Glyn leithon, Rhiw Abwallt, and Swydd 
Ygre.* He re-founded the Cistercian monastery of 

^ Mont. Coll, vol. i, p. 239. 

^ lo the parish of Llanddewi Ystrad Ennan is an ancient camp 
called The Oaer, which occupies the summit of a high hill impend- 
ing over the Yallej of the leithon, of an oval form, defended by 
two parallel entrenchments, and almost inaccessible on the leithon 
side. On a hill opposite is Bedd Ygre, or the Grave of Ygre, a 
large mound or tumulas of earth enclosed in a small moat, but 
evidently erected in commemoration of a British chief. Two miles 
hence, on a slight elevation, stood Castell Cymaron, of which not 
a fragment of the superstructure now remains ; the site and moat 
are only visible. This is supposed to have been erected by the 
Normans, and destroyed soon after by the Welsh ; but again re« 
built by Hugh, Earl of Chester, in 1142, when all Maelienydd be- 


Cwm Hir, which he intended for sixty monks, in 1143. 
In 1165 he joined his forces with those of the princes 
of G wynedd and Po wys against Henry II at the battle 
of Crogen/ In 1175, he and his brother Einion Clyd, 
Lord of Elfael, and Einion ab Rhys, Lord of Gwrthrei- 
nion, in the Cantref of Arwystli, and other Welsh lords 
who had been in arms against the king, were taken by 
the Lord Rhys ab Gruffydd to the king's court at 
Gloucester, and received to the kings peace, after 
which they returned peaceably to their lands.* Cad- 
wallon resided at Castell Dinbaeth, which is situate on 
an almost inaccessible rock, in a narrow defile, and over- 
hanging the river leithron, in the parish of Llananno, 
in Elfael. 

Cadwallon was waylaid and murdered on Septem- 
ber 22nd, 1 179, by the retainers of Roger, son of Hugh 
de Mortimer, in returning from the king's court, and 
while under the king's guarantee of safe conduct. 
Diceto tells us, says the Shropshire historian, of the 
hatred and fear which existed between Cadwallon and 
the English ; also how his miu-derers were punished. 
Some who were proved guilty were put to the rack, 
and forfeited all their worldly possessions ; others, who 
were suspected, were forced from the pale of society. 
But Diceto does not teU us who was the principal 
offender, namely, Roger de Mortimer, who suffered two 
years' imprisonment and forfeiture in consequence. 
During this period, probably on February 26, 1181, his 
father Hugh de Mortimer died ; and in 1182 the sheriff 
of Herefordshire, balancing his account for the year 
1181, is allowed a sum of money for the custody of the 

came subject to him. It was often an object of contest between 
the Welsh and the Normans, and was afterwards possessed bj the 
Mortimers in 1360, in whose posterity it continued for ages. — The 
Rev. M. Price, Vicar of Llanddewi. This parish is partly in the 
Gemot of Is Mynydd (now called the Hundred of Cefn y Llys) and 
partly in the Comot of Uwch Mynydd (now called the Hundred of 
Knighton), in the Cantref of Elfael. — Carlisle's Die. Top, 
* Brut y Tywysogion. ^ Ibid, 


castle of Camerium (Cymaron), which was iu the king's 
hands by reason of Mortimer's disgrace.^ This casfle 
had been built by Roger de Mortimer in the year 1 143, 
after expelling the brothers from the territory. The said 
sheriff in 1179 charges two and a half merkb for taking 
the prisoners, who were accused of the death of Cade- 
will (Cadwallawn), to the court at Windsor and to Wor- 
cester as the king had ordered.* 

Cadwallawn married Eva, daughter of Philip ab Ma- 
dog ab Adda, by whom he had issue : (1) Maelgwn, of 
whom presently, and (2) Howel, who was one of the 
hostages hanged by King John in 1213 ;' (3) Madog, 
and (4) Owain. Howel had issue : Morgan, Lord of 
Ceri, and Meredydd and Owain, who both did homage 
to Henry III, August 16, 1241 ; Cadwallawn had also 
four daughters, Joan, ux. Meredydd Bengoch ab Howel 
ab Seisyllt, Lord of Buallt; Eva, ux. Meredydd ab 
Gruffydd, Lord of Gwentlwg or Tredegar ; Morfudd, 
ux. Idnerth ab Llewelyn Ddiried, son of Rhys Grug, 
Lord of Llanymddyfri ; and Nesta, ux. Ifor ab Llewelyn, 
Lord of St. Clear's, descended from BledrL 

Maelgwn, the eldest son of Cadwallawn, succeeded 
his father as Lord of Maelieiiydd. He married Janet, 

daughter of Morgan ab Howel, Lord of , by whom 

he nad issue : (1) Madog, of whom presently ; (2) 
Meredydd, Lord of Ceri, in 1250.* He married Anne, 

^ This castle soems to have been built on lands belonging to the 
Abbey of Cwm Hir, for which other lands were given in exchange. 
" Concedimns etiam eis (monachis, scilicet) terras de Maysegragur, 
et Kajrweton, et Brennecrojs, venditas pro Castro de ELaminamm." 
— CarL<t 16 Henry III, mem. 6, printed in Dugdale's ifofuw^., Lond., 
Bohn, 1846. 

2 Mont Coll, vol. i, p. 239. 

^ Howel is stated in the Charter already cited, to have given 
Foxton to the Abbey: "Terram de Foxton, qnam habent de dono 
Howel, filii Cathwalan.'* — Ibid, 

* This Meredydd appears also to be referred to in the above 
Charter as the donor of lands to Abbey Cwm Hir : — " Omnes terras 
qnas habent de dono Mereduc filii Mailgnn (here follows a list of 
twenty-three places) et commnnam pastuamm per totam Melemd" 



daughter of Sir John Scudamore, Knight, by whom he 
had issue: (1) Madog,Lord of Ceri in 1278 (6 Edward I) ; 
(2) Llewelyn, whose son Howel was one of the Lords of 
Ceri in 1278 ; (3) lorwerth, and (4) Adda Moel. 

The third son of Maelgwn waa Cadwallawn, Lord of 
Maelienydd, who died at Cwm Hir in 1234; the fourth 
son was Adda. Maelgwn, who died in 1197,^ had like- 
wise a daughter named Gwerfyl, who married Rhys 
Gloff, Lord of Cymyt Maen in Lleyn. 

Madog, Lord of Ceri, the eldest son of Maelgwn, He 
was one of those to whom Llewelyn ab lorwerth. Prince 
of North Wales, wrote on behalf of Ratlinghope Priory. 
It had been represented to the prince, who was at this 
period recognised as superior Lord of Ceri and Cede- 
waen, that Katlinghope and Cotes, places consecrated 
to God and to pious uses, were so near to the land of 
Ceri as to be exposed to the occasional raids and forays 
which agitated the border. In the cause of religion he 
accordingly writes to the chieftains of N brth Wales and 
all others resident there, whether personally known to 
himself or not. He promises them the best of his aid 
and counsel in all their wants and just requests. He 
shows them that it is their interest not less than his 
own to foster and protect religion, its possessions and 
its shrines. He commands all whom his commands can 
bind, that as they love his person and his honour, they 
wUl protect and assist Walter Corbet (an Augustinian 
canon who has acquired these lands for pious uses) in 
his designs. He threatens, on the other hand, the loss 
of his friendship to any one who is disobedient to his 
wishes. Lastly, he addresses Madog, the son of 
Maelgwn in particular, reminds him how he had 
brought him up and promoted him. He conjures him 
not to return evil for good, but to protect the prince's 
honour, as he, the prince, would thereafter consult for 
and succour the said Madog.* 

* B^nit y Saeson rmd Tywysogion, Ed. Aberpergwm. 
2 Mont, Colhy vol. i, p. 241, 


Madog, Lord of Ceri, was one of the three hostages 
for the Prince Llewelyn ab lorwerth, who were so cruelly 
put to death by John, King of England, in 1213. He 
married Rose, daughter of Sir Roger Mortimer, by 
whom he had issue, Adda of Ceri, who married Jane, 
daughter of Hugh ab Llewelyn ab Hugh of Payne (by 
Eleanor his wife, daughter of Robert Mortimer). By 
this lady Adda had several children, of whom Meurig 
of Ceri was the father of Adda of Ceri, whose only 
daughter and heiress, Nesta, married Einion ab Howel 
ab Tudor of Mochdref, as before stated.^ 

^ According to Hanes Cymru^ the true name of the kingdom of 
Eljstan Glodrjdd is Fferyllwg, or Fferllwg, of which those of 
Fferlljs, Fferleg, Fferex, and Fferreg are corruptions. It was 
sometimes called also '* Y wlad rhwng Qwy a IlafretC\ the country 
between Wye and Severn. The author adds that some persons re- 
gard the country now between those rivers as the original territory 
of Fferyllwg, together with a portion of Herefordshire. Mr. Price's 
own opinion was, that the nucleus of the kingdom of Fferyllwg was 
the district called by the Saxons " Dena", or the Forest of Dean, 
noted by Giraldus as "trans Vagam, citraque Sabrinam". The 
word '* Fferyllwg", he says, expresses the distinctive character of 
the country, and, in his opinion, is derived from "Fferyll*', a worker 
in metals, or rather in iron. Fferyllwg, then, is '* the land of iron- 
work", which is to this day a speciality of the Forest of Dean. It 
was described by Giraldus as " ferro fertilem atque ferina". Again, 
Mr. Williams, in his History of Badnorshire^ states that Fferllys was 
originally a part of the territory of the Silures (Essyllwg), and that 
this territory had continued to be governed by its own "reguli" 
during and since the Boman occupation up to the period of its con- 
quest by Elystan Glodrydd ; Hereford, the capital, being previously 
called Ffcrley. Of the body of Ethelbert, assassinated by Offa, it 

was written — 

" Corpus tandem est delatum, 
In Fferleii tumolatam". 

If this be so, the origin of the names " Silures" and '' Essyllwg" is 
easily accounted for. The inhabitants of Fferyllwg would have 
been called in Cymric " Fferyllwys*\ as those of Lloegr "Lloegrwys". 
These names the Romans corrupted into '^ Silures" and '* Siluria", 
whence the Cymry again formed " Essyllwg". The name of Here- 
ford may have been a Saxon or Norman corruption of Fferyllwg, 
originating in unsuccessfal attempts at pronunciation of the word. 





Bt the Babds Cynddblw and Lltgad Gwb. 

Translated by HOWEL W. LLOYD, Esq. 

The petty kingdom of Fferllys, or Fferyllwg, preserved 
its integrity but for a brief period after its conquest by 
Elystan Glodrydd The parts of it comprised within 
the counties of Hereford and Gloucester, including the 
Forest of Dean, were wrested by William the Con- 
queror from his son Cadwgan, whose son, Idnerth, 
appears as lord only of the lands forming his father's 
paternal inheritance.* Nor was he left in undisturbed 
possession of these ; for William Rufus made a grant 
of them to Ralph de Mortimer, Lord of Wigmore, one 
of the Norman invaders of England, with power to 
conquer them for himself. For more than a century 
of warfare, however, the Mortimers do not appear to 
have succeeded in acquiring more of the territory from 
the descendants of Elystan than lay in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the castles which they erected in it, 
and garrisoned with their retainers. To this feud, and 
to the dissensions in the family itself, are to be traced 
the misfortunes of which there are incidental notices 
in the Chronicles, and which ended in the ultimate 
transfer to the Mortimers of the chief portion of the 

^ In Myvyrian Archaeology ^ pp. 159 and 255, Ed., Denbigh. 

^ Mr. Jonathan Williams, in his History of Radnorshire, states that 
Radnor also, or Maesyfed, was seized by William I, who made it a 
royal demesne, whence it was called *' the Honour of Radnor*'. 


territory. Idnerth, the eldest son of Cadwgan, had 
twelve sons, of whom Madoc, the eldest, succeeded 
only to the Lordships of Maelienydd, Ceri, and Elvael. 
To his eldest son, Cadwallawn, he bequeathed the two 
former ; and Elvael, the remaining Lordship, to his 
second son, Einion Clyd. In the year 1159, the brothers 
Cadwallawn and Einion Clyd were at variance ; for we 
find that the former was made prisoner by the latter, 
and given up to Owain Gwynedd, who in turn de- 
livered him into the hands of Henry II of England, 
by whom he was imprisoned at Worcester ; whence, by 
the aid of his friends and foster brothers, he contrived 
to escape.* Another notice of Einion Clyd is in An- 
nales CambricBi — "Annus mglxx . . . EynaunClut vul- 
neratus est a filiis Lewarchi filii Denawal (Dywal, C.) 
scilicet Meiler (Meilir, C.) et Ivor," p. 52. And in the 
Confirmation Charter of Henry III, already referred 
to, he is said to have been the donor to Abbey Cwm 
Hir of certain lands, " terram de Camaff (Camo ?) cum 
nemore quod vocatur Coedeirenis" (the Wood of Aeron). 
The first elegy, of which the following is an attempt 
at a metrical version, is by the celebrated bard, Cyn- 
ddelw. He was in high favour with most of the Welsh 
princes, his contemporaries, in the twelfth century, in 
whose praise several of his poetical compositions are still 
extant, and are printed in the original among those of 
the " Gogynfeirdd'', in vol. i of the Myvyrian Archceo- 
logy of Wales. Among them is this poem, interesting 
not only for its poetical power, but also for the relation 
it bears to a family remarkable for its singular accumu- 
lation of misfortunes. Its hero, Cadwallawn, was the 
eldest of several sons of Madoc, the son of Idnerth, 
and he and his brother Einion Clyd lost their lives in 

^ Brut y Saesofij p. 679 ; Brut y Tywysogion, Aberpergwm Edit. ; 
p. 713 oC Myv. Arch,, Edit., 1870. In Annates Camhrice, the account 
of this event is reversed: — ''a.d. 1161. Cadwalann filius Madanc 
Eynann Clyt fratrem sanm tennit, et Owino Grifini filio carceran- 
dam tradidit : qaem Owinus Francis dedit : sed per collectaneos et 
familiares sues de Wigornia libcratas, noctc evasit," p. 49. 


the manner already related, the former by the stroke 
of a pole-axe, not without a desperate struggle with 
his assassins, so far as may be gathered from the elegy, 
in which a prudent discretion would appear to have 
been observed by the poet in his use of obscure and 
guarded language in reference to the event. 

It is remarkable that the Welsh Bruts, Annales 
Cambrice not excepted, are silent as to the manner of 
his death, though one of them. Brut y Tywysogion, 
states the simple fact that he was slain. '^ a.d. 1179. 
Ac yna y lias Kadwallawn". From this silence, and 
from the record of the death of his brother Einion 
Clyd, who had been similarly waylaid less than two 
years before, it might be supposed that the two events 
had been confounded, were it not that the French 
Chronicle of the Mortimers, allowed by Eyton to be 
authentic,^ and the contemporaneous chronicler, Radulph 
de Diceto, who was Dean of London in 1181, actually 
mention " Cadwallon" by name as the person who was 
waylaid and murdered in returning from the king's 
court, and whilst under the king's guarantee of safe- 
conduct. As the latter appears to supply the fullest 
account extant, albeit hostile and prejudiced, of the 
event, and as the judgment exhibited therein of Cad- 
wallawn's life and character contrasts strangely with 
that passed on him by his countrymen as displayed in 
the elegy, a translation of the whole passage is here 
subjoined : — 

"a.d. 1179. Cadwallan, a person holding some Princedom 
in South Wales, often transgressed the limits defined of old 
time between the English and the Britons,^ and by making 
violent inroads into the March, and panting open-mouthed for 
massacres of men, studied to pass the whole course of his life 
in frequent plunderings and maraudings. Dragged^ at length 
before the King, and assailed by the crios of many persons, 

1 Hist, of Shropsh,, iv, pp. 205-6. 

^ *' Fines inter Anglos etBritones limitatos antiqnitos ssepe trans* 

gressus est/' Offals Dy ko must be the boundary here rcfciTed to. 

» "Tractus.** 


wheHj althongh then and there safe from the King under the 
condnct of the King himself, but always admonished in pro- 
portion to the enormity of his crimes^ he had gone on his way 
back homeward^ being casnally intercepted by an ambuscade 
of the enemy, he was slain on the 22nd of September. Now, 
because this redounded greatly to the injury of the King^s 
Majesty, Cadwallan, who so often before pnght justly to have 
been awarded hanging for his deserts in accordance with pub- 
lic law, out of reverence for the King, from whose Court he 
was returning, ought, to the end that public law might not be 
outraged, to nave had a safeguard from public law, until he 
should have betaken himself within the boundary predeter- 
mined for his full security by the indulgence of the Prince. 
Now, if any one be alarmed by the example of this unwonted 
event (although nothing like it has occurred in our own days, 
and although the King has not left this unpunished, though 
in avenging it the punishment exceeded due bounds^), if he 
should have been summoned' to the King's Court, let him 
approach it without fear. For the Welsh may mutually con- 
sole each other that the death of one of their countrymen 
has received, in the deaths of many of the March-men, obse- 
quies grievous to the English and odious to the Normans. 
Therefore, those privy to the murder, and become suspected 
from concurrent report, and proved liable by a public investi- 
gation, were involved in a heavy sentence, some being tortured 
on the rack,^ and condemned in confiscation of goods, and 
others compelled to lead a wretched life in the hidden recesses 
of the woods.*'* 

It never could have occurred to the worthy dean, 
although, from the permission accorded to Cadwallawn 
to return home with no worse treatment than a warn- 
ing, it seems to have suggested itself to Henry II and 
his advisers, that the Welsh may have had some 
foundation of justice for their reprisals in the gratui- 
tous grant of their hereditary territories to the Morti- 
mers by the Red King, solely by the paulo post futu-^ 
mm title of their conquest of it bv the sword ; to say 
nothing of the previous assassination of no fewer than 
four of his brothers, Meredydd, Howel, Cadogan, and 

^ " Dum iu alciscendo poonae modnm ezcesserit.*' 

« "Vocatns." « "Patibnlo." 

* Diceto's Yniagines "HUtoriarum^ in Twysden's X Scriptores. 



EinioD^ at the hands of these same enemies, the Morti* 
mers. Cadwallawn could not have been "dragged" 
against his will to the court, or he would have been 
entitled to no safe-conduct. Nor could his conscience 
have reproached him with any crime, the proof of 
which, in the king's court, would have forfeited his 
safe-conduct, and placed him in the power of those 
who, he well knew, thirsted for his blood. Nor could 
the king, without shame, have suffered the great ag- 
gressors, the Mortimers, to escape scot-free after the 
Eerpetration of so atrocious a deed. He must have 
een aware that the real object of this, as of the 
foregoing assassinations, was to establish that family 
for ever in the possession of the remaining property 
of those whom tney had already violently ousted from 
its largest and richest portion, and which they had 
little prospect of securing for themselves, as long as 
the brave and warlike princes lived, and had sons to 
follow their footsteps, in defending it. The perpetra- 
tion of such deeds was certainly far from atoned for by 
mere deprivation and imprisonment for a year or two ; 
and this shadow of justice, which Diceto naively pro- 
nounces excessive, would be one proof more, if such 
were needed, of complicity in the judge. 

The second elegy is one of the five extant compo- 
sitions of Uygad Gwr, a bard who flourished in the 
next generation to Cynddelw. 

According to the " Llyfr Coch Hergest" edition of 
the Brut y Tywysogion, Howel and his brother, sons 
of Madoc ab Idnerth, were slain, how and wherefore 
is not stated, nor the name of the second brother. 
In the Bnit y Saeson^ the name of the second brother, 
Cadwgan, is given, with the addition that they were 
slain in a quarrel, "yn ymryson". In the Aberpergwm 
edition of the Brut y Tywysogion these statements 
are supplemented by the addition that there was a 
quarrel between Howel and Cadwgan, sons of Madoc 
ab Idnerth, and that they fratricidally killed each 
other: — "Oed Crist 1140...y bu ymryson rwng Hy- 


wel a Chadwgan meibion Madawc ab Idnerth, ac y 
lladdasant y naill y UalL" This, however, appears to 
have been copied from the Annales CanibricB, under an 
amusing misapprehension of the meaning of the words 
" de se". " A.D. 1142. Howel et Kadwgaun filii Madauc 
filii Ydnerth occiduntur, machinante Elya de se — " i.e., 
Howel and Cadwgan, sons of Madoc, son of Idnerth, 
are slain by the contrivance of Elias de Say, whose 
father, Hugh de Say, with Roger Mortimer, was 
worsted by Rhys ab Gryflfydd in an attempt to defend 
Radnor in 1 144. Elias was sixth in descent from Picot 
de Say of Stokesay. He and his brother Robert died 
without issue. His sister Margaret married Hugh de 
Ferrers, and secondly Robert de Mortimer, by whom 
she became mother of Hugh de Mortimer ; by whom 
Meredydd ab Madoc, another brother, was slain in 1146.* 
Again, Meuric ab Madoc, the last brother, was slain by 
his own men in the same year.* Thus, of nine royal 
brothers, six at least died violent deaths — a sad and 
striking illustration of the turbulence of the times! 
Cadwallawn ab Maelgwn ab Cadwallawn, the last Welsh 
lord of Maelienydd, died in 1234, at Abbey Cwm Hir, 
where he had previously taken the religious habit.' 
His brother Maelgwn built the Castle of Trefflan.* 


By Ctnddblw. 

May God pour forth to me the gift assured 
Of poesy, the varied lofty ode. 
That 1 with honour meet may celebrate 
A man, like ocean lashing up his ire. 
That so I may compose, with language just, 

^ Brut y Saeson, 

' "Menric, filins Madanc, it suis dolo interfectus est." — Ann, 
Camhr, Ed. C. 

' " Katwalan filins Mailgon sumpto religionis habitn apud Cumhyr 
obiit." — Ann. Camhr,, p. 80. 

* " Maelgon filius Maelgon ©dificavit castellnm de Trefilan." — Th. 

R R 


And studied force, Cadwallawn's elegy^ 

Like Einiawn's elegy by Morvran^ framed. 

What could I love, I, by my lord beloved. 

Save honour, mead, and shaggy-coated steeds ? 

Stand not my tears in heaps, since he is dead. 

Of chiefs my chiefest pleasure and delight I 

Gome suddenly upon me is the day 

Of parting from the flesh that teemed with life, 

Cadwallawn's fix'd, predestinated time. 

The favours I declare of gracious lords 

Dispensing happiness. An ardent flame 

Of passion would I stir when I shall sing 

The home of mournful, but erst comely bards. 

Of one who brings ua ionging would f speak ; 

My tears are trickling for an eagle's might. 

In sadness for the slaughter of my chief. 

Now that the potent lord, the Cymry's prop. 

First in the war-shout, of overbearing course, 

Is gone. The fruitful earth is eloquent ! 

Who will maintain Cadwgan's generous seed, 

A stalwart rampart raised around the fort. 

Around the beverage they brew from com ? 

Who will rush now where spears are thrust to slay ? 

From shafts now slackened, where the blue-edged wound ? 

Who on the war-path shall direct the fray ? 

What lion brave, with cruel blade, advance ? 

What courtly host, in wealthy palaces, 

Shield, and imbue with force, the British bard ? 

Will alms be giv^n, when heaps are wasted all ? 

What harmony of worship will be tuned. 

Now that the stranger hath cut off its life ? 

What warrior supreme shall warriors meet ? 

Who, as Cadwallawn erst, shall lavish gifts — 

Cadwallawn, Ehodri's^ gracious progeny ? 

To him th' affray was as a chord attuned. 

And dreadful blows on Beli's lifted shield.' 

His loss I know, — he showered down splendid gifts ; 

Have I not lost a lord who freely gave r 

His sons on me red silken robes bestowed. 

Within me do not stirring memories rise f 

With wrathful indignation am I stirred ; 

To me his palm unclosed with gracious gifts ; 

^ Morvran Ail Tegid, a bard of the sixth century. 

* Rhodri Mawr, or Roderick the Great. 

^ I.e., his shield was like that of Beli Mawr. 


Unstinted, overflowings nndisgiiised. 

I was an Ovate by his grace endowM^ 

As all may know^ so good a lord was he ! 

My golden tints and vessels have I seen 

In mansions, where his love requited mine, 

In tramp of hosts^ in halls^ mid songs at feasts. 

In trodden courts, and gates, mid bardic lore, 

What time I was beloved by Ceri's lord. 

The love-compelUng prince of lands renowned. 

His dinted target I must love perforce. 

He loved my welfare, loved me in his house. 

But since the prince of warriors is gone. 

Who kept me well, but made nor heap nor store. 

Silent am I. Too long I hold my peace — 

I will be mute no more, — 'tis not my part. 

For great Cadwallawn, manhood's glorious light, 

A chain with bars the Southerners prepared.^ 

Cadwallawn's bounty it is mine to praise ; 

Whenever generosity was praised, 

Mono were a third so generous as he. 

His onset, as a flood o*erspreads the shore. 

Forced its way foremost in the rush of war. 

The glades of Powys did my chief revere 

For qualities that gain a man respect ; 

Like Madoc, ever generous in will ; 

Stem to mow down his foes, yet kind withal. 

Not Owain* brooded more o'er Britain's care, 

Yet slaked his thirst of vengeance in the fight : 

A man to fell men never fell'd before, 

A man of manliest courage in distress, 

A man who laid an ambuscade when pressed, 

A mighty tow'r of strength, a noble king, 

A man who made the Gymry seem disgraced, 

A man who took their manliness away, 

A man who caused St. David to withdraw 

From them his patronage, tho' England's foe.* 

A man who reddenM with a gushing stream 

Of gore his blade, and Teivi's plain once fair, 

And stainM with mingled gore the azure sea. 

Great is the day, to mark the love we bore 

Our hero, for the joys he bless'd us with. 

Against a host when valiant in the van. 

* An allnsion, probably, to his imprisonment at Worcester. See 
above, p. 346. - Owen Cy veiliawg F 

^ By his prowess casting theirs into the shade. 


Not Tain oar love ; his life of precioas toil^ 

When fighting for our hearths, subdued our hearts. 

His heaving steel he stain'd with crimson-red. 

When, in the fiery conflict, death was rife. 

By foes encompassed in the combat's fray. 

Lavish of alms, protector of the song. 

His death that came of devastating war 

Supremely hath afflicted me ; my smile 

Perforce is stay'd : woe's me, my lord is lost ! 

Doth not earth's bosom hold him in the grave 7 

Light of the battle's skirts, he yet was mild. 

Slain is the king of bounty — ^grief is come ! 

As he hath seen me, would I saw him now ! 

Begret assails me, bitter is my pain ! 

Huge was his blade, and heavy with its tip 

Of many-tinted brass ; the cavity 

In his shield's centre waver'd not ; he took 

Pride in his feats of valour, ere he fell. 

Where'er he went his fame had gone before. 

With twenty pounds he gifted me unask'd. 

He never bade me from his sight depart; 

May God ne'er part him from the realms of bliss ! 

A king's encroachment is a tyranny ; 

As he hath stood by me, so I by him. 

What happ'd before will hap again ; all die ! 

Much, from the noble impulse of my soul. 

The leader by my song will I extol. 

Who loved to dare the venture of a wolf. 

Who gifted bards with noble maintenance, 

Himself their pattern of a perfect life, 

Shelt'ring the winged tribe of flutt'ring birds,* 

Slaying a foe who erst had left his side. 

The crows' provider ne'er could bear reproach ; 

The crows of Brynaich never wanted loads ; 

Reproach was none that he could o'er deserve. . 

He was not one to store up heaps of grain. 

Nor yet was he so far reduced in wealth, 

But bards wayfaring would resort to him. 

Whate'er he had to give was gain to all. 

The soil was honoured where he slew a foe. 

Where'er he was, that spot was not disgraced. 

He would not turn aside to do a wrong, 

But, where he saw oppression, would oppress. 

^ i. c.f the bai'dti who flitted like birds from place to place. 


Too lofty-minded he to sknlk from foes ; 

Not one would dare so mach as rouse him up. 

As falcons are self-confident^ so he^ 

Faultless, in pride of courage venturesome^ 

With brittle spear uplifted, battered shield ; 

So was the mounted son of Madoc armed. 

The glorious warrior, mead-fed, on the shore, 

Freely as Mordaf ^ on me did bestow 

Gifts lavished on me, ta'en from vagabonds ; 

Ah ! scarce can I again pour forth my lay : 

For so to nurture bards he used his wealth. * 

Around the Border he would Saxons fell. 

His rage Gwynogion's^ jurisdiction ruled. 

And, let who would oppose, a hero he. 

Who kings resist with force deserve not peace. 

Angles he mangled, — and, when mangled, left. 

The Lloegrians hear the fame of ravage still, 

Though he be slain — ^the lion dire in fight, — 

In wrath protecting all. Exists to-day 

No warrior now as heretofore. To-day 

No peace is left for me, but still the wound 

Within my bosom doth distress me sore. 

For my chiefs crimson sword am I distressed. 

With deep affliction. God deliver me ! 

Since fallen on me is this seeming shame. 

To the sad measure of my moamful lot. 

And to the measure of his bounty great. 

Proportionate a poem have I framed 

Of doughty struggles — various the lay. 

My skill hath brought me importunity, — 

Hath brought me wealth — falcons of plumage light, 

Alike in colour, and in speed alike, 

A gilded saddle, splendid, proudly gay, 

From the majestic knight of coursers fleet. 

Taken to-day — ^^tis this that maddens me ! 

For his disti*acting loss I smart with pain. 

Defending Elfael, when, in autumn, he 

» The third of the " Three Generous Ones" of the Triads, 
^ " Swydd Gwynogion", the original name of the second of the 
three Gemots of the Cantref of " Y Clawdd" in Maesyfed (Radnor), 
corruptly spelled " Swyddinogion" in Parthaa Cymry, Myv. Arch,, 
p. 736, Denbigh Edition ; and Swydd Wynogion in Jon. Williams's 
HisL of Badnorshire^ p. 69. The term "Swydd" implied the office 
of justice attached to the freeholder. " Glossary on Laws of Howel 
Dda," JUijv, Arch., p. 1069. 


Drench'd wiih his blood his coantry*8 gory soil. 

None greeted me with deferential gift; 

They came to meet me, but they spared me not ; 

Fell back each coward then, till he was slain> 

Rushed on each hero then, till he was felt ; 

From head to foot the tumbling helmets fell,^ 

WhUe kin from kin sought succour ev'iy ona 

Slain is the hero, fiery to behold. 

Like a grim wolf, whose lair might lose its prey. 

Gentle Cadwallawn's hand was open aye 

To the world's pale ones' use, open his court. 

Where strangers went for hospitality : 

In life the bards were fostered in his breast.^ 

While lived the country's high-escorted king. 

Of gain and wealth they found the daily use. 

High-trotting steeds, tall-flank'd and grey were theirs. 

A wolf was he, the root of manly strength. 

In fight his valiant sword-strokes, wolf-like, fell. 

Of EithonV fortress'd land the sov'reign chief. 

Of Clyd^ and Aeron^ prince famed far and wide. 

When tried in the discourse of speakers wise, 

Cynddelw I,— my friends are never lost, — 

Of speech harmonious ever, while I live. 

My verse discussion gains in gentle speech. 

In competition my encomium wins. 

As scholars win, when grammar's in debate. 

With vigour will I sing, as I know how. 

As our disciples who have learning know. 

After Cadwfidlawn, bounteous to bestow, 

Muaiiicently shining as the star 

Seen in the dawn, a blessing to the poor, — 

The suppliants of Britain, — and to bards. 

No empty-handed one shall promise gifts. 

His lance bath memories of mourning left, 

^ Or, " Head over heels the stumbling chieflains fell." 

^ Literally ** folded", like sheep in a fold. 

^ Qlyn leitkon. The Comet was S\vydd Glyn leithon or Swydd 
leithou. Parthau "Cymry, Myv, Arch.y pp. 736 and 738. 

* Clyd, then, reverted to him ou the death of his brother Einion, 
A.D. 11 77-8. Or Einion may have held Elvael under him. 

^ This cannot have been Aeron in Cardiganshire. Cwm Aeron, 
corruptly written Cymaron, where Roger Mortimer built a castle, 
must be meant. The river Aron, probably Aeron originally, rans 
through the " Cwm" or Glen. Hi^L of Eadnorehire, by Jou> Wil- 
liams, p. 60. For " Coedeirenis" (Coed Aeron ?), see p. 346. 


And crimson gashes oozing ont with gore. 

The fiery prince hath left behind him sons. 

Themselves would leave blood-tricklings in their foes. 

Three^ whelps of leaders bold to thrnst the spear. 

In fray of lances eager eagles three. 

Privy to conflicts three, and sword-cnts dire, 

Accordant three to minstrels, and to gifts. 

Three diligent to aid at Saxons' gates. 

Three bold, and fearless, mighty to avenge. 

Three generonsly banded, close as one, 

To bar dispersion, and the scare of throngs ; 

Three native hawks, high-famed, of purest breed. 

Stout youths, who wash their cheeks fix>m stain of war. 

Since now, by stroke of battle-axe cut down. 

Our princely lion-monarch is laid low, 

A chief supreme, from ancient sovereigns sprung ; 

Since our dispenser is in truth no more. 

Lord God ! may he be guiltless in Thy sight. 

Should wrath betide the friend of all the poor. 

Pillar of Britons, and their sheltMng shield. 

Then, in the realms of light. Lord of the poor, 

Let angels guard him to Heaven's bright abode ! 


By Lltoad Gwr. 

Dreadful the loss 1 my God, oh, woe is me, 
Since none can save, that left me desolate. 
Made many poor, laid Song and Music low. 
When died my Lord, whose habitation lay 
Mid peopled dwellings, on a golden plain. 
The mighty hero's height is sunk to naught. 
Who out-topp'd heroes with his haughty gait. 
Of men the fearless pillar, when a path 
He cleared thro' foes encompassing a town. 
Woe is the world without his lavish .hand. 
Sad that its gen'rous Guardian 's ta'en away ! 
I, too, must mourn, since now I clearly view 
The course of things confused upon the earth. 

^ The names of four of Gadwallawn's sons are g^ven in the pedi« 
gree (suprOj p. 343), Maelgwn, Howel, Madoc, and Owain. One, 
therefore, could not have survived his father. 


It is not good that Howel, Madoc's son, 

A light that shone with glorious majesty^ 

Is laid within the bosom of the ground. 

Eternity is long ! Long will the time 

Appear without him now ; and trouble too 

With consternation mingles our regrets. 

Their trappings round him warlike throngs displayed. 

And with his valour grew his nation's fame. 

His wealth enrichM the crowds who filled his court. 

Draining the mead-horns in the banquet's cheer. 

Fair token was it of the gifts to come, 

When reckoned were his hundred dignities. 

The gate of Heaven open may he find ; 

His lot be at the Son of God's right hand ! 

Unwise is he whose faith hath not been fix'd 

Upon the Man, the best that e'er was bom I 

Our refuge He from Death when on the wing, 

From all our tribulation, and our grief; 

Firm is our faith in Christ, made sad for us. 

Woeful our wail for wrong— no hidden wrong, 

That smote the Hero as a falcon brave : 

To feel his loss hath made our blood run cold ; 

No marvel is it if we g^roan aloud. 

Does not reproachful memory arise, 

For the loved Leader with his crimson'd sword. 

Who knew no guile, was pure from all deceit ? 

If I am low, then is not mine the loss ? 

With fervour all sincere he praised his bards. 

Is not the mourning dol'rous, is 't not dull. 

To huge Hirddywel from far Berwyn's fells, 

Because the fiery leader hath been ta'en. 

With turmoil, like the herd's upon the hill. 

Whose spear was blood-red, like a blast of blood 7 

Oh, for the wounded warrior's gilded sword ! 

Oh, for the Flood to come — I care not when ! 

Oh, for his clarions that red harvests reap'd ! 

Oh, for his prowess, proof against the strong! 

So brave in battle, oh that he is gone ! 

How long, alas I and he will ne'er return ! 

Oh, Mary I Michael 1 can then nought be done ? 

O, God I that HowePs taken to Thyself, 

Who ne'er drew back, hero of heroes he I 

Of justice now be his the sure reward I 

A lord revered, may he ascend on high. 

Borne by the Prince of Angels up to Heav'n. 




Harl MSS., 1396, 5529, fo. 31; 6128, fo. 60. 
Lewys Dicnn, vol. ii, p. 353. 

Sib John de 

Ipstone, Lord 

of Ipstone, 

Ipstones, or 

Ipstans, o6. 

▲.D. 1394. 

William Ip- : 

stone. Lord of 

Ipstone, ob. 

1, H. IV, A.D. 


Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Thomas Corbet of Wat- 
tleshorough, eldest son and heir of Sir Bobert Corbet of 
Mor^n Corbet and Wattlesborongh, knight. Thomas 
Corbet died a.d. 1375. He had two younger brothers, 
Folke, whose only daughter and heiress married John 
Lord of Mawddwy, son and heir of William Lord of 
Mawddwy, fourth son of Gruifydd ab Owenwynwyn, Prince 
of Upper Powys ; and Sir Boger Corbet of Morton Cor- 
bet, knight, ancestor of the Baronet family of Corbet of 
Morton Corbet. 

Maude, daughter and heir (by Elizabeth his wife, daughter 
and heir of Sir Nicholas de Becke, knight) of Sir Bob«rt 
de Swinnerton, knight, son and heir of Sir Bobert de 
Swinnerton, in Com. Stafford, knight. Maude married 
first. Sir John Savage of Cheshire, knight; secondly. Sir 
Piers Leigh ; thirdly, William de Ipstones; and, fourthly, 
Bicbard Feshall. 





Christian. Alice, Lady ^p Sir Banulph or Bandulphus Brereton 

of Ipstans 
or Ipstones. 

de Malpas, Knt., second son of Sir 
William Brereton de Brereton, Knt., 
Lord of Brereton. Argent, two bars 


I 2nd son. 
William Brereton ^ Catherine, daughter and coheir of Thomas de Wylde of 
of Borasham, Borasham, Esq. Argent, a chev. sa^le, on a chief of 

Esq., 1450. the second, three martletts of the field. 


S S 




let wife. 2nd wife. 

Edward =f EI izabeth, d. of JoHn Boydon of Pulford, =f Dorothy, d. of Richard 
Esq., and ... his wife, dau. of Thomas Hanmer, and sister 
Hanmer of Llys Bedydd or Bettisfield, of Sir Thomas 
Esq. Vert, three roebuck's heads Hanmer, who was 
erased in bend or, in dexter chief a knighted at the 
rose of the second. taking of Terwin 

and Toumev. 





Thomas Brere- =F Marga^ Eliza- 

ton, Rector of 

Northope, 1639; 

of LlantJrinio, 

1557; and of 

Gresford, 1566. 

ret, d. of beth, uz. 
Ithel ab James 
Gruffydd Eyton of 
abBelyn.^ Eyton« 


ux. Cyn- 

wrig ab 


of Pena- 


rine, ur. 
Lloyd of 

John Brere- 
ton of Boras- 
ham, Esq. 

Margaret, d. and heiress of Richard ab leaan ab David ab 
Ithel Fychan of Llaneurgain, Esq.,* descended from Edno- 
wain Bendew, chief of one of the noble tribes of Wales. 
Argent, a chev. inter three boar's heads couped sable. 

1st wife. 2nd wife. 

Owain Brereton 7 Elizabeth, d. of John Salusbnry,? Catherine, d. of Hani 

of Borasham, 
High Sheriff for 
CO. Denbigh, 1580 
and 1588. 

Esq., heir of Lleweni, M.P. 
for Denbigh 1554 ; and Cathe- 
rine his wife, d. and heiress of 
Tador ab Robert Fychan of 
Berain, Esq. 

Gk>ch Salusbuxy of 
Llewesog, Esq., and 
relict of John Lloyd 
of Bodidris, Esq. 

|1 21 

Edward Brereton of Borasham, High Sheriff John Brereton of Esclu- 
for CO. Denbigh 1598, in which year he died. sham. See page 273. 

1 Belyn settled at Nercwys, in Tstrad Alun, and was one of the sons of 
David ab Cynwrig ab leuan ab Qruffydd ab Madog Ddu of Copa'r Goleuni 
in Tegeingl, who bore Palii of six pieces, argent and aahle. Madog was the 
son of Rhiryd ab Llewelyn ab Owain ab Edwin, Prince of TegeingL 

■ Ithel Fychan of Llaneurgain, Esq., was the son of Cynwrig ab Rotpert 
ab lorwerth ab Rhirid ab lorwerth ab Madog ab Ednowain Bendew. He 
married Angharad, daughter and heiress of Robert ab David of Holt, Esq., 
son of Howel ab David ab Gruffydd of Tstym Cedig, Esq., (k^scended from 
Owain Gwynedd (see pp. i87 and 288). The mother of Ma^aret, wife of 
John Brereton, was Jane, daughter and heiress of William Ulegg of Gayton, 
in Cheshire, Esq. (see pp. 287 and 288). 



The following is a metrical version of three of the 
foregoing poems, by Mr. H. W. Lloyd, the originals of 
which, with literal prose translations, are on pages 156, 
159, 162, 164, above. 



Ascribed to Huw Arwystli. 

Mary ! the gloom of night hath as overspread, 

The bier's unwelcome work hath made us weary, 
Ah, Mary ! vengeance boots not for the dead ; 

The hill-side crag for me were home less dreary. 


For Ellen^ noble thro' her eight degrees, 

Cold is my hearty as blast upon the mountain : 

By God's command alone the spirit flees — 

Ne'er hath her like been born of honour's fountain. 


A Lady's form hath vanished from the light. 
And Curig*s Land is lifeless in its sorrow, 

As when with blackening frost its face is dight; 
The joy of Howel's race hath found its morrow. 

With weak'ning vigils are our people worn, 

God on our land hath laid a long affliction ; 
Mute will our travail be until the mom, 

O God ! that dawns upon our dereliction. 


A night of safifering hath befairn the line 

Of Howel Lloyd and all its scions noble ; 
Ah ! never, while we live, within a shrine 

Shall lie entomVd a woman less ignoble. 

Fled from his land is Curig's purest blood, 

Of Creuddyn's best the grave hath gained possession. 
And moarning on the house hath bural in flood, 

Its lord, Llewelyn, boots not intercession. 

The hearth is stricken — trunkless is the tree — 

To sick and poor alike their hope is blighted. 
The land where chiefest would her children be, 

Is wounded sore by stroke on her that lighted. 

Her fair and gallant sons bear forth the shroud. 

Upon its oaken bier, with bitter wailing ; 
Sound merrily no more or harp or crowd,^ 

Naught save the sobs are heard of poor and ailing. 

Borne by the hands of all the country-side. 

Dim tapers these in slow procession follow ; 
The name she leaves behind her will abide, 

Memorial in all hearts that is not hollow. 

Behind her Ellen^s place of pain is left. 

Nor heat nor cold can reach her blissful mansion ; 
The poor her smiles and bounty mourn bereft. 

Upon the path that knew their sweet expansion. 

In Llysgelyddon, whither throng'd the poor. 

Buried is she who gave of her provision ; 
Woe is the sick despoiled of all her store ! 

Mary I how long her like shall fail our visipn. 

^ The " Crwth*', a mnsical instrument, the player on which was, 
by the English, called a Crowder, whence the name Crowdero in 



By Huw Cab Llwtd. 

Who daily scatter weighty gold ? 
Whose veins the blood of Powys hold ? 
Whose soldiers are the best in fight ? 
The grandsons they of chiefs of might. 
What brothers they — well known to fatne^ 
Since every land hath heard their name ? 
Four comrades these, in force full strongs 
To ban the boldest deeds of wrong. 
In fronts lo I leuan shields the rash^ 
Three thousand dare not wait his dash. 
Braver than all — in either host — 
Never will Owain quit his post ; 
The gentle Siancyn gives the wine ; 
William ^s the lion of his line ; 
Four sons of Morys, noble all. 
These are Llangurig's ward, and wall. 
In war their grandsire was renowned, 
Noble and valiant was he founds 
Siancyn^ who gave his men the wine^ 
(For lavish is grey HoweFs line), 
Madoc, the Fire-bearer's blood, 
A man renown' d, of Einion's brood, 
Kin to an earl ; grey Rhys, of old — 
All these the brothers' forbears bold. 
A forest ever will they be. 
Wide-spread is Rhys's progeny. 
His grandsons' sons our island guard. 
Their precious gifts are our reward. 
How noble they — their hands, how free ! 
How mettlesome their chivalry I 
How stately in their mien they stand. 
Sharing alike their father's land I 
A mighty oak, on every side. 
Hath spread abroad its branches wide ; 
Those branches are their country's stay, 
Its pillars loved and feared are they. 
Together are they seen to grow. 
Their love and wealth together go ; 


Saint Curig ! shield them well from wrong. 

Encased in mail^ oh ! make them strong. 

Together they maintain the host. 

Together feast, and share the cost. 

Givers together in their time, 

Together may they pass their prime. 

The Cymry they together love. 

The sick and poor their pity move. 

On finest oats their steeds are fed, 

By love their gallant men are led. 

They guard their land, as did their sires, 

With strength, like theirs, that nothing tires. 

The men that true and loyal prove, 

As squires shall reap the fruit of love. 

Their stature to a rib is told. 

Measured as mighty men of old. 

As three vast rocks they stand secure, 

The three bear all one portraiture. 

The three have, one consentient word. 

They rule the fair with one accord. 

Three lives, I ween, have all the three, 

As four, then, may the fourth life be ! 



By John, the Baud op Kerry. 

A Spearman comes of Einion's race. 
None better loves the game ; 

Of stature tall, with taller arms. 
As Lleon^s, huge his frame. 

In strength is John his father^s peer. 
If true what old men say ; 

His lance is mightier in fight, 

Eight towns would crave its sway. 

In north, and south, and Powys too, 
His sword drives o'er the field ; 

Tho' back brave combatants may fall, 
His clansmen never yield. 


To Jolm is honour ever dear, 
In horse and horseman's play ; 

He aims to strike, ne'er thinks to .flee, 
When heated in the fray. 

John, tho' but one, can beat full seven ; 

Tho' rough, ne'er gives offence, 
Yet scorns, when others cringe, to make. 

With flattery, defence. 

The Bear^ gives sign the man is John, 
By spear of brass he's known ; 

A lion of Elystan's line, 

His men will hold their own. 

He blazons Broughton's argent coat. 

With Meurig's lion crest ; 
For country, as Sir Fulke, he holds 

His dragon-spear in rest. 

From Corbet hi^h descends his name. 
And Mochdref's Baron brood. 

His prowess and his mettle prove 
He comes of royal blood. 

A chief, thro' Ceri's wide extent. 

All troubling spirits fear, 
John cows them all — not one may dare 

To strike me, far or near. 

John's upri«;ht ways are fain to fill 
Each baser tongue with awe ; 

He will do right to one and all. 
And what he wills is law. 

As the moon's gold, with crescent brow. 
So shines John's gentle wife, 

God grant both, o'er Llangurig's heights, 
The hart's full length of life. 

So may her lord, in every fight. 

The happy victor prove ; 
No doughtier combatant was Rhys, 

Nor Cadell, when they strove : 

' John may have been a Lanca.stnan, and if ho, iiiny have bonic 
llio Bear and Ragged Staff', tlic Badge of Warwick. 


Not noble Einion e'er, I ween, 

Nor Morys in his might. 
Not all Elystan's regal brood. 

Stood stauncher in the fight. 

A very Nudd, to all he loves, 

Is John, his gifts abound 
As Rhydderch's ; in his country's cause, 

His blows, like Einion' s, sound. 

May saintly aid obtain the strength 
From God, for Rhys's son, 

To end in age with fame the life 
Thus in renown begun. 




Addressed by Cynddelw to Howel, son of leuaf, son of Owain, 
son of Cadwgan, son of Elystan Glodrydd, Prince of Fferljs. 
Howel was the last independent Lord of Arwystli, of the Royal 
House of Elystan Glodrydd. 

Bheiddin a'm rhoddes Hywel, 
Rheiddiawg, feiniawg, fanawg fil ; 
Cefais, gan dreth orddethawl, 
Tarw teg Talgarth yngwarthawl. 

Lief a gly waf gloew eilyrth. 
Lief eilon yn eilwydd ferth, 
Lief ban com blaen cad ehorth, 
Llais garw^ a lief tarw Talgarth.^ 


To me, with lavish lips hath Howel giv'n 
A sleek and monstrous beast that tears the ground ; 
A contribution choice have I received, 
Talgarth's fair Bull, in bountiful exchange. 


I hear a startling sound of Music clear, 

Of perfect and harmonious melody, 

A horn loud sounding in the van of War, 

A deep-toned sound, and that from Talgarth's BuU.^ 

* From the Myvyrian Archceology of Wales, The orthography is 
here modernised. 

2 Howel ab leuaf lived at Talgarth, in the parish of Tref Eglwys 
in Arwystli, a place which subsequently became the property of a 
family named Lloyd, descended from Brochwel Yegythrog. 

^ From the abrupt termination of the last stanza it would seem 
that a part of this composition has been lost. 

T T 



Chap. i. — Inhabitants. The census retarns for 1871 gave 
the population of the parish as consisting of 897 males, and 
804 females, making a total of 1|701 ; the number of inhabited 
houses was 302, uninhabited 10^ and in building 3. 

Chap. hi. — List of Vicars. In addition to those already men- 
tioned as holding the living in the sixteenth century, should be 
added the name of John Ghuynn, M.A,, son of Owen Gwynn, 
Esq.^ of Llanidloes^ Sheriff of Cardiganshire in the year 1551^ 
who^ according to the MSS. of the late Joseph Morris, Esq.^ 
was '' parson of Llangurig and Llanidloes^'. 

Canon Ingram is stated to have died in 1711. In that 
year, however, he was collated to the rectory of Cemaes, his 
successor to that living being appointed in the year 1 71 2. 

Mr. Morris's MSS. furnish the name of another Vicar of Llan- 
gurig. Jane (born 1702), daughter of Jenkyn Lloyd of Cloch- 
faen and Rachel Fowler, married '' Bichard Ingram, Vicar of 
Llangurig, son of Robert Ingram of Llanidloes, Esq.'' Richard 
Ingram was appointed rector of Cemaes in 1747. 

Chap. iz. The passing of the '' Elementary Education Act 
of 1870'', which led to the establishment of a School Board in 
the parish, has placed elementary education within the reach of 
all the children of the parish. In the formation of a Board, 
the expense of a contested election was wisely avoided, the 
following five members being chosen : Messrs. John Hughes, 
Henfaes (Chairman) ; J. B. Owen, Bryndulas (Vice-Chairman) ; 
Abraham Davies, Tynymaes (Treasurer) ; D. Davies, Penhyle ; 
and Richard Owen, Glyn-Brochan. They met for the first time 
April 27th, 1871 ; and, finding that they had to provide accom- 
modation for about 400 children between the ages of 3 and 13, 
they at once entered into negotiations with the trustees of the 
school already in existence in the village. Some twenty months 
of the Board's existence was wasted in a fruitless attempt to 
come to some satisfactory arrangement regarding this school, 
or obtaining land upon which another might be erected. Ulti- 


mateljx Mr. Watkins consented to sell a small close in the vil- 
lage for £105 ; and Mrs. Ow^n of Glanseyem liberally presented 
to the Board a convenient site in the hamlet of Cwmbelan. A 
third site was selected in the npper part of the parish near 
Ty'n y Cwm, which cost the Board £16. 

Schools, with teachers' residences, have been built at Llanea- 
rig and Cwmbelan, and were opened in the early part of 18V4. 
When the three schools are in operation they are intended to 
accommodate the children of the whole parish, with the excep- 
tion of those living in the valley of the Severn, where a school 
for the joint accommodation of the parishes of Llanidloes and 
Llangurig is being bailt near the Old Hall, the cost and manage- 
ment of which will be shared by the Boards of the t^o 
parishes. To enable it to carry out its scheme, it was neces- 
sary for the Llangurig School Board to borrow about £2,600 
from the Public Works Loan Commissioners. 

From a Parliamentary return made up to June 1874, we 
glean the following particulars regarding the Llangurig School 
Board : Cost of first election, £1 10s.; cost of election to fill 
vacancies, £4 2s.; cost of establishment, £27 14s. 2^d.; cost 
of ejection of schools, £1,507; cost of maintenance of schools, 
£15 5s. 2|d.; other expenses, £68 9s. 4d.; total expenditure, 
£1,624 Os. 9d.; rateable value of the district, £6,360; gross 
amount for which precepts have been issued, £91 16s. 6d.; 
annual amount per £ in rateable value, l*ld. 

P. 76. — John Lloyd, eldest son of Edward Lloyd of Pl&s 
Madog, who served in the Boyal Army, was a captain in the 
regiment commanded by Col. Robert Ellis, of Y Groes Newydd, 
near Wrexham. In the engagement which took place at Mid- 
dlewich, March 13th, 1643, Col. Ellis and Captain Lloyd were 
taken prisoners, the former continuing in custody until the fol- 
lowing September (Phillips, Civil War in Wales, i, 142-5, ii, 
62). Captain Lloyd subsequently took part in the attempt 
made by Lord Byron to relieve Beeston Castle, when six men 
of his company were taken prisoners January 18th, 1645, by 
the Parliamentarians under Sir William Brereton {Ibid,, ii, 227). 

Col. Ellis was descended from Llewelyn ab Ynyr, lord of 
Gelli Gynan in lal, and purchased the estate of Croes Newydd, 
which subsequently fell into the possession of F. B. Price of 
Bryn y Pys, Esq., by whom it was exchanged for some other 
property with Thomas Fitz Hugh of Plas Power, Esq. 

P. 251. — ^Trahaiam, lord of Garthmul, was the son of lor- 
worth ab Einion ab Rhys Goch ab Llewelyn Fychan ab 
Llewelyn Eurdorchog (p. 250). For his bravery in battle, the 
Prince of Powys gave him the lordship of Garthmul and a new 


coat of arms, viz.^ argent, three lions passant guardant, gules. 
He married Agnes^ daughter of l^an ab Madog ab Einion ab 
Cynfelin^ lord of Manafon^ by whom he had issue four sons : 
(I) lorwerth, lord of Garthmul, who married Elen, daughter of 
Madog Fychan^ by whom he had issue Rhys, lord of Garthmul, 
anoestor of the Walcots of Walcot, co. of Salop, Howel, and 
lorwerth Pychan, who was the father of Madog y Twppa of 
Plas y Twppa in Bettws y Coed, ancestor of David ab Owain 
of Llanwyddelan j (2) leuan, ancestor of the Lloyds of Berth* 
lloyd ; (3) Meredydd, ancestor of the Jones of G^rthmul ; and 
(4) Gwion, according to some genealogists, the ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Berthlloyd. 

P. 251. — For Cynwrig of Llys y Oil and Y Fanechtyd, read 
Cynwrig of Llys y Oil. 

P. 252. — For Goronwy Y Fanechtyd, read Goronwy. 

P. 277 Gine 23).— For Meredydd ab Llewelyn Ddu ab Gruf- 
fydd ab lorwerth Foel ab lorwerth Fychan, second son of lor- 
werth ab leuaf of Llwyn On, read Meredydd ab Llewelyn Ddu 
of Aber Tanad and Blodwel ab GrufTydd of Maelor Saesneg, 
second son of lorwerth Foel, lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy, and 
Maelor Saesneg.